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CALCULATING MACHINES.

CAVE ANIMALS.
Professor David Eugene Smith; Mr.

Professor Alpheus Spring Packard.
Moses Nelson Baker.

CAVOUR.
CALCULUS.

Professor Edwin A. Start.
Professor David Eugene Smith.

CELIBACY.
CALENDAR.

Dr. Samuel Macauley Jackson.
Professor Harold Jacoby; Professor Ed.

CELL.
win A. Start; Dr. WJ McGee.

Professor Charles Benedict Davenport. CALHOUN.

CELLINI.
Professor William Peterfield Trent.

Mr. Frank Fowler.
CALVIN.

CENSUS.
Dr. Samuel Macauley Jackson.

Professor Roland P. Falkner.
CALVINISM.

CEPHALOPODA.
Dr. Frank Hugh Foster.

Mr. Gilbert Van Ingen.
CAMÕES.

CERVANTES.
Dr. Frederic Taber Cooper.

Dr. Frederic Taber Cooper.
CANAAN and CANAANITES.

CEYLON.
Professor Morris Jastrow.

Professor A. V. W. Jackson and others. CANADIAN LITERATURE.

CHARITY ORGANIZATION SOCIETY.
Professor Wilbur Lucius Cross,

Dr. Samuel McCune Lindsay.
CANAL.

CHAUTAUQUA.
Mr. Charles Shattuck Hill.

Professor Paul Monroe.
CANON LAW.

CHICAGO.
Professor Dana Carleton Munro.

Mr. Albert Robbins Sabin.
CANTICLES.

CHILD PSYCHOLOGY.
Professor Nathaniel Schmidt.

Professor Edward Bradford Titchener. CAPILLARITY.

CHINESE EMPIRE.
Professor Joseph Sweetman Ames.

Mr. Henry Gannett, Professor Edwin A. CAPITAL.

Start, Dr. William Elliot Griffis, ProDr. Roland P. Falkner.

fessor Alexander F. Chamberlain, and

others. CARBONIFEROUS SYSTEM. Professor Heinrich Ries.

CHOLERA.
CARICATURE

Dr. Albert Warren Ferris.
Mr. Frank Fowler.

CHOPIN.

Mr. Gustav Kobbé.
CARLYLE.
Professor Wilbur Lucius Cross.

CHORAL SOCIETIES.

Professor Alfred Remy.
CARTHAGE.
Professor James Morton Paton.

CHRISTIANITY.

Dr. Frank Hugh Foster.
CASTE.

Professor A. V. W. Jackson; Dr. WJ CHRISTIAN SCIENCE.
McGee.

Mr. Edward A. Kimball.
CAT.

CHRONICLES.
Mr. Ernest Ingersoll.

Professor Morris Jastrow.
CATACOMBS.

CHRONOLOGY.
Professor Arthur L. Frothingham.

Professor Harold Jacoby.
CATALOGUING.

CHU-HI.
Dr. Melvil Dewey.

Dr. William Elliot Griffis.
CATHEDRAL.

CICERO.
Professor Arthur L. Frothingham.

Dr. George N. Olcott.
CATTLE and CATTLE PLAGUE.

CIVIL ADMINISTRATION.
Dr. Alfred Charles True.

Professor George W. Kirchwey.
CATULLUS.

CIVIL CHURCH LAW.
Dr. George N. Olcott.

Dr. George James Bayles.
CAUSALITY.

CIVIL SERVICE REFORM.
Professor Evander Bradley McGilvary.

Professor George W. Kirchwey.
CAVALRY.

CIVIL WAR IN AMERICA.
General Theophilus F. Rodenbough.

Dr. H. A. Cushing.

THE NEW
INTERNATIONAL
ENCYCLOPÆDIA

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AIRO, ki'rð (from Ar. Masr el- finely built. The obelisks, once so numerous,

Qahira, the victorious capital), have disappeared, and now adorn various EuroThe capital of Egypt and the pean and American cities. Among the palaces largest city of Africa. It is situ- of Cairo is the vice-regal residence situated within ated near the right bank of the the citadel; the beautiful palace of Gesireh in

