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ill favor with the Duke, he offered his services by the Teifi; east by Brecknock; south by Gla. to Venice, and led a most successful campaign morgan and Carmarthen Bay; and west by against Milan. After the defeats of a second Pembroke (Map: Wales, B 5). It is the larg. campaign, the Republic, suspecting treason, est of the Welsh counties; area, 918 square caused him to be beheaded. His fate has been miles, nearly a third of which is waste. Iron, celebrated in Manzoni's tragedy, Il conte di Car- coal, copper, and lead mining, stone-quarrying, magnola (1820).

cattle - raising, grain - culture, hide - curing, and CARMAGNOLE, kür'ma'nyol (Fr., perhaps woolen manufactures are the chief industries. from the Italian town Carmagnola). The name

The chief towns are Carmarthen (the county of a popular song and dance during the French town), Llanelly, Llandeilo-vawr, Llandovery, Revolution, rivaling in popularity among pa

Newcastle-in-Emlyn, and Kidwelly. Population, triots and soldiers the “Marseillaise” and the fa- in 1891, 130,566; in 1901, 135,251. mous “Ça Ira" (q.v.). It first became well

CAR’MEL (garden or choice plantation). A known after the storming of the Tuileries, August mountain range rising abruptly from the plain 10, 1792. The song began with:

of Dothan, near Jenin, and extending in a north“Madame Véto avait promis,"

west direction for about 20 miles ap: Pales. and every verse ended with the refrain:

tine. B 2). The northwest end is almost at the “Dansons la Carmagnole, vive le son, vive le son,

Mediterranean and terminates as abruptly as Dansons la Carmagnole, vive le son du canon!" the eastern. The highest point of the range is The words, however, did not always remain the at Esfiyeh, where 1810 feet above sea-level is same; couplets were added from time to time reached. On the eastern side of the range is the descriptive of the famous incidents of the Revo- Plain of Esdraelon, watered by the brook Kishon, lution, so that the Carmagnole became a typical and on the western side the Plain of Sharon. Car. song of the streets. Fashion soon adopted the mel, though forming a natural barrier which word, which was next applied to a sort of affected the course taken by invaders of the jacket, worn as a symbol of patriotism. After- country, did not play any part in the military wards it was applied to the bombastic and fanati- history of the Jews, but it is important in the cal reports of the successes and glory of the religious history. It was in the Carmel district, French arms. With the passing of the Reign of forming part of Ahab's dominions, somewhere Terror the song practically disappeared. between Samaria and Ekron, that Elijah had the

CAR'MAN, WILLIAM Bliss (1861–). A priests of Baal slaughtered (1. Kings xviii. Canadian journalist and poet. He was born at

17-39). Elisha also visited it (II. Kings ii. 25; Fredericton, New Brunswick, April 15, 1861. He iv. 25). Carmel was always productive, so that was graduated at the University of New Bruns- with the prophets it is the type of a land blessed wick (1881), studied at the University of Edin- by God (Isa. xxxv. 2; Jer. i. 19; Micah vii. 14), burgh (1882-83), at Harvard (1886-88), prac- and the devastation of this district was threatticed engineering, taught, and became literary ened with severe punishment. The mountain was editor of the New York Independent (1890-92). regarded as sacred and had the name 'Mount of His first volume of verse, Low Tide on Grand God’ in very early times. Anchorites established Pré (1893), commanded general and favorable themselves there in the early days of Christian. attention. It was followed by Songs from l'aga. ity, and many monasteries were built along the bondia (1894); A Sea-Alark (1895); Ballads of range in the course of time. One of these NapoLost Haven (1897); By the Aurelian Wall ( 1898); leon used in 1799 as a hospital for the sick and More Songs from Vagabondia (1896); and Last wounded of his army. A German colony now Songs from l'agabondia (1900); Kinship of Na- cultivates a portion of the range, and has built ture (1903); Pipes of Pan (1904-5); From the a sanatorium upon the highest part. Consult Book of Valentines (1905). The volumes of George Adam Smith, Historical Geography of the Vagabondia were issued jointly with Richard Holy Land, pp. 337-340. Hovey. See CANADIAN LITERATURE.

