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THE NEW

INTERNATIONAL
ENCYCLOPÆDIA

EDITORS

DANIEL COIT GILMAN, LL. D.

PRESIDENT OF JOHNS HOPKINS UNIVERSITY (1876–1901)

AFTERWARDS PRESIDENT OF THE CARNEGIE INSTITUTION OF WASHINGTON

HARRY THURSTON PECK, PH. D. L. H. D.

PROFESSOR IN COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY

FRANK MOORE COLBY, M. A.

LATE PROFESSOR OF ECONOMICS

IN NEW YORK UNIVERSITY

VOLUME IV

NEW YORK

DODD, MEAD AND COMPANY

1909

HARVARD COLLEGE
May 12, 1941

APERABY

Mrs. T. W. Richards

Copyright, 1902, 1904, 1905, 1906, 1907
BY DODD, MEAD AND COMPANY
All rights reserved

PRESSWORK BY THE UNIVERSITY PRESS, Cambridge, U. S. A.
BINDING BY BOSTON BOOKBINDING CO., CAMBRIDGE, U. S. A.

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as in ale, fate. Also see ĕ, below.

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"final, regal, where it is of a neutral or obscure quality.

"all, fall.

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66 eve.

"elate, evade.

"end, pet. The characters ě, ā, and ȧ are used for ä in German, as in Gärtner, Gräfe, Hähnel, to the values of which they are the nearest English vowel sounds. The sound of Swedish ä is also indicated by ě.

"fern, her, and as i in sir. Also for ö, oe, in German, as in Göthe, Goethe, Ortel, Oertel, and for eu and oeu in French, as in Neufchâtel, Crèvecœur; to which it is the nearest English vowel sound.

agency, judgment, where it is of a neutral or obscure quality.

❝ice, quiet.

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quiescent.

"ill, fit. "old, sober.

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senate, chaotic. Also see ĕ, below. glare, care.

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KEY TO PRONUNCIATION.

am, at.

arm, father.

ant, and final a in America, armada, etc. In rapid speech this vowel readily becomes more or less obscured and like the neutral vowel or a short u (ă).

"orb, nor.

"odd, forest, not.

66 atom, carol, where it has a neutral or obscure quality.

"oil, boil, and for eu in German, as in

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Feuerbach.

"food, fool, and as u in rude, rule.

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obey, sobriety.

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"unite.
"cut, but.

full, put, or as oo in foot, book. Also
for i in German, as in München,
Müller, and น in French, as in
Buchez, Budé; to which it is the
nearest English vowel sound.
urn, burn.

house, mouse.

use, mule.

yet, yield. "the Spanish Habana, Cordóba, where it is like a v made with the lips alone, instead of with the teeth and lips. chair, cheese.

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as in the Spanish Jijona, g in the Span

ish gila; where it is a fricative somewhat resembling the sound of h in English hue or y in yet, but stronger. wh in which.

ch in the German ich, Albrecht, and g in the German Arensberg, Mecklenburg; where it is a fricative sound made between the tongue and the hard palate toward which the tongue is raised. It resembles the sound of h in hue, or y in yet; or the sound made by beginning to pronounce a k, but not completing the stoppage of the breath. The character K is also used to indicate the rough aspirates or fricatives of some of the Oriental languages, as of kh in the word Khan. as in sinker, longer.

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go, get.

"the German Landtag, and ch in Feuerbach, buch; where it is a guttural sound made with the back part of the tongue raised toward the soft palate, as in the sound made in clearing the throat.

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sing, long.

"the French bon, Bourbon, and m in the French Etampes; where it is equivalent to a nasalizing of the preceding vowel. This effect is approximately produced by attempting to pronounce 'onion' without touching the tip of the tongue to the roof of the mouth. The corresponding nasal of Portuguese is also indicated by N, as in the case of São Antão.

shine, shut.

"thrust, thin.

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TH "then, this.

zh as z in azure, and s in pleasure.

An apostrophe ['] is sometimes used to denote a glide or neutral connecting vowel, as in ta'b'l (table), kăz'm (chasm).

Otherwise than as noted above, the letters used in the respellings for pronunciation are to receive their ordinary English sounds.

When the pronunciation is sufficiently shown by indicating the accented syllables, this is done without respelling: as in the case of very common English words, and words which are so spelled as to insure their correct pronunciation if they are correctly accented. See the article on PRONUN

CIATION.

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