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of the border line between it and Kamerun (Map: Congo Free State, A 2). It is about 10 miles wide, and extends inland nearly 25 miles. Near the head of the bay the waters of three rivers the Cross, the Calabar, and the Akpaare received through a deltoid border-land. The chief towns bordering the delta and estuary are Old Calabar, Duketown, and Creektown. The name Old Calabar is also applied to the region around the river, and now incorporated with British Nigeria.

CALABAR BEAN. The seed of Physostigma venenosum, a twining, half-shrubby plant, native of western Africa, of the natural order Leguminosa, nearly allied to the kidney-bean, but of a genus distinguished by the hood-shaped stigma and the deeply furrowed hilum of the seed. The following are the leading characters of the bean itself: "About the size of a very large horse-bean, with a very firm, hard, brittle, shining integument, of a brownish-red, palechocolate, or ash-gray color. Irregularly kidney-shaped, with two flat sides, and a furrow running longitudinally along its convex margin, ending in an aperture near one end of the seed. Within the shell is a kernel, consisting of two cotyledons, weighing on an average about 46 grains, hard, white, and pulverizable, of a taste like that of the ordinary edible leguminous seeds, without bitterness, acrimony, or aromatic flavor. It yields its virtues to alcohol, and imperfectly to water." It is used in the form of an emulsion by the natives of Africa, as an ordeal when persons are suspected of witchcraft. It is believed that if one vomits it he is innocent; if it is retained and death occurs, he

is guilty. If the accused person is innocent he will usually eat a large number without hesitation, and so cause vomiting; if he hesitates and takes little, this does not occur. In 1855 Dr. Christian very nearly fell a victim to his zeal for science in experimenting on some specimens of this bean which had been sent to Edinburgh by some African missionaries, dangerous symptoms having been produced by 12 grains of the kernel which he swallowed. In

1861 Dr. Thomas R. Fraser tried the effects upon himself of doses of 6, 8, and 10 grains. The general symptoms were epigastric uneasiness, great feebleness, dimness of vision, salivation, giddiness, and irregular, feeble, and slow heart's action. When placed on the eyeball, this substance contracts the pupil, decreases intraocular tension, and produces near-sightedness. In 1864 fifty children were poisoned by eating these beans, which were swept out of a ship at Liverpool. A boy aged 6 years, who ate six beans, died very speedily. The chief symptoms in these cases were griping, vomiting, and contracted pupils; the face was pale, the eyes bright and protruding, and in trying to walk the children staggered as if they were drunk. The bean contains two alkaloids-physostigmine, or eserine, which represents the chief activity of the drug; and calabarine. which has a tetanizing action like strychnine. It has been used medicinally, in small doses, in chorea, tetanus, and strychnine poisoning. It is employed to counteract the dilatation of the pupil caused by atropine, to lessen intraocular tension in glaucoma, and to alternate with atropine in breaking up adhesions in iritis. Being now a recognized

medicinal agent, it is satisfactory to know that the dangerous and even fatal effects of exces sive doses may be prevented by administering belladonna (nightshade), or its active principle, atropine. Belladonna has also an opposite action on the eye to that of this substance. When the pupil is contracted by Calabar bean, it may be dilated to its normal size or larger by belladonna; and when it is dilated by belladonna, it may be reduced to its normal size or smaller by Calabar bean; but the action of eserine is not as durable as that of atropine.

CALABASH GOURD (Fr. calebasse, Sp. calabaza, a dry gourd; cf. Pers. kharbuz, melon, Little Russ. harbuz, pumpkin, watermelon), or BOTTLE GOURD (Lagenaria vulgaris). A climbing annual plant of the natural order Cucurbitaceæ, cultivated in tropical countries. The angular leaves and the thin stem of the plant feel sticky to the touch, and have a disagreeable odor. The odor of the white flowers resembles that of musk. The hard rind of the bottle-shaped fruit, called calabash, is much used in tropical countries for holding liquids. The pulp of the common bottle gourd is worthless, and cannot be used as an article of food. Other varieties of Lagenaria, however, bear an edible fruit, which is sometimes sweetened with sugar and offered for sale. For illustration, see Plate under CUCUMBERS.

CALABASH-TREE (Crescentia cujete). An evergreen tree found in the West Indies and in the tropical parts of America, belonging to the order Bignoniacer. In height and size it resembles an apple-tree, and has broad, lanceolate leaves, tapering to the base; large, whitish, fleshy flowers scattered over the trunk and older branches; and a gourd-like fruit, sometimes a foot in diameter. The wood of the tree is tough and flexible, and is well adapted for coachmaking. The most useful part is the hard shell of the fruit, after the outer skin is removed. Under the name of calabash, it is much used, in

place of bottles, for holding liquids, and for goblets, cups, water-cans, etc. These shells may even be used as kettles for boiling liquids. They are sometimes highly polished, carved with figures, tinged with various colors, and converted into ornamental vessels. The rinds of gourds are sometimes similarly used and called calabashes.

CALABAZAR, kä'lå-bå-thär'. An inland city of Cuba, in the Province of Santa Clara, about 20 miles north east of Santa Clara. It has a fine parish church and a pretentious municipal building. Population, in 1899, 1575; municipal district, 13,419.

CALABOZO, ki′la-bāsố (Sp., dungeon). A town in Venezuela, capital of the State of Miranda, about 120 miles south-southwest of Carácas (Map: Venezuela, D 2). It is situated on the Guárico River, in the fertile grazing region of the great plains, and is an important commercial centre, with a trade in live stock, hides, Calabozo is the see of a cheese, timber, etc. bishop. The climate in this vicinity is excessively hot, and inundations are not infrequent. Calabozo was a humble native village until the early years of the Eighteenth Century, having been founded in 1730. Population, about 6000.

of the border line between it and Kamerun (Map: Congo Free State, A 2). It is about 10 miles wide, and extends inland nearly 25 miles. Near the head of the bay the waters of three rivers the Cross, the Calabar, and the Akpaare received through a deltoid border-land. The chief towns bordering the delta and estuary are Old Calabar, Duketown, and Creektown. The name Old Calabar is also applied to the region around the river, and now incorporated with British Nigeria.