CAR'MEL. A town and county-seat of PutCARMARTHEN, CAERMARTHEN, nam County, N. Y., 50 miles (direct) north by kär-mär'then (Welsh, Caer Fyrddyn, the Maridu- east of New York City; on Lake Gleneida and on num of Ptolemy). A seaport town, capital of the New York Central and Hudson River RailCarmarthenshire, South Wales, on the right bank road (Map: New York, G 4). It is the seat of of the Towy, 25 miles north-northwest of Swan- Drew Seminary for Young Women, and has a sea (Map: Wales, B 5). It lies in a picturesque Literary Union Library. Within the limits of situation, but the streets are irregular, steep, the town is the celebrated summer resort, Lake and often narrow. The Towy is navigable for Mahopac. ('armel was the birthplace of Daniel vessels of 200 tons up to the town. There are Drew (q.v.), and here Enoch Crosby, the “spy" tin and iron works in the neighborhood, and the of Cooper's celebrated novel, is buried. Populatown carries on a considerable export trade in tion, in 1890, 2912; in 1900, 2598; in 1905, 2001. tin plates, cast iron, timber, marble, slates, lead

CARMEL, KNIGHTS OF THE ORDER OF OUR ore, grain, butter, and eggs. Population, in 1901, LADY OF Mount. An order instituted by Henry 9900. Near Carmarthen are the remains of two Roman camps.. The neighborhood along the of Saint Lazarus of Jerusalem, suppressed by

IV. of France to take the place of the Knights banks of the river was, according to tradition, him. It consisted of 100 gentlemen, all French, one of the favorite haunts of Merlin the En

who were required to follow in general the Carchanter. It was long the residence of the na

melite rule, as far as their life in the world tive princes of south Wales.

would allow. The order was confirmed by bull CARMARTHENSHIRE, or CAERMAR- by Pope Paul V., in 1608. The first grand mas. THENSHIRE. A maritime county in South ter was Philibert de Nerestang, who had held Wales, on the Bristol Channel. It is bounded the same position in the Order of Saint Lazarus. north by Cardigan, from which it is separated. Louis XIV. restored the earlier name, and com

or

bined it with the later. In his time the order CARMEN SYLVA, sil'vå. See ELIZABETH, numbered 145 commanderies, but the French QUEEN OF RUMANIA. Revolution put an end to it.

CARMENTAL GATE. A gate of ancient CARMELITES, or ORDER OF OUR LADY OF Rome named after the Italian goddess Carmenta. MOUNT CARMEL. A monastic order about whose Through it the Fabii passed on their fatal expe. origin there has been no little controversy. At dition against Veii. The gate in consequence was one time it was piously believed to have been afterwards called Scelerata, the accursed. founded by the prophet Elijah; but this belief was dissipated by the learned editors of the

CARMI, kär'mi. A city and county-seat of Acta Sanctorum, who were able to demonstrate White County, 11., 38 miles west by north of that it owed its origin to the crusader Bertrand. Evansville, Ind., on the Louisville and Nashville Count of Limoges. He had become a monk in

and the Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago and St. Calabria in fultillment of a vow made on the Louis railroads and on the Little Wabash River eve of a battle in which he was victorious. In (Map: Minois, D 5). It is the centre of an agti. 1156, with ten companions, he took up his abode tile, and lumber, and has flouring and saw mills

,

cultural region and exports fruit, grain, flour, on Mount Carmel; their first definite rule was given them in 1208 by Albert, patriarch of brick and tile works, machine-shops, stave and Jerusalem. In 1240 the pressure of Mohammedan heading factory, ice factory, etc. Population, in domination induced them to abandon their set

1890, 2785; in 1900, 2939. tlement, Offshoots had already (1238) been

CAR'MINA BURA'NA. A collection of founded in Cyprus and Messina : and now some German and Latin poems written by the Gowent to Provence and some to England. Inno- liards, or wandering scholars, mostly declared cent IV., in 1245, sanctioned the change from a churchmen of the Twelfth and Thirteenth cen. hermit to a community life, and ranked them turies. The name is derived from the Abbey of with the mendicant orders. At a general chap- Benediktbeuern in Bavaria, where the manuter held at Aylesford, in Kent, the same year, script, now in Munich, was once kept. The songs an Englishman, Saint Simon Stock, was elected in form resemble hymns, and generally are the first general. Under his leadership the or- rhymed. In matter they vary greatly, ranging der, with some modifications adapting it to from lofty sentiment to very worldly drinking climatic and other differences, spread through- songs.

