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CAR'OB, ALGAROBA, or LOCUST-TREE (It. car- the custom in many parts of England for rubo, from Ar. kharrūb, bean-pods) (Ceratonia troops of men and boys, known as 'waits,' siliqua). A tree of the natural order Legu- to go about the villages for several nights beminosæ, a native of the countries around the fore Christmas, singing carols in the open Mediterranean Sea, in size and manner of growth air. As a rule, the best carols are the oldest, much resembling the apple-tree, but with abrupt- although one of the most popular, "While ly pinnate, dark, evergreen leaves, which have Shepherds Watched Their Flocks by Night,” was two or three pairs of large oval leaflets. The composed in 1703 by no better a poet than flowers are destitute of corolla; the fruit is a Nahum Tate, and the ancient spirit has been brown, leathery pod 4 to 10 inches long and an successfully caught in recent times by Swininch or so wide, a little curved, and containing burne, William Morris, and John Mason Neale. gummy pulp, of an agreeable, sweet taste, in The older carols, usually set to pleasing and not which lie a number of shining brown seeds, some- difficult melodies, have the characteristics of what resembling small flattened beans. The popular poetry in general. They are simple, seeds are bitter and of no use, but the sweet picturesque, and often childlike in their naiveté pulp renders the pods an important article of to the point of seeming to persons of less unfood to the poorer classes of the countries in sophisticated training to border on irreverence. which the tree grows, as they contain as much A manuscript of the Fifteenth Century now in as 60 per cent. of sugar. They are very much the British Museum (ed. Thomas Wright, Lon. used by the Moors and Arabs. They are also don, 1847), contains a number of the most favaluable as food for horses and cattle, for which mous early carols. The best collection, however, they are much employed in the south of Europe, of both the ancient and modern types is Christand have of late years begun to be extensively mas Carols, Old and New (London, 1874), the imported into Great Britain under the name of words edited by H. R. Bramley, and the music locust-beans or Saint John's bread. The Arabs by Sir John Stainer. make of the pulp of the carob a preserve like CAROLAN, käro-lan, or O’CAROLAN, Ô tamarinds, which is gently aperient, and also a kär'o-lan, TUBLOGH. See O’CAROLAN, TUBkind of liquor. The carob-tree is too tender for the climate of Great Britain. Its introduction

CAROLANO, kä'rð-lä'nő. A wild Malayan into the north of India has been recommended people in the mountains of Negros Island. See as an important addition to the resources of that

PHILIPPINES. country and a valuable safeguard against famine.

CAROLINA, kä'rð-lēnå, LA. The capital of At the California Experiment Station the tree

a district in the Province of Jaén, Andalusia, is highly thought of for its shade. It grows well in dry, rocky situations, and is considered Morena, 36 miles northeast of Jaén. It has lead

Spain, on the southern range of the Sierra a valuable acquisition. It will not stand frost. The wood is hard and much valued, and the bark olive plantations. The inhabitants, descendants

and silver mining industries, vineyards, and and leaves are used for tanning. The locust

of South Germans, who settled here in 1780 untree (q.v.) of America is quite distinct from this. În Hawaii the mesquite tree (q.v.) is

der the auspices of Count Olavides, the favorite called algaroba. In California this tree is fre- tion, their origin being easily discernible, al

of Charles III., exhibit an interesting assimilaquently used for hedges.

though the Teutonic language has been reCARO'BA. See JACARANDA.

placed by the Spanish. Population, 1901, 9756. CAROL (OF. carole, from Bret. koroll, dance,

CAROLINA, kä'rô-lē'nå, MARIA (1752Gael. carull, melody, from car, bar of music, 1814). A daughter of Francis I., Emperor of Ir. car, a turn, ultimately, perhaps, connected Germany, and Maria Theresa of Austria, and with Ir. carr, cart, Lat. currus, cart). In the Queen of Naples by her marriage with Ferdinand stricter sense, a popular religious song intended IV. in 1768. She had great influence with the to form part of the rejoicings connected with the King, brought about the appointment of Sir John great Christian festivals. The kinship of the Acton as Prime Minister in 1784, and caused the earlier English carols with similar French com

King, in 1798, to join the coalition against positions is evidenced by the frequent recur

France, the consequence of which was the march. rence in them of the refrain 'Nowell," a variant ing of the French upon Naples (1799) and the of the Fr. Nöel, Christmas (Lat. natale, birth- light of Ferdinand and Carolina. After return. day); though they had a wide popularity in the ing to Naples, Carolina again conspired against Middle Ages on the Continent of Europe, they Napoleon, and, with her husband, was, in 1806, are especially associated with English tradition. dethroned and succeeded by Joseph Bonaparte.