Nile, about nine miles above its the northwestern part of the city, now converted bifurcation into the Rosetta and Damietta arms, into a hotel; and the palace of Addin in the 150 miles southeast of Alexandria and 80 miles centre of the city, frequently occupied by the west of Suez (Map: Egypt, E 2). It covers an Khedive. The bazaars of Cairo are extensive and area of 11 square miles divided into separate well stocked, although inferior to those of Conquarters named after the nationality of the in- stantinople or Smyrna. The chief business street, habitants, and is surrounded by a low wall. Not- Muski, has greatly decreased in importance. The withstanding modern improvements, the Arabian citadel of Cairo is situated southeast of the city, quarters retain their Oriental character, the and affords a fine view; its strategical imporstreets in that part of Cairo being narrow, tance is greatly detracted from by the fact that it crooked, and but few of them paved. The houses is dominated by the Jebel Mokattam. are mostly of stone, several stories high, and As an educational centre Cairo ranks high; with window-lattices of wrought iron. The mod- its schools are attended by students from all ern portion of Cairo, called Ismailieh, is extend parts of the Islamic world. Among its educaing westward. It is lighted by gas, has electric tional institutions the El-Azhar stands foremost, tramways, and is well laid out with broad ave- both in size and importance. It is situated in nues, fine squares, and a beautiful park on the an old mosque, and is surrounded by numerous Place Ezbekieh, occupying an area of over twenty smaller buildings, used for the accommodation acres and containing a number of gardens and of the 10.000 students, of whom about 2000 live amusement places. The Place Ezbekieh is the in the college. Its history can be traced as far centre of modern Cairo, and around it are back as 975, and it is considered the oldest unisituated the principal theatres, hotels, and con- versity in the world. It has faculties of theology sulates.

and jurisprudence, and is maintained chiefly by The chief beauty and interest of Cairo lie in endowments, no tuition fee being charged. The its numerous mosques, of which some are re- members of the teaching faculties receive no comgarded as the best specimens of Arabic architec- pensation and are compelled to earn their living ture. The Gami-ibn-Tulun, erected about 879, is by private tuition or clerical labor. the finest. It is square and surmounted by four The other educational institutions include minarets and a dome, and has a court with a schools of art and medicine, a veterinary and a fountain in the centre. The Gami Amra is the polytechnical school, besides numerous missionoldest in Egypt, but only a small portion of it is ary and Arab schools. The vice-regal library left. The Gami Sultan Hassan was begun in contains about 50,000 volumes, including a num1356, and, in point of splendor, stands foremost ber of very rare copies of the Koran. among the mosques of Cairo. It is cruciform in Cairo is the residence of the Khedive, and is the interior, and contains a large number of pil- the seat of administration of Egypt. It has lars and beautiful hanging lamps. Its inner also an international court and consular reprecourt has two fountains of singular beauty, and sentatives from all important countries. The its dome is flanked by two minarets, the south- manufactures of Cairo include metal articles, ern of which is said to be the highest in Egypt. textiles, essences of flowers, etc. There is railAmong other mosques may be mentioned that of way communication with Alexandria, DaMehemet Ali, a structure of considerable archi- mietta, Suez, El-Merg, Heluan, and Upper Egypt. tectural merit, recently built after Turkish mod. The population of Cairo and its suburbs was els, with high minarets of alabaster. The mosque 565,187 in 1897, consisting chiefly of Fellahin, of Kait Bey dates from the Fifteenth Century: Turks, Copts, and Arabs, together with Nubians, Cairo has a number of tombs of califs and Berbers, Abyssinians, Jews, and over 20,000 for: Mamelukes, some of which are of great size and eigners.

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Old Cairo or Fostat was founded in 640 by Italy. On November 17, as the King was driving Amru, the conqueror of Egypt, on the site of his into Naples, a certain Giovanni Passanante atcamp and near the old town of Babylon. It was tempted to assassinate him with a poniard, but the capital of the country till 973, when Gauhar, was prevented by Cairoli, who was in the carthe general of the Fatimite Caliph Al Moez, riage, and who received a severe wound, while founded to the north of Fostat the new town of King Humbert escaped with a mere scratch. In Al Kahirah, the Victorious City; Saladin en- December, 1878, the Cairoli Ministry resigned. larged the boundaries of the town and surrounded The Depretis Ministry, which succeeded, was in it with walls. Throughout the Middle Ages turn defeated in 1879 and the Left again came Cairo was one of the chief centres of Mohamme- into power, under Cairoli, who was, however, dan culture, and the emporium for the trade forced to reconstruct his Cabinet the same year, between Europe and the East. From 1798 and to bring in Depretis as Minister of the Into 1801 it was held by the French; it passed terior. Finally, owing to the unpopularity of the from them to the Turks, and through the Turks policy pursued in regard to the French expedition to Mehemet Ali, the founder of the present rul- to Tunis, the Ministry resigned in 1881. From ing dynasty. Though much of its former great that time until his death Signor Cairoli was conness has departed, Cairo is still one of the great spicuous as a leader of the so-called “historic' capitals of Islam, and the life within its walls Left. Consult Lowell, Governments and Parties presents a picturesque blending of the buoyant in Continental Europe (Boston, 1897). European civilization, as represented by the English and French residents, with the dreamy chest, Eng. case). A wheeled vehicle or ammuni

