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KRONA.

incorporated in 1898. The government is admin- cloths, and type for typewriting machines. The istered by a mayor, elected biennially, and a uni- government is vested in a mayor, elected biencameral council. Population, 1905 (estimated), nially, and a unicameral council. Population, 2000.

1900, 2574; 1905, 3100. CARLSBAD DECREES. The resolutions adopted by a conference of delegates of the prin

CARLSTADT, KARLSTADT, or KAROLcipal German States at Karlsbad in 1819, and

STADT (c. 1480-1541). A German reformer promptly ratified by the Federal Assembly. They whose real name was Andreas Rudolf Bodenwere aimed at the liberal agitation then ram

stein, and who was at first a friend, but later pant and were a part of the reactionary policy an opponent of Luther. He was born at Karlof Prince Metternich. The press was put under a

stadt, Franconia ; studied at the universities of strict censorship and the universities under police Erfurt (1500-03), Cologne (1503), and Wittensupervision. The Burschenschaft was to be sup

berg ( 1504), and in the last became a professor, pressed, and a federal committee of seven was first in philosophy and then in theology. lle appointed to inquire into "the origin and rami- became a personal friend of Luther. In 1515 fications of revolutionary conspiracies and dema- Carlstadt went to Rome to study canon law and gogie associations.” At the ('onference of Vienna took the degree of LL.D. Returning to Witin the following year constitutions were declared tenberg in 1516, he openly broke with seholasincompatible with the rights of the sovereigns. ticism and defended Reuchlin, against whom a See BURSCHENSCHAFT and METTERVICII.

violent persecution was raging. When Luther,

on October 31, 1517, nailed his theses to the CARLSBURG, kärls'boork. See KARLSBURG.

door of the town church of Wittenberg, Carlstadt CARLSCRONA, kärls'krô-ná. See KARLS- supported him. In 1518 he published arguments

asserting the supreme authority of the ScripCARLSEN, EMIL (1853-). An American tures, and declaring that in the silence of tne still life and landscape painter of Danislı extrac- Scripture appeals from the fathers of the Church tion. He was born in Copenhagen, where he re- must be made to reason. He participated in the ceived his earliest instruction, and came to the Leipzig Disputation of 1519 on the side of Cnited States in 1872. His principal works in

Luther, and in the bull against Luther (1520) clude a “Connecticut Hilltop," now in the Metro- Carlstadt was condemned. He was the first to politan Museum; "Sooty Kettle," and "Late appeal from the Pope to a general council. In Afternoon." In 1905 he exhibited a "Rising 1521, by invitation of the King, he went to DenStorm,” and “Night-old Wyndham,” which re

mark to teach the doctrines of the Reformation; ceived the Webb prize of the Society of American

but he returned after a few weeks. On DecemArtists; and in 1906 "Wind in the East” and ber 26, 1521, he married Anna von Mochau. “A Lazy Sea.” He received a gold medal at the

About this time differences sprang up between St. Louis Exposition in 1904, and became a mem- Carlstadt and Luther, owing to the former's ber of the Society of American Artists and an desire to break at once and entirely with the associate of the National Academy.

Old Church, whereas Luther would go more slowCARLSHAMN, kärls'hàm. See KARLSHAMN.

ly. While Luther was at the Wartburg (1521),

Carlstadt took the lead, and, supported by the CARLSON, kärl'sôn, FREDERIK FERDINAND

city government, restored the cup to the laity, (1811-87). A distinguished Swedish statesman abolished the fasting regulations, the elevation and historian. He was born June 13, 1811, at of the host, and auricular confession. These Kungshamn, in Upland, and was educated at the changes were very distasteful to the Elector, and University of Upsala. In 1837 he was appointed so Luther left the Wartburg and opposed them tutor to the royal princes at Stockholm, a post in Wittenberg and restored the old order. Find. he held until 1846. In 1819 Carlson succeeded ing his position uncomfortable, Carlstadt became Geijer as professor of history in the University of pastor at Orlamünde, in Thuringia (1523), where Upsala, and in 1860 he was chosen rector. From his radical Church reforms, joined to his well1850 to 1865 Carlson sat in the national Diet known independence of Luther, created a suspias the representative first of his university and cion that he was associated with the Anabaptists, later of the Swedish Academy of Sciences, to and that he might be implicated in the schemes which he had been chosen in 1858, and from 1873

of the peasant revolt. The Elector sent Luther on he had a seat in the first Chamber as the rep- to find out the true state of affairs; and resentative of Getleborg. From 1863 to 1970, when Luther preached against Carlstadt at and from 1875 to 1880, he was head of the De- Jena, the two reformers held a discussion partment of Public Worship. Carlson continued upon the Real Presence, which Carlstadt was Geijer's seven-volume history of Sweden. Sreriges the first to deny; and an open quarrel broke Historia under konungarne af Pfalziska huset out between them. Carlstadt was ordered out of (Stockholm, 1855-85). The work has also been Saxony (1524), and wandered from place to published in German, in the lieeren, Ukert, and place, preaching Protestantism. He was at RothGiesebrecht series, Geschichte der europäischen enburg when the Peasant War broke out (1525), Starten.