She died in Vienna. Their use seems to have been at its height under the Tudors; the universal familiarity with CAROLINA (kår'o-li'nå) ALLSPICE. See them is shown by the specific prohibition in 1525, CALYCANTHUS. when Henry VIII. lay seriously ill, of "carols, CAROLINA PINK. See SPIGELIA, bells, or merry-making." In 1562 license was

CAR'OLINE, THE. An American vessel, given to Thomas Tysdale to print "certayne the seizure and destruction of which, off Grand goodly Carowles to be songe to the glory of Island, by a party of Canadians, on December 29, God.” The Puritans, in their general onslaught 1837, during the rebellion in Upper Canada, on the observance of Christmas, when holly and threatened to cause a war between the United ivy were made seditious badges, attempted to States and Great Britain. The steamer had abolish them; but they came back with the been used for carrying supplies to a party of Restoration, and in 1661 appeared The New insurgents on Navy Island, and Great Britain Carols for the Merry Time of Christmas, to asserted in 1840 that its destruction was a legitiSundry Pleasant Tunes. To this day it is mate act of war, while the United States repeatedly demanded redress on the ground that N. and from about longitude 136° to about 164° the Canadians had invaded its territory in time E. (Map: Australasia, G 2). They number of peace. The difficulty came to a crisis in the about 525, including reefs and uninhabited rocks, course of the same year when a Canadian and their area is estimated at 390 square miles, named McLeod, who had boasted of participating They are mostly low and of coral" formation, in the affair, was tried in New York. The and their soil is not above the average in British Ministry threatened war in case he were fertility. The main islands of the group are not released, but his trial was nevertheless con- Rug, or Hogolu, Ponape, and Strong. The tinued, and his acquittal alone prevented serious chief product is copra, while some of the islands trouble between the two governments.

also yield shells. The commerce is mostly in CAROLINE, AMELIA ELIZABETH (1768-1821). the hands of the German Jaluit Company, which Queen of George IV. of England. She was

has stations on almost every important island. the second daughter of Charles William Fer- Administratively the group is a part of the dinand, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, and German New Guinea Protectorate. The populaPrincess Augusta of Britain, sister of George tion of the Caroline Islands is estimated at III. She was born on May 17, 1768, and on 36,000, and consists chiefly of Micronesians, with

Most of the native April 8, 1795, was married to the Prince of about 125 Europeans. Wales, who, with no love for his cousin, con

have been converted to Christianity. They are sented to the union for the sake of liquidating well developed physically and mentally, a little his debts. She soon complained of his intimacy shorter than the eastern Polynesians, and with Mrs. Fitzherbert and Lady Jersey. The dolichocephalic. The ruins of stone structures King sought to reconcile the royal pair; but

on the islands of Ponape, Lalla, etc., are by after the birth of their daughter, Princess Char

some writers (e.g. Christian, in 1899) needlotte, January, 1796, the Prince of Wales de lessly attributed to a 'black race,' predecesserted his wife. She received public sympathy

sors of the present occupants. These 'famous' and support, especially when official attempts ruins are doubtless remains of the works of the were made to discredit her. In 1814 she ob

forefathers of the people now inhabiting the tained leave to travel, and lived in Italy for archipelago, for elsewhere, as in Tonga, Easter some time, but acted imprudently in showing Island, etc., the Polynesians have demonstrated favor to her courier, Bergami, and his family. Carolines were discovered in 1525 by the PortuWhen her husband became King in 1820, she was offered an annuity of £50,000 sterling to re

guese Diego da Rocha, and further explored nounce the title of Queen and live abroad; but during the Seventeenth Century by the Spanish she refused, and made a triumphal entry into admiral Francisco Lazeano, who gave to the London, whereupon the Government instituted group its present name in honor of King Charles proceedings for divorce on a charge of adultery: the group was entirely abandoned by Spain,

11. In the beginning of the Eighteenth Century Indiscreet conduct was proved; but the manner in which she had been used by her husband, and

and it was not until the beginning of the the splendid defense of Brougham, caused such

Nineteenth Century that the existence of the a feeling in her favor that the Ministry aban

Caroline archipelago was again brought to the doned the divorce bill

, after it had passed the attention of the civilized world by a number House of Lords. She assumed the rank of of scientific expeditions. At length German comroyalty, but was repulsed from Westminster Carolines, and the hoisting of the German flag

mercial interests became paramount in the Abbey when she insisted on her right to coronation with her husband, July 29, 1821. Nine days Spain. A settlement reached in the same year,

over Yap in 1885 called forth the protest of afterwards she died. In direct disregard of the

with the Pope as King's desire, the funeral procession, on its way Spain's claim to the archipelago, but conferred

an arbitrator, recognized to Brunswick, where Caroline was buried, passed

In 1899 the through the city of London ; but not before lives special privileges on Germany.