CAISSON, kās'son (Fr. augment of caisse, mysticism of the Oriental world. Consult: Rey- tion carriage of which each field gun has from nolds-Ball, The City of the Caliphs (Boston 1897); Penfield, Present-Day Egypt (New York, Modern rapid fire field guns require an enor

one to three or sometimes more attached thereto. 1899); and Kemeid, Cairo and Egypt (London, 1899-1900).

mous amount of ammunition as compared to the CAIRO, kā'ro. A city, port of entry, and the greater number of caissons now required. In

weapons of the last century, which accounts for county-seat of Alexander County, Ill., at the the United States service, which may be taken as junction of the Mississippi and Ohio rivers, 125

an illustration, the field battery of four guns has miles (direct) southeast of Saint Louis, on the twelve caissons, each having one chest carrying 70 Illinois Central, Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago rounds of ammunition, a spare pole, and such tools and Saint Louis, and other railroads (Map: Illi- as may be necessary in case of accident. Each nois, C.6). The Ohio River is here crossed by a

caisson is regarded as a two-wheeled vehicle havrailroad bridge 2 miles long, and 58 feet above ing a limber interchangeable with that of the gun, high water, which cost $2,500,000. Cairo has a

and is arranged to be coupled up in trains when public library (A. B. Safford Memorial), a Gov- using traction engines or when moving empty to ernment custom-house, and a United States the rear.

The tops of the caisson and limber marine hospital. It has considerable manufac- chests are provided with hand rails, grip, and tures, chiefly products of lumber, and has an ex

cushion straps so as to be used as seats by the tensive river trade, being an important market

On the under side of the chest are for lumber and the agricultural products of the carriers for three oil cans. The weight behind Mississippi valley. Settled about 1837, Cairo the team with caisson fully loaded and limbered was incorporated some 30 years later. It was

up is about 4050 pounds. See ARTILLERY; FIELD expected to become a great commercial centre, ARTILLERY ; LIMBER. and is the place described by Dickens in Martin

CAISSON. Chuzzlewit as "Eden"; but, until it was protected

In engineering, a large waterby levees, begun in 1857, it suffered from frequent tight box of timber or metal with sides nearly inundations, the most disastrous of which oc

or quite vertical, in which work may be done curred in 1858. During the Civil War large below water level

, as in constructing the founquantities of military supplies were stored here dations of bridge piers, or the long columns by the Federal Government. Cairo is governed in modern tall office buildings. The term may be under a general act of the State Legislature, applied also to a water-tight box employed to passed 1872, with slight amendments since that raise sunken vessels, to designate a boat gate for time. The mayor, who is elected biennially, and

a dry dock, or a floating dry dock itself. Caissons the city council, chosen by wards, select the city may be divided into open caissons and pneumatic

caissons. marshal, tax collector, corporation counsel, health

An open caisson is simply a waterofficers, policemen, etc. other officers are elected. tight box open at the top, in which the masonry Pop., 1900, 12,566 ; 1903 (est.), 13,238.