Some of the compositions severely satirout central and western Europe. It is to him ize the prevalent vices of the various professions, that the Virgin Mary is said to have revealed particularly of the clergy. in a vision the scapular which became a dis- CARMIN'ATIVES (Fr. carminatif, Neo-Lat. tinctive mark of the order and those who were carminativus, from Lat. carminre, to card wool, affiliated to it. From the white cloak which they from carmen, card, for wool, from carere, to wore, they received the popular name of White card wool; hardly from Lat. carmen, song, inFriars. The rigidity of their rule was some- cantation). The medicines which relieve flatuwhat relaxed by Eugenius IV. in 1431; but lence and pain in the bowels, such as cardamoms, some communities, objecting to this change, ad- peppermint, ginger, and other stimulating arohered to the stricter rule, and were known as matics. Observantines, while the more lax were called Conventuals.

CARMINE (Fr., Med. Lat. carmesinus, Pers. The most thorough-going reform was that instituted by Saint Theresa (q.v.), who qirmizi, crimson, from Skt. krmijâ, produced by became a Carmelite novice in 153 and labored

a worm, from krmi, worm + janati, jāyatė, to unceasingly for a stricter discipline among the

be born). A beautiful red pigment obtained With the aid of Saint John of the Cross, of the finer red inks, in the dyeing of silk, in

from cochineal and employed in the manufacture she thus affected the male members of the order coloring artificial flowers, and in miniature and also. At her death, in 1582, there were seventeen houses of women and fifteen of men who

water-color painting. It was first prepared by followed the stricter rule, and were known as

a Franciscan monk at Pisa, who discovered it Discalced or Barefooted Carmelites. The order accidentally while compounding some medicine had fifty-two houses in England at the time of containing cochineal, and in 1656 it began to be the dissolution of the monasteries. In 1901

manufactured. One process for its preparation there were fifty-one Carmelite fathers in the is as follows: Digest 1 pound of cochineal in 3 United States and Canada.

gallons of water for 15 minutes, add 1 ounce of

cream of tartar, heat gently for 10 minutes, add CAR'MEN. A novel by Prosper Mérimée

half an ounce of alum, boil for 2 or 3 minutes, (1847). It was afterwards adapted for the oper. and after allowing any impurities to settle, place atic stage by Meilhac and Halévy, the score being the clear liquid in clean glass pans, in which the furnished by Bizet and presented in 1875 at the carmine will be slowly deposited; after a time Opéra Comique, Paris. Its plot deals with the drain of the liquid, and let the carmine dry in career of a Spanish girl, who begins life in a cigarette factory, and ends with the tragedy which depends on a clear atmosphere and a bright,

the shade. In the preparation of carmine, much results from her capricious loves. The scene is sunny day, as the pretty color of the carmine is laid partly in Seville. Consult Filon, Prosper never nearly so good when it has been prepared Mérimée (Paris, 1894).

in dull weather; and this accounts, in great part, CARMEN SAECULARE, sěk'û-lā'rê. An for the superiority of French carmine over that ode by Horace, composed for the celebration of prepared elsewhere. An excellent quality of car: the Secular Games in B.c. 17. contains 761 mine may also be obtained by pulverizing cochilines in 19 stanzas designed to be sung by a neal, treating it with a solution of sodium carchorus of boys and one of girls. It was written bonate, adding albumin to the solution, and then at the request of Augustus and is not of a high precipitating with dilute acid. The coloring order of poetic merit.

principle of cochineal is carminic acid, C1, 0:00

nuns.