Caroline, Pelew, and the Ladrone groups had been lost in an encounter with the Life Guards at Hyde Park Corner. Consult: Memoirs

(except Guam), were ceded to Germany in con

sideration of the sum of 16,750,000 marks (about of Queen Caroline, by Nightingale . (London, $3,300,000). Consult: Christian, The Caroline 1820); Adolphus (London, 1821), Huish (Lon- Islands (London, 1899); Otto Finsch, Karolinen don, 1821); Wilk (London, 1822); also Clerke, und Marianen (Hamburg, 1900); id., AnthropoLife of Her Majesty Queen Caroline (London, logische Ergebnisse einer Reise in der Südseo 1821).

(Berlin, 1883). CAROLINE BOOKS (Lat. Libri Carolini).

CAROLINE MATILDA (1751-75). Queen A work in four books, drawn up, probably in 790, by the authority of Charles the Great, child of Frederick, Prince of Wales, and in 1768

of Denmark and Norway. She was the youngest against the decrees of the Iconoclastic Council of 754, and of the Second Council of Nicæa, in

married Christian VII., by whom she became the 787. The latter had been translated into Latin mother of Frederick VI. The King was a youth incorrectly, and the author of the Caroline Books reduced himself almost to a state of imbecility.

of feeble character, and by self-indulgence had supposed that they ordered the same worship to

From the first he treated the Queen with coldbe paid to the images as to the Trinity. The Caroline Books reject both iconoclasm and the volved in an amour with Struensee, the Court

In the course of time she became inworship of images. The author is unknown physician, who at the same time was a favorite Consult Hefele, History of the Councils, Vol. with the King, and was appointed Cabinet MinIII., Book 20, Chap. 2 (Freiburg, 1873-90). ister and created a count (1771). Farly in 1772,

CAROLINE ISLANDS. A group of small as the result of a Court intrigue, the Queen and and widely scattered islands in the Pacific Ocean, Struensee were arrested, each confessed guilt, extending from the equator to about latitude 10° and Struensee was executed. The royal marriage


real power.



was declared dissolved, but when it was proposed (q.v.) ruled in Germany from 899 to 911, when to banish the Queen, the British Government in- the Carolingian dynasty there became extinct. terfered. She received a pension of £5000, was The French dynasty, of which Charles the Bald allowed to retain the title of Queen, and spent may be deemed the founder, continued a succesher last years in a castle at Celle, Hanover. Con- sion of weak monarchs and pretenders to the sult Wraxall, Life and Times of Queen Caroline throne for about a century, till it terminated Matilda (London, 1864) and Wittich, Struensee with the reign of Louis V., on whose death (Leipzig, 1899). See STRUENSEE.

Hugh Capet, the most powerful nobleman in CAR'OLIN'GIANS (Fr. Carlovingiens, Med. France, seized the crown, in 987. The CarolinLat. Carolingi, from OHG. Karling, descendant gian kings had for some time possessed little of Karl, particularly Charles Martel). The sec

A subsequent marriage connected that

the ond dynasty of Frankish kings. The origin of their family with

Capets, the family is traced to Saint Arnulf, Bishop of and enabled the kings of the Capetian dynasty Metz, who died in 641. His son, Ansegisel, mar