foundation for a bridge pier is to be built. It is

constructed with sides up to twenty or more feet CAIROLI, kiord-lê, BENEDETTO (1825-89). high. It is built either ashore and launched, or An Italian statesman, born at Gropello, near afloat, and then towed to the site of the permanent Pavia. He was educated at the University of work. After being anchored in position the buildPavia, which he left in 1848 to volunteer in the ing of the masonry pier inside the caisson prowar against Austria, and from 1851 to 1859 ceeds, and the caisson sinks until the top is lived in exile in Piedmont, when he again took nearly level with the surface of the water, when up arms for Italian liberty, serving at the siege another section is added and the construction of Palermo, in the Trentino, and at Montero- proceeds. Finally, it will rest either on the tondo and Mutino. Though he favored a repub- river-bed or upon properly placed piles. After lic, he was induced to accept the constitutional the masonry is brought to the desired height, the monarchy. After the accession of Humbert I. timbers constituting the caisson are then removed. Cairoli became president of the Chamber, and The pneumatic caisson, on the other hand, is open was appointed Premier in March, 1878. This was at the bottom. The upward extension of the the beginning of the period of personal and fac- structure is an open caisson within which the tional politics which have since been the bane of masonry is built on top, so that the weight causes

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the shoe-i.e., the lower edge of the vertical sides calcareous, valuable on account of its toughness -to sink into the natural soil. In the working and durability for pavements, cisterns, and chamber, the floor of which is the bottom of the various other purposes. Flagstones of this maexcavation, the roof the top of the caisson, and terial are largely exported. They belong to the the walls the sides of caisson, the material is ex- Devonian Old Red Sandstone, and contain abuncavated. From the working chamber, extending dant remains of fossil fishes. See DEVONIAN, upward through the caisson and the masonry pier, and OLD RED SANDSTONE. is an air shaft, which affords the means of exit or

CA IUS. The name assumed by Kent in entrance, while between the two is the air luck Shakespeare's King Lear. whose function is to retain the air pressure in the working chamber. See FOUNDATIONS. See DOCKS CAIUS, DOCTOR. A French physician in for description of caissons used with dry docks. Shakespeare's Merry Wives of Windsor. He is CAISSON DISEASE. A rare affection in

in love with Anne Page, and elopes with a boy

disguised in her clothes. dueed by remaining for any length of time in a caisson. The disease was first described by Pol CAIUS, kéz, John (1510-73). An English and Watelle, in 1845. The symptoms are buzzing physician, the co-founder of Gonville and Caius and pain in the ears, dizziness, loss of power in College, Cambridge. His real name was Kay the legs, severe pain in the arms, legs, and shoul- or Kaye, which he Latinized into Caius. He was ders, bleeding from the nose and lungs, and born in Norwich, was educated at Gonville Hall, occasionally unconsciousness. According to one Cambridge, and, in medicine, at the University theory of causation, caisson disease is due to of Padua and elsewhere on the Continent, spendpoisoning by carbonic acid. According to another ing much time in search of accurate texts of theory, it is due to congestion of the internal Galen and Hippocrates. On his return he pracorgans with subsequent blood-stasis, resulting in ticed with success at Cambridge, Shrewsbury, and possible blocking of the blood vessels by small Norwich. In 1547 he was elected a fellow of thrombi, followed in turn by a necrotic process. the College of Physicians, of which he was afterAccording to a third theory, the disease due wards nire times elected president. He also beto increased solution by the blood of the com- came physician to Edward VI., Queen Mary, and pressed gases of the air (principally nitrogen and Queen Elizabeth. He acquired much wealth from carbonic acid) and to their rapid liberation dur. the practice of his profession and employed it in ing decompression. The theory of Hill and Mac- the encouragement of science and learning. In leod, now considered correct, is that caisson 1557 he refounded Gonville Hall, thereafter disease, or “ Diver's Palsy," is due to the escape

known as Gonville and Caius College. In 1559 of gas bubbles in the blood vessels and tissue- he was chosen master, and, although he was a fluids during decompression. The varying symp

Roman Catholic, he retained the office under toins of the disease are due to the varying seat of Elizabeth. His books number twenty-seven titles, the air emboli.

including critical, antiquarian, and scientific In the treatment of caisson disease, morphia, works, the most famous of which is A Boke of heat, stimulants, strychnine, and ergot are recom- Counseill Against the Sweat and Sweatyng Sickmended. Returning to compressed air for a time, ness (1552). and then emerging very slowly, has benefited CAIUS COLLEGE. See GONVILLE AND CAIUS many sufferers. Preventive treatment may con- COLLEGE. sist in increasing the time spent in “locking out”

CA IUS GRAC'CHUS. to one minute for every three pounds of pressure, Sheridan Knowles, published in 1815 and pro

