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Insects are cap.

acterized by the presence of external ears. The ing substance. If an insect alights on the leaf sea-lions, sea-bears, sea-elephants, fur-seals, etc., it is held fast by the sticky substance, and the are well-known examples. (2) Trichechidæ (or neighboring glandular hairs move toward it Rosmaridæ), the walruses (q.v.), of which only and press against it. The glands contain two species are known, characterized by the digestive substances, which act upon the body prolongation of the upper canine teeth into two powerful tusks. (3) Phocidæ, or earless seals, characterized by the ab nce of external ears and the lack of tusks; there are about ten genera and some twenty species.

Cuvier proposed to divide the typical carnivores into Plantigrades, walking on the entire sole (e.g. bears), and Digitigrades, walking on finger-tips (e.g. cats); but these functional differences are rendered useless by the multitude of transitional links connecting them, and it is more accurate and useful to divide the order into three sections, represented familiarly by bear, dog, and cat, and technically known as Arctoidea, Cynoidea, Æluroidea. The distinctions are based on certain features in the base of the skull, but are corroborated by other more general characteristics.

(1) The Arctoidea, which are less specialized and nearest the aquatic suborder, are composed of six families—namely, the fur-bearers (Mus- A leat of the Sundew telidæ), the bears (Ursidæ), the raccoons (Pro- (Drosera), showing the a. A bladder of the Bladderwort cyonidæ), and three small related families. tentacles which capture (Utricularia).

insects; the tentacles at tured here after the fashion of an (2) The Cynoidea resemble the Arctoidea in

the right illustrate how eel-trap. most respects, and are composed of the single they bend in toward b. Hairs (supposedly with digesfamily Canida-dogs, foxes, etc.

an insect which has tive functions) within the bladder

of Utricularia. (3) Æluroidea are the most specialized of alighted on the leal. carnivores, represented by cats, civets, etc., of

of the insect, and convert it into materials that which there are six families. The whole order

can be absorbed and utilized as food. In the of Carnivora embraces about 300 living species. Venus-flytrap (Dionæa) the two halves of the

PEDIGREE AND HISTORY. The fossil history of leaf close suddenly, entrapping the insect. In carnivora is of great interest, for not only have the pitcher-plants (Sarracenia, Nepenthes, etc.), some remarkable forms like the sabre-toothed tiger (Machærodus) been unearthed, but the various families are linked together, as the cats and civets, by Proviverra, and the ancestors of at least the cats and the dogs are found in primitive generalized carnivores, such as Miacis, Oxhyæna, and Arctocyon. The group affords beautiful illustration of increasing and of divergent specialization, as illustrated in the passage from primitive forms to the lion on the one hand, and to the seal on the other. As to the relations of the carnivora to other orders of mammals, speculation is rife, but firmly based

Pitcher-like leaves (ascidia) of the Pitcher-Plant (Sarraconclusions are hard to find. Looking backward, cenia). Insects are often present in the liquid within tho some naturalists have discovered affinities with ascidia. the marsupials; while others, looking forward, insects walk down the inner surface of the have, with more abundant evidence, regarded the pitcher-like leaf and are prevented from escapprimitive carnivores as ancestral to Insectivora,

ing by the hairs that point downward. The and through them to Cheiroptera. And now aquatic bladderwort (Utricularia) has a sort of there seems to be some evidence of not very dis- cel-trap device for entrapping insects. Consult: tant relationship between Carnivora and Pri

Darwin, Insectivorous Plants (London, 1875). mates. BIBLIOGRAPHY. Consult authorities referred

CARNOCHAN, kär'no-kan, JOHN MURRAY to under MAMMALIA; Cat; Dog; BEAR, etc.