an amorphous red substance soluble in water and more than 15,000. Their exploitation for buildin alcohol; carmine is a compound of this acid ing purposes and to make room for agricultural with chalk and alumina. With zinc oxide and improvements during the succeeding three cenalumina carminic acid forms the valuable color turies has been arrested by their becoming naing substance known as carmine lake, which is tional property and being authoritatively classed made from the residues of cochineal obtained in among historical monuments. A fine view of the manufacture of carmine. Carmine lake is the lines is obtained from the summit of Mont largely used in painting and in printing. Saint-Michel, a grass-grown 'galgal or tumuCARMO, kär/mo. See KARMÖ.

lus, 65 feet high and 260 feet in diameter, conCARMONA (Sp., of Celtiberian origin). sisting of blocks of stone piled over a dolmen

and crowned with a chapel dedicated to the A city of Spain, in the Province of Seville, 20 miles northeast of Seville (Map: Spain, C 4).

Archangel Michael. It is situated on an elevated ridge, overlooking a

The origin and object of these ancient monufertile plain, and with its Moorish walls and cas- ments remain a mystery. They have been the tle has a very picturesque appearance. It con.

subject of much archæological speculation and tains the fine Gothic Church of Santa María;

are generally considered to be the Celtic monuthe Church of San Pedro, with a tower similar ments of a Druidical cult, traces of which exist to the Giralda of Seville; a ruined Alcazar; and in some of the primitive customs of the natives. the interesting gates leading to Córdoba and Se. In the year 1.c. 56, from these shores Cæsar ville. A short distance from llie city to the west watched the naval victory of Decimus Brutus is a Roman necropolis of great archæological the younger over the Veneti in the Bay of Quivalue. The city has flour and oil mills, manu

beron. The Romans occupied Brittany during factures of woolen cloth, hats, leather, etc., and five centuries, and considerable remains of Galloan important annual fair. Population, in 1900, Roman habitations, with interesting relics, have 16,338. Carmona (known as Carmo) was of been excavated at the Bossenno, i.e. mounds, on considerable importance under the Romans, a: the plain, 1 mile to the east of Carnac, and also prominence which it retained in the Middle at the base of the artificial Mont Saint-Michel. Ages. It fell into the power of the Moors, from Consult: Galles, Fouilles du Mont Saint-Michel whom Saint Ferdinand of Castile took it in 1247. en Carnac (Paris, 1864), and Tumulus et dolCARMONTELLE, kär'mon'těl', LOUIS CAR

mens de Kercado (Paris, 1864); Fouquet, Des ROGIS (1717-1806). A French dramatist. He

monuments celtiques et ruines romaines dans le was born in Paris, and for several years was

Morbihan (Paris, 1873); Lukis, Chambered Bar

rows and Other Prehistoric Monuments in Morbireader to the Duke of Orleans, grandson of the regent. His literary reputation rests chiefly on

han (London, 1875); Miln, Excavations at Carhis Proverbes dramatiques (10 vols., Paris,

nac (2 vols., Edinburgh, 1877-81); Worsfold, 1768-81; new ed., 4 vols., Paris, 1822), a series

“The French Stonehenge,” in British Archæologiof short comedies adapted for private theatricals.

cal Association Journal, Vol. IV. (London, In addition to this work, which has been freely

1898). borrowed from by later comic writers, his Théâtre CAR'NALL, RUDOLPH VON (1804-74). A de campagne, a collection of more than twenty- German mining engineer, born at Glatz (Silesia). five comedies (4 vols., 1775), should be men. He studied in Berlin in 1823-24, began an active tioned. He also had considerable artistic tal- connection with the mining industry in Upper ent, and painted portraits of some of the most Silesia, and by 1855 had risen to be a superin. eminent persons of the Eighteenth Century. tendent of mines and director of the general min. Proverbes et comédies posthumes de Carmontelle ing office in Breslau. In 1848 he assisted in were published by Mme. de Genlis (3 vols., Paris, founding the German Geological Society, and 1825).