A tragedy by J. a sudden transition from compressed air to the pressure of the atmosphere being quite dangerous that year. Macready brought out a remodeled

duced at the Belfast Theatre, on February 13 of Finally, only perfectly sound men should be selected for work in caissons. Consult: Pol and version on November 18, 1823, at Covent Garden. Watelle, Mémoire sur les effets de la compres- CAIVANO, ki-vä'nổ. A city in south Italy, sion de l'air," in Annales d'hygiène publique et de five miles north of Naples, with which it is conmédecine légale (Paris, 1884); Smith, The Phys- nected by a street railway (Map: Italy, J 7). iological, Pathological, and Therapeutic Effects of The chief trade is in the grain, hemp, fruit, wine, Compressed Air (Detroit, Mich., 1886); and and olives that grow in the vicinity. It was a Lloyd, “Effects of Compressed Air,” in T'wen place of considerable strength in the Middle tieth Century Practice, Vol. III. (New York, Ages, and still retains remains of walls and 1895); Journ. of Hygiene, III., No. 4, October, towers. Population (commune), in 1881, 12,000; 1903. See FOUNDATION.

in 1901, 12,264. CAITHNESS, kāth'něs. The northernmost CAIX, kå-ēks', NAPOLEON (1845–). An Ital. county of Scotland. Its area is 686 square miles ian philologist. He was born at Bozzolo, near (Map: Scotland, E 1). The general aspect of Mantua, and was educated in Cremona and Pisa. Caithness is level and bare, it being in great part In 1869 he became professor of ancient languages moorland and destitute of trees, while the sea- at the Lyceum of Parma, and in 1873 professor coast is bold and rocky, with many bays, inlets, of Romanic languages and comparative philology promontories, and caves. The chief crops are at the Institute of Higher Studies, Florence. The cats, barley, turnips, and potatoes. The occupants following are some of his numerous publications: of the small farms divide their time between Saggio sulla storia della lingua e dei dialetti farming and herring, ling, cod, salmon, and lob- d'Italia (1872); Sulla lingua del contrasto ster fishing. Wick, the county town, is the chief (1876); Le origini della lingua poetica italiana seat of the British herring fishery. Population, (1880), which work is generally considered his in 1801, 22,600; in 1851, 38,700; in 1891, 37, best. 177; in 1901, 33,860.

CAJAMARCA, kä'Hå-mär'ká. An interior CAITHNESS FLAGSTONE. A dark department of Peru, in the northwestern part of colored bituminous schist, slightly micaceous and the republic (Map: Peru, B 5). It has an area

66

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of 12,538 square miles, comprising a highly entered the Dominican Order, studied for the mountainous district which belongs to the basin next few years at Naples, Padua, and Ferrara of the river Marañon. Population, in 1896, 442,- (where he held his own in a public disputation 412. The department is noted rather for mineral with Pico della Mirandola), and in 1508 became wealth-principally gold, silver, copper, iron, general of his order. Leo X, made him a carand coal—than for animal or vegetable life. dinal in 1517, and in the following year sent Cajamarca until 1854 formed part of the De- him to Germany to urge the Emperor and the partment of Libertad.

Scandinavian kings to form a league against CAJAMARCA, or CAXAMARCA, kä'hå- the Turks. While on this errand he was commär'kå (Quichua ceassac, casac, frost, ice +

missioned to examine Luther personally, and

send him to Rome if need were. marca, place, town, referring to its severe climate). A city of Peru, capital of the department peared before him at Augsburg, but refused to of the same name, situated on the east slope of retract his teaching on indulgences, and his the Andes, at an elevation of about 9000 feet breach with the Church was only widened by the above sea level; 84 miles from the Pacific coast discussion. In 1523 Cajetan was sent as legate and 310 miles north by west of Lima (Map:

to Hungary; but Clement VII., on his accesPeru, B 5). It enjoys a moderate temperature;

sion, recalled him to Rome, in order to make is laid out with broad streets crossing at right use of his theological knowledge and counsel. angles; and contains several plazas. There are

He was consulted on the divorce of Henry VIII., two fine churches, secondary colleges for both and decided unhesitatingly against it. He made sexes, a prison of modern construction, and the a translation of the Old Testament, with a comruins of the palace of Astopilco, where Atahualpa,

mentary, and wrote a treatise on the authority the last of the Incas, was killed in 1533 by

of the Pope, which was answered by the faculty Pizarro. Cajamarca is one of the oldest cities of the University of Paris. He also wrote comof Peru, and figured prominently at the time of mentaries upon parts of Aristotle's writings, and the Spanish Conquest. Three miles to the east upon the Summa of Aquinas. The latter is are hot sulphur springs known as the Incas' reprinted in the definitive edition of the great baths. The most important manufactures are Aquinas issued under the patronage of Leo steel articles, cotton and woolen goods, and straw XIII. (q.v.) (Rome, 1882). He died in Rome, hats. Population, about 12,000.