(1817-87). An American surgeon, born in Sa

vannah, Ga. He was educated at Edinburgh CARNIV'OROUS PLANTS. A peculiar University and at the College of Physicians group of plants, part of whose food consists of and Surgeons of New York, and in 1847 began animals, especially insects, captured by various practice in New York. Dr. Carnochan rapidly contrivances, hence called also 'insectivorous rose to the first rank among practicing physiplants. Most of these plants live in undrained cians and surgeons, and acquired great celebrity swamps, where the soil is poor in nitrogen, and it for the boldness and success of his operations, is believed by many that the carnivorous habit such as the removal of the lower jaw; the cure is thus a decided advantage to the organism. The of elephantiasis by ligature of the femoral arsundew (Drosera) is one of the commonest and tery; excision of the ulna while preserving to the most interesting of the group. The leaves bear arm most of its functions; amputating the thigh glandular hairs, which secrete a sticky glisten- at the hip-joint, and particularly for removing, in case of neuralgia, the entire trunk of the sec- treme measures of Barras, his colleague, he was ond branch of the fifth pair of nerves. Dr. suspected of being a royalist and sentenced to Carnochan added much to the renown of Amer- deportation in 1797. Having escaped to Gerican surgery. He was professor of the principles many, he wrote his famous defense, in which he and practice of surgery in the New York Med. laid bare the character of his associates in the ical College, and health officer of the Port of New Directory. The Eighteenth Brumaire brought York. Besides numerous monographs of value him back to Paris. Bonaparte made him Minison subjects connected with his profession, he ter of War in 1800. In this office he helped, by published Treatise on Congenital Dislocations his energy, skill, and fertility of administrative (1850), and Contributions to Operative Surgery resource, to achieve the brilliant results of the (1877-86).


Italian and South-German campaigns; so that to CARNOT, kär'no', LAZARE HIPPOLYTE (1801. him was given the name of Organizer of Vic88). A French politician and journalist, the tory: Being unable to agree with Bonaparte, he

In 1802 he became son of the Organizer of Victory. He was born resigned in the same year. at Saint Omer, April 6, 1801. He studied for voted against the establishment of the consulate

a member of the tribunate, in which capacity he the law, but was debarred from practice for for life and particularly against an empire. When refusing to take the oath of allegiance to the the tribunate was abolished, he retired to private Bourbons. Turning to journalism, he soon made life and devoted himself to his studies. But a name for himself as a follower of Saint-Simon when fortune ceased to favor Napoleon he placed and his school, and became editor of Le Produc- his services at his command in 1814. The com. teur, a radical journal of the day, but after the mand of Antwerp was given to him, and the city July Revolution forsook Saint-Simonism to a

was heroically defended. During the Hundred certain extent. In 1839 he entered the Chamber Days he held office as Minister of the Interior. of Deputies as a representative from Paris and

The title of Count was conferred upon him, but remained until 1848, voting with the extreme Left. After the February Revolution he accept- he withdrew to Warsaw, and from thence to

he never bore it. After the second restoration ed the post of Minister of Public Instruction, but Magdeburg, where he died, August 3, 1823. Carheld it only a few months. Elected to the Legis- not's chief contribution to mathematical science lative Assembly in May, 1850, he took his place is a class of general theorems on the projective among the Republicans opposed to the schemes properties of figures, which later formed the of Louis Napoleon. After the coup d'état he basis for the important works of Poncelet and refused to swear allegiance to Napoleon, and others. Among his numerous writings on mathethough several times elected to the Legislative matics and military tactics are Essai sur les maAssembly, did not take his seat until 1864. In chines en général (1786); Réflexions sur la 1869 he was defeated in the elections by Gam- métaphysique du calcul infinitésimal (1797); betta and by Henri Rochefort, but in 1871 he and Géométrie de position (1803). Consult was chosen deputy from Seine-et-Oise. Made a life Senator in 1875, Carnot took a prominent @uvres complètes (Paris, 1854).

Arago, "Eulogy of Carnot,” in Vol. I. of Arago's part in the debates of the Upper House, and spoke for the last time in 1888, a few days after CARNOT, MARIE FRANçois Sadi (1837-94). his son Sadi had been elected President of the President of the French Republic from 1887 to Republic. He died March 16, 1888. He was the 1894. He was the son of Lazare Hippolyte Carauthor of numerous magazine articles and re- not, and was born at Limoges, August 11, 1837. views, the most important being Exposé de la He received a scientific education, became an doctrine Saint-Simonienne (1830); Mémoires sur engineer, and advanced rapidly in his profession, Carnot, par son fils (2 vols., 1861-64); La Révo. acquiring a considerable reputation as the conlution française (2 vols., 1867); Lazare Hoche structor of the large tubular bridge at Collonges(1874); and, with M. d'Angers, Mémoires de sur-Rhône. In 1870 he was stationed as GovernBertrand Barère (4 vols., 1842-43). For his ment engineer at Annécy and in 1871 Gambetta, biography consult the Proceedings of the Acadé- who was then Minister of the Interior, made mie des Sciences, Morales et Politiques (Paris, him the prefect of the Department of Seine-InJanuary, 1894); also Hubbard, Une famille ré- férieure. In this capacity he rendered imporpublicaine: les Carnot (Paris, 1888).