and he acted as mediator with the peasants, but CARLSRUHE, kärls'roo-e. See KARLSRUHE. in vain. He was pursued and exposed to hardCARLSTAD, kärl'stad. See KARLSTAD.

ships and even danger to his life. In this extrem

ity he appealed to Luther, who, on condition that CARLSTADT, kärl'stat. See KARLSTADT.

he would not advocate his sacramental views, used CARLSTADT. A borough in Bergen County, his intuence so successfully that he was permitted N. J., 9 miles north by west of Jersey City, on to return to Saxony (1525), where for some years the New Jersey and New York (Erie) Railroad he led a quiet life. But this quiet and, espeMap: New Jersey, D 2). The industrial estab- cially, lack of soul liberty were unencurable to lishments include marble and onyx works, silk his restless spirit, and he again attacked mills, and manufactories of white goods, sable Luther. The controversy upon the Lord's Sup

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per, in which Zwingli agreed with Carlstadt, final letters of farewell, and three years later she grew fiercer than ever, and Carlstadt, who was and Carlyle were engaged. They were married no longer permitted to dwell in Saxony, fled to October 17, 1826. Though there is no doubt that Friesland (1530), and finally to Zurich, where Carlyle sincerely loved his wife or that she reZwingli kindly received him. From 15:34 until ciprocated the 'feeling their married life was his death he vas professor of theology in Basel. marred by his uncertain temper, the interference His character was very differently judged in his of his family, and her critical disposition. Conown times and since, according to whether the sym- sult Vew Letters and Memorials (London, 1903). pathies of the person speaking were with Luther or Zwingli. For his life, consult J. C. Jäger English physician, brother of Thomas Carlyle.

CARLYLE, JOHN AITKEN (1801-79). An (Stuttgart, 1836). Many of his letters are in Olearius, Scrinium Antiquarium (Halle, 1698).

He studied medicine at Edinburgh University;

was traveling physician to the Countess of Clare, CARL'TON. A town in Nottinghamshire, and afterwards to the Duke of Buccleuch. After England, 216 miles northeast of Nottingham, abandoning his practice (1848) he lived for a noted for its manufactures of hosiery ( Map: Eng. time at Chelsea near his brother. He made an land, E 4). Pop., in 1891, 6600; in 1901, 10,000. excellent prose translation of Dante's Inferno

CARLTON, THE. The leading Conservative (1849; rev. 1867). political club in London. It was founded in 1832 CARLYLE, JOSEPH DACRE (1759-1804). by the Duke of Wellington, and it now numbers Scottish Orientalist. He was born at Carlisle, about 2000 members.

Its headquarters are at No. 94 Pall Mall, the building being remarkable graduated at Cambridge, and in 1793 succeeded for its polished granite pillars, which are in

Dr. Paley as chancellor of Carlisle. In 1795 he imitation of Sansovino's Library of Saint Mark le had already published a translation of an

was appointed professor of Arabic at Cambridge. at Venice. CARLTON HOUSE.

Arabic history of Egypt, and in 1796 he issued A house erected for

a volume of Specimens of Arabic Poetry. Lord Lord Carlton in the present Carlton House Ter. Elgin procured Carlyle's appointment in the race, London, in 1709, and demolished in 1827. Turkishi embassy, which gave him an opportunity It was made famous by being occupied by the

to travel in the East, where he collected Greek Prince of Wales in 1732, and later by George and Syriac manuscripts for a contemplated reIV., when he was Prince Regent. The intimates vision of the New Testament, but he did not live of the Prince of Wales were known as 'The Carl

to do the work. IIis Arabic Bible, edited by H. ton House Set.'