August 9, 1534. A collection of his works apCAJ EPUT

peared at Lyons in 1639 (5 vols.) ; his life is (Malay kāyā, tree + putih,

prefixed. Consult, also, Schilbach, De Vita ac white), Melaleuca leucadendron. A tree of the

Scriptis de Vio Cajetani (Berlin, 1881). order Myrtaceæ, from the leaves of which the pungent, aromatic, volatile oil called oil of CAJIGAL, kä'he-gäl', FRANCISCO ANTONIO cajeput is obtained by distillation. The cajeput- (1695-1777). A Spanish colonial governor, born tree occurs from the Malay Peninsula to Aus- in Santander, Spain. He was Governor of San. tralia, and is a tree 30 to 40 feet high and 2 tiago, Cuba, from 1738 to 1747, and in 1742, feet in diameter, with a crooked trunk, papery

during the war between Spain and England, rebark, white wood (whence the name, cajeput), pelled an attack of Admiral Vernon (q.v.). In elliptical, lanceolate, alternate leaves, and ter- 1747 he was appointed Governor-General of Cuba, minal spikes of white flowers. The greater num- which position he held until 1760, establishing ber of the species are natives of Australia, a navy-yard and arsenal at Havana during his where more than a dozen well-marked species term of office. From 1760 to 1761 he was a viceare known, some of them very beautiful shrubs roy of Mexico ad interim, and afterwards, until and frequent ornaments of British hothouses. his death, lived in Spain. Much of the oil of cajeput of commerce is pre- CAKCHIQUEL, käk'chê-kāl'. An important pared from Melaleuca leucadendron, but vola

tribe or nation, of Mayan stock, formerly holdtile oils similar in many respects are distilled ing the central districts of Guatemala, where from the leaves of many other species. A hun- their descendants still reside. The name is that dred pounds of leaves yield slightly less than of a native tree, and their language is a dialect one pound of oil. It is mairtained by some of the Quiche. At the time of their conquest that the true oil of cajeput comes only from by Alvarado, about 1524, they had attained a Melaleuca minor, but that species cannot be dis- high degree of culture, as is evidenced by their tinguished botanically from Melaleuca leucaden. architectural remains, their calendar and hierodron. The oil contains a number of complex glyphic systems, and their native literary proconstitutents, as cajeputol, hydrocarbons, vari: ductions. They had an intense religious veneraous ethers, etc. It is a stimulant, counter-irri- tion for maizc, and there is even reason to suptant, diaphoretic, and antiseptic. In India it pose that they were the first people to reclaim is used extensively as an external application it from its original wild condition. The best for rheumatism. The oil is rather heavy, and compendium of their history and culture is usually is of a greenish tinge. The wood is Brinton's Annals of the Cakchiquels. hard, close-grained, and durable, especially when

CAKES, THE LAND OF. A title applied to placed under ground. The bark is useful for

Scotland, on account of the baps, scones, and packing, etc. In Australia these trees known as tea-trees. Melaleuca axillaris pro

oatmeal cakes which, with porridge, form the duces a thin, spongy bark, that can be used for principal food of the country people. The epiblotting and filter paper.

ihet was prevalent in the Eighteenth Century.

CAKE-URCHIN. See SAND-DOLLAR, and CAJ'ETAN (Lat. Cajetanus) (1469-1534).

SEA-URCHIN. An Italian ecclesiastic, whose real name Jacopo de Vio (in religion Tomaso), the name CAL'ABAR (OLD) RIVER. An estuary. Cajetan being assumed by him from his birth- like bay on the north side of the Bight of Bia. place Gaeta (Cajeta). At the age of 15 he fra, which penetrates British Nigeria just west

are

was

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