from 1849 to 1855 lectured at the University of CARNAC, kär'nåk' (Celtic). A Breton parish Berlin on the science of mining engineering. He and village in the Department of Morbihan, was a councilor in the mines and mining section France, 17 miles southeast of Lorient (Map: of the Prussian Ministry of Commerce from France, C 4). The village, situated on a gentle 1854 to 1861. The Zeitschrift für das Berg-, slope overlooking the Bay of Quiberon, has an Hütten und Salinenwesen im preussischen Staate interesting archæological museum and a church was founded by him; and he rendered other imbuilt in 1639. The latter contains some fine portant services to the development of German marble altar-pieces of the Renaissance period. mining. The inhabitants are engaged in agricultural and CARNARVON, or CAERNARVON, kärfishing pursuits, and coasting trade. Popula- när'von (Welsh, Caer-yn-ar-Fon, fort opposite tion of village, 1901, 616; of commune, 3125. Mona or Anglesey). A Parliamentary and The parish has world-wide fame in connection niunicipal borough and seaport in north Wales, with some of the most remarkable megalithic the capital of Carnarvonshire, situated near the monuments extant, and with the remains of a

south end of the Menai Strait, on the right bank Gallo-Roman town. The chief megalithic relics of the Seiont, about 69 miles west of Chester are situated about half a mile to the north of (Map: England, B 3). The castle, which was the village, near the road leading to Auray, on a begun in the reign of Edwaru I., about 1283, is spacious desolate plain bordering the seashore. generally considered the handsomest and most They consist of long lines of roughly hewn gran- extensive mediæval fortress in the United Kingitic menhirs or standing stones, varying from dom. It is built of red stone, and is an irregu. 3 to 18 feet in height, which, weather-beaten and lar oblong in shape. The outer walls, from 8 covered with minute white lichens, present a to 14 feet in thickness, containing a passageway, succession of weird avenues.

are fortified by thirteen embattled towers. There are three groups, containing 1991 men- the Eagle Tower the first Prince of Wales (afterhirs; in the Sixteenth Century they numbered wards Edward II.) is said to have been born.

VOL. IV. – 16.

In

The town itself was once surrounded by walls ley, and potatoes are raised in the valleys. The and round towers. These walls, with several of chief towns include Carnarvon (the county the gates, still exist, and form a pleasant prom- town), Bangor, Pwllheli, and Conway. Popula. enade. The streets are narrow, but regular, and tion, in 1891, 117,586; in 1901, 125,649. at right angles to each other. The town is well

CARNATIC (from Skt. Karnāta, name of a lighted, and has a good water-supply. It is an important commercial centre. The harbor admits people in southern India). A former political

division of somewhat indefinite dimensions on ships of 400 tons. The chief exports are copper, the eastern or Coromandel coast of the peninsula ore, coal, and slates, which are brought into the of India. It is famous in history as the grand town by rail from the quarries in the neighbor- theatre of the struggle in the middle of the hood. There is also a great iron and brass foun- Eighteenth Century between France and Eng. dry. There are manufactures of writing-slates, enameled slate slabs, and tobacco. Carnarvon is land for supremacy in India. It was at that time a bathing-place, and is much frequented by tour of the Nizam of Hyderabad. The region was

ruled by the Nawab of Arcot, who was a vassal ists, on account of its vicinity to the grandest annexed by the British in 1801. scenery in north Wales. Population, in 1891, 9804; in 1901, 9760. Half a mile from Carnar- CARNATION (Fr., Lat. carnatio, from caro, von are the remains of Segontium, or Cær Seiont, flesh). A double-flowering variety of the clové a Roman station or city. There is a Roman fort pink (Dianthus caryophyllus) and one of the on the left bank of the Seiont, still almost com- most popular flowers of that family. It is a plete. The Earl of Chester fortified the place in native of the south of Europe, and has been in 1098. In 1294 the town and castle were burned cultivation for more than 2000 years. It is a semiand the English inhabitants massacred by the hardy perennial (generally cultivated as an anWelsh under Madoc, the son of Llewelyn. Con- nual in America) 2 to 312 feet high, with a sult Hartshorne, “Carnarvon Castle," Archæo- branching stem, opposite linear leaves, terminal logical Journal, Vol. VII. (London, 1850). flowers, and blossoming in England from June CARNARVON, HENRY Howard MOLYNEUX flowers gave to the plant its specific name