(q.v.) to trace their descent from Charlemagne. ried a daughter of Pepin (q.v.), of Landen, in See FRANKS; FRANCE; GERMANY; HOLY ROMAN Austrasia. Their son, Pepin of Heristal, 'the EMPIRE. greatest territorial lord in Austrasia, was called CAROLUS DURAN, kå'ro'lụs' dụ'rän'. See to the office of Mayor of the Palace, in that king. DURAN, CHARLES AUGUSTE EMILE. dom. At the battle of Testry in 687, Pepin CARON, kå'rÔN', RENÉ EDOUARD (1800-76). compelled the weak Merovingian King, Theu- A Canadian statesman and jurist. He was eduderich III., to invest him with the office of Mayor cated at the Seminary of Quebec and at the Col. of the Palace in all the three Frankish States, lege of Saint Pierre, and was admitted to the Neustria, Austrasia, and Burgundy. Pepin al- bar in 1826. He was mayor of Quebec from 1827 lowed the Merovingian kings to remain upon the to 1837 and Speaker of the Legislative Council of throne, but they were kings only in name. He Lower Canada from 1843 to 1847, and again from died in 714, and left as his successor a grandson 1848 to 1853. On being appointed judge of the who was mere child; but Charles Martel Queen's Bench in the latter year, he abandoned (q.v.), a natural son of Pepin, was made politics. In 1857 he was commissioner for codi. Mayor of the Palace by the Austrasians, and in fying the laws of Lower Canada, and in 1873 was this capacity brought the three States under his appointed Lieutenant-Governor of Quebec. power. He died in 741. His two sons, Carloman and Pepin the Short, divided the kingdom, al- Lara, Venezuela, about 40 miles east of Barquisi

CARORA, kå-rõ'rå. A town in the State of though for a time the nominal Merovingian meto, and midway between that city and Lake dynasty still existed. Carloman abdicated after Maracaibo. Stock-raising and tanneries are the a few years and entered a monastery. Pepin at chief industries, and there is a considerable last formally assumed the royal power, and was crowned King of the Franks in 751. From this by Spaniards in 1572. Population, 8000.

trade in guns and rubber. The town was founded is dated the beginning of the Carolingian dynasty. Pepin was succeeded by his sons, Carloman

CAROTID ARTERY (Fr. carotide, Lat. and Charles the Great (q.v.) or Charlemagne, carotis, Gk. kapwrls, karotis, carotid, from kápos, of whom the latter soon reigned alone, and pro- karos, deep sleep). The great artery which on digiously extended his dominions. In 800 Pope each side distributes blood to the different parts Leo. III. set upon his head the crown of the

of the head. Each carotid artery consists of the Western Roman Empire. He planned to divide primitive or common carotid, which, at the upper his dominions among his sons, of whom, how- margin of the larynx, separates into two great ever, only one, Louis the Pious, survived him, divisions of nearly equal size, the external and who, in the list of the Kings of France, appears

internal carotid. The external carotid supplies as Louis I., but who was properly Emperor and

the larnyx, tongue, face, and scalp with blood, King of the Franks. With Charlemagne the high its principal branches being the superior thyroid, abilities of his family disappeared, and his suc

the lingual, the facial, the occipital, the poscessors were comparatively weak. Family feuds terior auricular, the internal maxillary, and the broke out during the life of Louis the Pious, who temporal. The internal carotid enters the cavity had divided his dominions among his sons, and of the cranium through a somewhat tortuous he terminated his troubled reign in 840. By a canal in the temporal bone, and after perforating treaty concluded at Verdun, in 843, Lothair I., the dura mater, or fibrous membrane of the the eldest son of Louis, obtained the imperial brain, separates into the anterior and middle crown and the kingdom of Italy, with Lorraine, cerebral arteries, which are the principal arFranche Comté, Provence, and Lyonnais; Louis, teries of the brain; while in its course through his brother, called Louis' the German, obtained the dura mater it gives off the ophthalmic artery, the German part of his father's dominions; and which subdivides into several small branches that Charles the Bald, the son of a second mar- supply the eye and surrounding parts. See CIRriage, obtained Neustria, Aquitania, and the Span- CULATION. ish Mark. The Emperor Lothair I. died in 855,

Wounds of the carotid trunks are generally and his dominions were again divided-his eldest from stabs. Suicides have a vague desire to cut son, Louis II., becoming Emperor and King of them, but rarely cut sufficiently deep by the side Italy, and his two other sons kings of Lorraine and of the windpipe. Of course, should either vessel of Provence, the kingdoms of the two younger broth- be wounded, death would result almost immeers later reverting to the Emperor. Charles II., diately. Punctured wounds, however, may not the Fat (q.v.), son of Louis the German, reigned be immediately fatal; they may heal, or a false over the reunited realm of Charles the Great aneurism (q.v.) may result. These arteries are from about 884 to 887, when he was deposed. sometimes the seat of spontaneous or true Arnulf (q.v.), King of Germany, obtained the im- aneurism. Sir Astley Cooper was the first to perial dignity later, and Louis III., the Child tie the common carotid for spontaneous aneu

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