Ford, professor of Arabic at Oxford, was pubCARLU'DOVI'CA PALMA'TA (Neo - Lat. lished in 1811. in honor of Charles IV. of Spain, Lat. Carolus

CARLYLE, THOMAS (1795-1881). A ScotLudovicus and Neo-Lat. fem. sing. of Lat. palmatus, marked like the palm of the hand, Dumfriesshire, Scotland, December 4, 1795. Edu

tish man of letters. He was born at Ecclefechan, from palma, palm of the hand). A South Ameri

cated first at the village school, and aftercan palm-like plant of the order Cyelanthaceæ. wards at Annan, he passed, in 1809, to EdinIt bears palmate leaves four feet across, from which Panama hats are woren, the best of which burgh University, with a view to entering the

Scottish Church. Here he studied irregularly, are plaited from a single leaf stripped in such a

but with amazing avidity. The stories which manner as to require no joining. In addition to Carludovica palmata there are about forty spe- fabulous.

are related of his immense reading are almost

About the middle of his theological cies, all of them natives of America. They have curriculum, Carlyle felt wholly disinclined to be leaves resembling the fan-palms, are very ornamental, and are usually considered by growers as

come a clergyman, and, after a short period spent palms, and are treated similarly. See PANAMA

in teaching at Annan, and later at Kirkcaldy, HATS.

where he formed a lifelong friendship with Ed.

ward Irving, he went to Edinburgh and embraced CARLYLE, kär-lil'. A city and county. literature as a profession. His first efforts were seat of Clinton County, Ill., 48 miles east of contributions to Brewster's Encyclopædia. In Saint Louis, on the Kaskaskia River, and on the 1824 he published a translation of Legendre's Baltimore and Ohio Southwestern Railroad Geometry, to which he prefixed an essay on pro( Map: Illinois, C 5). It has manufactures of portion, mathematics having, during his college bricks, flour, spokes, paper, rock-crushers, etc., years, been a favorite study with him. In 1823and a trade in grain and flour. Population, in 24 appeared in the London Vagazine his Life of 1890, 1781; in 1900, 1874.