to August. The clove-like fragrance of the HERBERT, fourth Earl of (1831-90). An Eng. caryophyllus (clove-tree, Caryophyllus aromatilish Conservative statesman. London June 24, 1831, and succeeded to the cus). Many varieties, with various forms and peerage in 1849. Educated at Eton and Christ colors, are in cultivation. Red, white, pink, and Church, Oxford, in 1852 he obtained a first yellow varieties predominate. The monthly,' tree, class in classics, and, after taking his degree ties now so extensively grown under glass in

or perpetual-flowering carnations are the variethe following year, traveled through the Orient. lished a work entitled The Druses of the Leb- ber to May, rooted in sand, transplanted to In 1860, as a souvenir of the journey, he pub- the United States for winter cut flowers. These

are propagated from cuttings taken from DecemAt his majority he took his seat in the House of Lords, and in 1858 Earl Derby made plats or pots, and kept in a cool house until

danger from heavy frost is past, when they are him Under Colonial Secretary. In 1859 he was

set in the field. elected high steward of Oxford University and

Sandy loam soil heavily fertilized is preferred. created D.C.L. In 1866 he was appointed Colo

The plants are set in rows 12 inches apart and nial Secretary, and his policy met with the warm

10 inches distant in the row when cultivated by est approval. He framed a bill for the confedera- hand, and in 3-foot rows when worked with a tion of the British North American colonies, horse. If winter flowers are wanted, the rising and had moved the second reading when he re

shoots of the plants are regularly pruned back signed office upon the Reform Bill of 1867, which

to 2 to 4 inches during the summer.

In Sep he condemned as democratic and dangerous. On

tember the plants are lifted and transplanted to Disraeli's return to office, in 1874, Lord Carnar

the forcing-house benches. The soil here is 4 von again became Colonial Secretary, but re

to 5 inches deep, and consists usually of threesigned in 1878. He was Lord Lieutenant of Ire

fourths loam and one-fourth well-rotted manure. land (1885-86), and died in London, June 28, The plants are set 8 to 12 inches apart each 1890. He was the author of an address on Berkshire Archæology (1859); in 1869 edited Remiway, heavily fertilized, and watered frequently niscences of Athens and the Morea, by the late carnation-house during the winter is maintained

The temperature of the Earl of Carnarvon, his father, and published at 60° to 65° in the daytime and ten degrees translations of the Agamemnon. (1879); the lower at night. Instead of setting in benches, Odyssey (1886), and Prometheus Vinctus (1893). the plants are sometimes set in pots, and may

CARNARVONSHIRE. A maritime county either be forced at once or set in cold frames and in north Wales, bounded north by the Irish Sea, carried over for spring flowering. Some 500 vaeast by Denbigh, with the Conway between, south rieties of carnations, all of American origin, are by Merioneth and Cardigan Bay, and west by now in cultivation in the United States. See Carnarvon Bay and the Menai Strait, the latter FLORICULTURE. separating it from Anglesey (Map: England, Carnation Diseases.-Carnations are liable to B 3). Area, 572 square miles, of which one-half a number of diseases, the more common and is in pasture and only one-fortieth in tillage. The troublesome being anthracnose, rust, blight or surface is mountainous. The mineral products spot, and a disease caused by the punctures of of Carnarvonshire are copper, lead, zinc, coal, minute insects. The anthracnose (q.v.), which roofing and writing slates, slabs, chimney-piers, is caused by the fungus Volutella, is widespread, and honestone. The slate-quarries employ many and causes grayish-brown spots on the leaves. thousands of workmen. The chief branch of Later the stems are invaded by the parasite, and rural industry is the rearing of black cattle for the supply of nourishment for the plant cut off. the dairy and of small sheep. Wheat, oats, bar- Diseased cuttings will spread the infection,

anon.

3

1. CASSAVA or MANIOC (Manihot utilissima). 2. CARNATION (Dianthus Caryophyllus). 3. SENNA (Cassia sp.).

4. CALAMITIES AS RESTORED. 5. CARDAMON SEED (Elettaria Cardamomum). 6. CASHEW NUT (Anacardium occidentale).

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