tant services to the Government, but after the CARNOT, LAZARE

capitulation of Paris resigned his office and NICOLAS MARGUERITE

sat as a deputy from Côte d'Or in the Na(1753-1823). A French strategist and mathe

tional Assembly. There he took a prominent matician. He was born at Nolay, and became,

part in all discussions concerning the future in 1791, a member of the Legislative Assembly

form of government for France, voting always from Pas-de-Calais. In the Convention he voted

with the Republicans of the Left, for whom he for the death of Louis XVI. He was elected to

acted as secretary. He became a member of the the Committee of Public Safety, intrusted with

new Chamber of Deputies in 1876, and in 1877 the chief direction of military affairs, and great

was secretary to the Chamber, besides being ly contributed to the success of the French arms. prominent in connection with the Public Works He displayed extraordinary ability in this posi

Committee. In 1880-81 he was Minister of Pubtion, alike as a strategist and as an organizer.

lic Works, and held the same office again in 1885, He created fourteen armies, placed them under

in the Brisson Ministry, in which he later acted the command of competent generals, and inspired as Minister of Finance. On December 3, 1887, the troops with an ardor which made them irre

he was elected to succeed Grévy as President of sistible. Though he endeavored to restrict the

the Republic. In the performance of the high power of Robespierre, he was impeached with functions of this office, Carnot won the respect others, after the Reign of Terror, but the charge of all by his tact and ability. He passed unwas dismissed. Carnot became a member of the scathed through the Panama disclosures of 1892. Directory in 1795, but having opposed the ex. His term of office was almost over when he was stabbed by an Italian anarchist named Caserio, particularly to the cultivation of sugar-beets, in Lyons, and died the next day, June 25, 1894. and has industrial interests represented by flourHe was succeeded as President by Casimir-Périer. mills, grain-elevators, a large beet-sugar refinery, Consult Hubbard, Une famille républicaine : les lumber-mills, brick and tile works, foundries and Carnot (Paris 1888).

machine-shops, shoe, steel horse-collar, and teleCARNOT, NICOLAS LÉONARD Sadi (1796- phone factories, marble-works, etc. Population, 1832). A French physicist, to whose early re

in 1890, 1701; in 1900, 2006; in 1904, 2268. searches and theories must be ascribed the be

CARO, kä'ro, ANNIBALE (1507-66). An Italginning of the modern science of thermodynamics ian poet, best remembered for his felicitous (q.v.). He was born in Paris, the son of Lazare

translation of Vergil's Æncid. He was born at Nicolas Marguerite Carnot. He entered the Civitanova, in Ancona; became at an early age Polytechnic School in 1812, from which he tutor to the sons of Luigi Gaddi, in Florence; passed into the corps of engineers, where he and in 1543 entered the service of Pier Luigi served until 1828. Working in this capacity, Farnese, nephew of Paul III., who sent him on he had time and opportunity for scientific re

numerous embassies, among others to the Emsearch, and in 1824 published his famous work, peror Charles V., in Flanders. After the death Réflerions sur la puissance motrice du feu, of Pier Luigi, Caro served successively the Duke in which is described his cycle and reversible Ottavio Farnese and the latter's brothers, the engine. Carnot's work was based on the theory Cardinal Ranuccio and Alessandro, with whom that heat was a substance, 'caloric,' but so

he remained until his death, in 1566. Caro numperfect was his reasoning that the theory re

bered among his friends many of the best-known quired but few modifications to adapt it to the