Schiller; and in 1824 his translation of Goethe's CARLYLE, JANE WELSH (1801-66). The Wilhelm Meister. In 1825 the Life of Schiller wife of Thomas Carlyle. She was descended was recast, and published in a separate form. through her father from John Knox, and on her It was very highly praised; indeed, one can dismother's side claimed relationship with William cern in the criticisms of the book a dawning recog. Wallace. When Edward Irving was a teacher at nition of the genius of Carlyle. The translation Haddington, she was his private pupil, and the of Wilhelm Meister met with a somewhat dif, friendship thus begun would have culminated in ferent fate. De Quincey, in one of his acrid and their marriage had it not been for Irving's pre- capricious moods, attacked both Goethe and his vious engagement to Miss Martin. When only translator; while Jeffrey, in the Edinburgh Refourteen she had written a tragedy, and for many viev, admitting Carlyle to be “a person of talyears continued to write poetry. In 1921 Irving ents,” slashed in cavalier fashion at the book. It introduced Carlyle (who was ignorant of his is one of the most excellent translations of a friend's attachment) to Miss Welsh. They began foreign work in the English language. In 1826 a correspondence and soon became intimate, al- Carlyle married Jane Baillie Welsh, a lineal de. though she refused to consider lim otherwise scendant of John Knox, and during the same than as a friend. In 1822 Irving wrote to her his year appeared his Specimens of German Ro. mance. From 1828 to 1834 he resided at Craigen- furious of all his writings. These vehement puttoch, a small estate in Dumfriesshire, belong: papers were followed the next year by the Life of ing to his wife—the "loneliest nook in Britain,” Sterling, calm and tender in tone. For many as he says himself in a letter to Goethe. Here years Carlyle had been at work on the History of Carlyle revolved in his mind the great questions Frederick the Great. The vast undertaking, rein philosophy, literature, social life, and politics, sulting in six volumes, was at length carried to the elucidation of which-after his own singu- through (1858-65). In 1865 Carlyle was elected lar fashion-he earnestly dedicated his whole Lord Rector of Edinburgh University, life. Here also he continued to write, for va- The sudden death of Mrs. Carlyle, in 1866, rious magazines, the splendid series of critical overwhelmed her husband with grief. Henceand biographical essays which he had begun two forth his life became more and more secluded. years before. For this work he was admirably His work was now done. In 1867 Carlyle visited equipped. Besides possessing an exact knowl. Mentone, where he composed part of his personal eige of the German language, he was also in- Reminiscences; then returning to London, conspired by the conviction that the literature of tributed to Macmillan's Magazine an article Germany, in depth, truthfulness, sincerity, and entitled "Shooting Niagara,” in which he gave earnestness of purpose, was greatly superior to his views of democracy. In 1875 appeared the what was admired and relished at home. He Early Kings of Norway. In 1874 he received the had, moreover, a genius for writing literary por- Prussian royal Order Pour le Mérite in recogni. traits. Through him England discovered Ger- tion of his having written the life of Frederick many. One of his most beautiful, eloquent, and the Great; and in the same year he was offered by solid essays, written at Craigenputtoch, was that Disraeli the Grand Cross of the Bath and a on Burns (Edinburgh Review, 1828). It has liberal pension, but he declined them both. On given the tone to all subsequent criticism of the February 4, 1881, he died at his house in Chelsea, Scottish poet. But his chef-dæuvre, written on and was buried among his kindred at Ecclefethe moorland farm, was Sartor Resartus (“The chan. His wife rests beside her father at HadTailor Done Over," the title of an old Scottish dington. Carlyle appointed James Anthony song). This work, which first appeared in Froude his literary executor, who, in conforming Fraser's Magazine (1833-34), is, like most of Car- with the terms of the trust, published Carlyle's lyle's later productions, an indescribable mix Reminiscences (1881); Thomas Carlyle: The ture of the sublime and the grotesque. It pro- First Forty Years of His Life (1882); Letters fesses to be a history or biography of a certain of Jane Welsh Carlyle, exhibiting her as an acHerr Teufelsdröckh (“Devil's Dirt”), professor complished woman and brilliant letter-writer in the University of Weissnichtwo "Kenna. (1883); and Thomas Carlyle: Life in London quhair"), and contains the manifold opinions, (1884). A revulsion of feeling regarding Carspeculations, inward agonies, and trials of that Jyle's character followed, the literary world being strange personage-or rather of Carlyle himself. shocked by the bitterness and spite abounding The whole book quivers with tragic pathos, sol- in these records, and Froude was attacked with emn aspiration, or riotous humor. In 1834 Car- great violence for his indiscretion. But time has lyle removed to London, taking a house in revived the former admiration for Carlyle's Cheyne Row, Chelsea. In 1837 appeared The genius. In 1882 a statue was erected to his French Revolution. Nothing can be more gor- memory on the Chelsea embankment, and in 1895 geous than the style of this ‘prose epic. A fiery his house in Cheyne Row was purchased and enthusiasm pervades it, now softened with ten- opened to the public. A centenary edition of derness, and again darkened with grim mockery, his Works, 30 vols., was published (London and making it throughout the most wonderful image New York, 1896-99). Consult: The Correspondof that wild epoch. Carlyle looks on the ex- ence of Thomas Carlyle with Ralph Waldo plosion of national wrath as a work of the Emerson (Boston, 1883); Early Letters of divine Nemesis, who “in the fullness of times” Thomas Carlyle (New York, 1886; second series, destroys, with sacred fury, the accumulated 1888); Correspondence Between Goethe and Carfalsehoods of centuries. To him, therefore, the lyle (New York, 1887)—all edited by Prof. C. E. Revolution is a "truth clad in hell-fire.” During Norton; also, Copeland, Carlyle's Letters to His the same year he delivered in London a series of Youngest Sister (London, 1889). For his life lectures on German literature; in 1838 another and works, consult: Shepherd and Williamson, series on The History of Literature, or the Suc- Memoirs of the Life and Writings of Thomas cessive Periods of European Culture; in 1839, Carlyle (London, 1881); Wylie, Thomas Carlyle, another on The Revolutions of Modern Europe; the Man and His Books (London, 1881); Masson, and a fourth in 1840, on Heroes, Hero-Worship, Carlyle Personally and in His Writings (Lonand the Heroic in History; of these Carlyle pre- don, 1885); Garnett. Life (London, 1887); pared only the last for publication (1841). In Nichol, Life (New York, 1894); Wilson, Froude the meantime he had published Chartism (1839). und Carlyle (New York, 1898); Mrs. Ireland, In 1843 followed Past and Present, which, like Life of Jane Welsh Carlyle (London, 1891); its predecessor, showed the deep, anxious, sorrow

Froude, Jy Relations with Carlyle (London, ful interest Carlyle was taking in the actual 1903); and Shepherd, The Bibliography of Thomas condition of his countrymen. In 1845 he pub- Carlyle (London, 1882). lished what is considered by many his master- CARMAGNOLA, kär'må-nyo'lå (from the piece, Oliver Cromuell's Letters and Speeches, Italian town Carmagnola) (c.1390-1432).

An Il'ith Elucidations and a Connecting Narrative. Italian condottiere, whose real name was FRANThe research displayed in this book is something CESCO BUSSONE. For many years he was the most marvelous, but the author was nobly rewarded important commander under Filippo Maria Visfor his toil by the abundant admiration given to conti, Duke of Milan, for whom he subdued his work. In 1850 appeared the Latter-Day Bergamo, Brescia, Parma, Genoa, and other Pamphlets, the fiercest, most sardonic, most cities. Having been brought by his enemies into

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