CALABAR BEAN. The seed of Physostigma venenosum, a twining, half-shrubby plant, native of western Africa, of the natural order Leguminosa, nearly allied to the kidney-bean, but of a genus distinguished by the hood-shaped stigma and the deeply furrowed hilum of the seed. The following are the leading characters of the bean itself: "About the size of a very large horse-bean, with a very firm, hard, brittle, shining integument, of a brownish-red, palechocolate, or ash-gray color. Irregularly kidney-shaped, with two flat sides, and a furrow running longitudinally along its convex margin, ending in an aperture near one end of the seed. Within the shell is a kernel, consisting of two cotyledons, weighing on an average about 46 grains, hard, white, and pulverizable, of a taste like that of the ordinary edible leguminous seeds, without bitterness, acrimony, or aromatic flavor. It yields its virtues to alcohol, and imperfectly to water." It is used in the form of an emulsion by the natives of Africa, as an ordeal when persons are suspected of witchcraft. It is believed that if one vomits it he is in

In

nocent; if it is retained and death occurs, he is guilty. If the accused person is innocent he will usually eat a large number without hesitation, and so cause vomiting; if he hesitates and takes little, this does not occur. In 1855 Dr. Christian very nearly fell a victim to his zeal for science in experimenting on some specimens of this bean which had been sent to Edinburgh by some African missionaries, dangerous symptoms having been produced by 12 grains of the kernel which he swallowed. 1861 Dr. Thomas R. Fraser tried the effects upon himself of doses of 6, 8, and 10 grains. The general symptoms were epigastric uneasiness, great feebleness, dimness of vision, salivation, giddiness, and irregular, feeble, and slow heart's action. When placed on the eyeball, this substance contracts the pupil, decreases intraocular tension, and produces near-sightedness. In 1864 fifty children were poisoned by eating these beans, which were swept out of a ship at Liverpool. A boy aged 6 years, who ate six beans, died very speedily. The chief symptoms in these cases were griping, vomiting, and contracted pupils; the face was pale, the eyes bright and protruding, and in trying to walk the children staggered as if they were drunk. The bean contains two alkaloids-physostigmine, or eserine, which represents the chief activity of the drug; and calabaṛine. which has a tetanizing action like strychnine. It has been used medicinally, in small doses, in chorea, tetanus, and strychnine poisoning. It is employed to counteract the dilatation of the pupil caused by atropine, to lessen intraocular tension in glaucoma, and to alternate with atropine in breaking up adhesions in iritis. Being now a recognized

medicinal agent, it is satisfactory to know that the dangerous and even fatal effects of excessive doses may be prevented by administering belladonna (nightshade), or its active principle, atropine. Belladonna has also an opposite action on the eye to that of this substance. When the pupil is contracted by Calabar it may be dilated to its normal size or larger by belladonna; and when it is dilated by belladonna, it may be reduced to its normal size or smaller by Calabar bean; but the action of eserine is not as durable as that of atropine.

an,

CALABASH GOURD (Fr. calebasse, Sp. calabaza, a dry gourd; cf. Pers. kharbuz, melon, Little Russ. harbuz, pumpkin, watermelon), or BOTTLE GOURD (Lagenaria vulgaris). A climbing annual plant of the natural order Cucurbitaceæ, cultivated in tropical countries. The angular leaves and the th stem of the plant feel sticky to the touch, and have a disagreeable odor. The odor of the white flowers resembles that of musk. The hard rind of the bottle-shaped fruit, called calabash, is much used in tropical countries for holding liquids. The pulp of the common bottle gourd is worthless, and cannot be used as an article of food. Other varieties of Lagenaria, however, bear an edible fruit, which is sometimes sweetened with sugar and offered for sale. For illustration, see Plate under CUCUMBERS.

CALABASH-TREE (Crescentia cujete). An evergreen tree found in the West Indies and in the tropical parts of America, belonging to the order Bignoniacer. In height and size it resembles an apple-tree, and has broad, lanceolate leaves, tapering to the base; large, whitish, fleshy flowers scattered over the trunk and older branches; and a gourd-like fruit, sometimes a foot in diameter. The wood of the tree is tough and flexible, and is well adapted for coachmaking. The most useful part is the hard shell of the fruit, after the outer skin is removed. Under the name of calabash, it is much used, in place of bottles, for holding liquids, and for goblets, cups, water-cans, etc. These shells may even be used as kettles for boiling liquids. They are sometimes highly polished, carved with figures, tinged with various colors, and converted into ornamental vessels. The rinds of gourds are sometimes similarly used and called calabashes.

CALABAZAR, kä'lå-bå-thär'. An inland city of Cuba, in the Province of Santa Clara, about 20 miles north by east of Santa Clara. It has a fine parish church and a pretentious municipal building. Population, in 1899, 1575; municipal district, 13,419.

CALABOZO, kä'lå-bō'so (Sp., dungeon). A town in Venezuela, capital of the State of Miranda, about 120 miles south-southwest of Carácas (Map: Venezuela, D 2). It is situated on the Guárico River, in the fertile grazing region of the great plains, and is an important commercial centre, with a trade in live stock, hides, cheese, timber, etc. Calabozo is the see of a bishop. The climate in this vicinity is excessively hot, and inundations are not infrequent. Calabozo was a humble native village until the early years of the Eighteenth Century, having been founded in 1730. Population, about 6000.

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