men of letters of his day-Molza, Salviati, Vadynamical theory, which was later accepted, sari, and Tansillo. He was an accomplished even by Carnot himself. According to Carnot; letter-writer, and his Lettere familiari are not the amount of work done by a heat-engine de- only full of interest, but have often been repends on the amount of heat transferred and the printed as models of style. One of his most fa. difference in temperature between the source of beat and the receiver; work can be done only Valois, written at the request of Cardinal Ales

mous poems is a panegyric upon the House of when heat passes from a warmer to a colder sandro, which was the cause of a bitter and body. This is, in substance, the second law of protracted controversy with a certain Castelvetro, thermodynamics, enunciated by Clausius in 1850, resulting in the death of one of Caro's supporters which stated that heat cannot of itself pass from and in Castelvetro's banishment. Caro's felicia colder body to a hotter one, nor can it be so

tous translation of the Eneid was begun, he made to pass without any inanimate material tells us, “in jest, and only as an experiment,” but mechanism; and no mechanism can be driven he continued it for the pleasure of making trial by a mere simple cooling of any material object of the language in comparison with Latin.” The below the temperature of surrounding objects. translation, which remained unfinished, is rather In order to study the efficiency of the steam-en

a skillful paraphrase than a faithful rendering; gine, Carnot devised a reversible engine where but, like all his writings, bears the stamp of a the amount of energy produced and heat applied cultured and polished style. The best editions could be investigated under ideal conditions. of Caro's works were published in Venice (1757), Carnot also appreciated the important principle in Milan (1806), and a volume of selected works now known as conservation of energy, stating appeared in Florence (1864). that motive power is in quantity invariable in nature; it is, correctly speaking, never either

CARO, kå'ro', ELME MARIE (1826-87). A

He was produced or destroyed. Carnot's work was great. French philosopher, born in Poitiers. ly extended and adapted to modern theories by appointed professor of philosophy at the SorSir William Thomson, who published important bonne in 1864, and elected to the Académie in papers in 1848 and 1849 which indicated that 1874. His writings, many of them in opposition from these researches could be evolved the abso- to modern positivism, comprise Etudes morales lute thermodynamic scale of temperature. Car

sur le temps présent (1855; 3d ed., 1875), L'idée not's great essay was printed in German, in de Dieu et ses nouveaux critiques (1864; 7th ed., Ostraid's Klassiker, No. 37 (Leipzig, 1892), and 1883), and a study of Hartmann, Schopenhauer, an English translation has been made by Prof. and Leopardi in Le pessimisme au XIXe siècle R. H. Thurston, to which was appended an Ac

(1878). count of Carnot's Theory, by Lord Kelvin (New CARO, kä'rð, JAKOB (1836-1904). A German York, 1890).

historian. He was born in Gnesen, and after CARNUNTUM (Lat., from the Celtic). An studying in Berlin and Leipzig was professor of ancient town in Upper Pannonia, on the Danube, history in Jena until 1869, when he accepted a a few miles east of Vienna, founded by the Celts, similar chair at the University of Breslau. His but at an early period a Roman post. Marcus publications, which deal chiefly with Polish and Aurelius resided here for three years, during his Hussite history, include the continuation of Röwars with the Marcomanni. In the Fourth pell's Geschichte Polens (3 vols., II.-V., 1863-88), Century Carnuntum was destroyed by German published in Ukert and Heeren's Geschichte der invaders. It was afterwards rebuilt, and finally europäischen Staaten; Das Interregnum Polens destroyed in the Magyar wars of the Middle im Jahre 1587, und die Parteikimpfe der Häuser Ages.

Zborouski und Zamojski (1861); Liber CancelCARO, kār'o. A village and county-seat of lariæ Stanislai Ciolek, Ein Formelbuch aus der Tuscola County, Mich., 26 miles (direct) east bussitischen Bewegung (2 vols., 1871-74); Aus by south of Bay City, on the Cass River, and on der Kanzlei Kaiser Sigismunds (1879); and the Michigan Central Railroad (Map: Michigan, Beata und Halszka, Eine polnisch-russische K 5). It is in an agricultural country, adapted Geschichte aus dem 16. Jahrhundert (1883).

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