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Chapter II.


Before there can be an intelligent solution found for the problem of a community, there must be a study made of its needs. In planning such a survey there is a tendency to go into too much detail. Not only is it difficult to assimilate properly such a rast amount of detail as many surveys provide, but the task of doing so disheartens the workers. Most such detailed surveys are carefully tied up in bundles and left to gather dust on closet shelves.

It is doubtful if a house-to-house survey is justified. The questions asked are apt to be personal, if not impertinent. Agitators of trouble are quick to impute ulterior motives to such a survey. The foreign-born people, not yet acquainted with the reasons for the survey, are very apt to misunderstand the purpose. They associate it with the visits of the police in their former lands. Instead of helping, a house-to-house survey is almost sure to hinder. Nor is it necessary.

There are sources of information available in every community that will give the workers all the information necessary, at least in the beginning of the work. In every community of size there are large numbers of people ready at hand to receive instruction and assistance. Only when the helping hand has been extended to all of these will a community find it necessary to search the homes for persons to help.

Surveys of any sort or the tasks of gathering statistics of any kind are without value unless use is made of those facts when secured. Practically all of the information needed by committees can be secured from a few sources. For information relative to individuals, the industries are ready at hand with contacts with probably nine-tenths of the foreign born in a community.

A suggestive survey is given below. Needless to say this must be fitted to each particular community, rejecting such parts as do not well apply. The questionnaires supplementing the survey plan have been designed in order that only pertinent points be presented to the several types of agencies involved. The duplication in some of the questionnaires caused by the existence of several possible sources of information on a given subject may be used for purposes of checking up or averaging estimates; or, on the other hand, the duplication may be obviated by utilizing the most important questionnaires first and striking out those portions in all subsequent ones upon which data have already been secured.



A. Summary of data from United States Census (by wards in larger cities): 1. Population (total) -

5. Illiteracy--2. Color and nativity (native and 6. Inability to speak English_

foreign born-white; Negro) 7. School age and attendance. 3. Foreign nationalities in larger 8. Map of community, showing cities

location of chief immigrant 4. Males of voting age.

settlements. a. Citizenship of foreign-born


B. Summary of data for community secured through questionnaires, etc.

1. Estimated number of foreign born and of foreign parentage by foreign

language groups : Foreign-language Approximate number Approximate num Approximato groups (in order of foreign born and for ber foreign born. number foreign predominance). eign parentage.


Total population of foreign birth or parentage,
Remaining population,


2. Males of military age--native and foreign born: Number registered-native,

-; naturalized,

-; declarants,

- ; aliens,
(Information can be secured from 1917-18 records of draft boards.)

Remarks: 3. Estimated number of immigrants in the community's industrial plants: Names and address of Total number

Approximate num Number of classes factories.


ber immigrantem for immigrants. ployees.

Remarks and suggestions :


A. Public day schools with any considerable number of immigrant children

(foreign born or of foreign parentage) attending:


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and addresses

Number of children of immi


Total number of children at.


granis attending.

Remarks and recommendations:

B. Public-school classes, evening and day, for immigrants above regular school


Xames and addresses of


Number of immi

grant classes.

Average total number

attending per year.

Number hours instruction per year.

Remarks.—Amount of money appropriated for these classes

legislation governing them. Are these schools covering the situation adequately? Is the subject matter taught adapted to the needs and interests of the immigrants? Do these classes

hold their pupils? List of sources for further information, etc. C. Private day schools with any considerable number of immigrant children


Names and addresses of schools.

Total number children at


Number of children of immi

grants attending.

Remarks and recommendations:

D. Private-school classes, evening and day, for immigrants above regular school

age: Names and addresses of Number ofimmigrant Average total number Number hours inschools.


attending per year. struction per year.

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Remarks: Basis of cooperation between factory and school board,

etc. Recommendations:

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Vote.--- List also county and State traveling libraries if these reach immigrants in your community to any extent.

Remarks: Is the number of foreign-language books in keeping with

the foreign-language speaking population ? Recommendations:

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Note.-List county and State institutions in addition to community facilities wherever the former

affect immigrants to any extent. A. Racial churches : Names and addresses of racial churches.

Approximate membership.


B. Racial organizations:

Names and addresses.

Approximate membership.


Remarks and recomincndations: C. Foreign-language newspapers circulating to any extent in your community: Names and addresses.

Approximate circulation.

Remarks: Utility for publicity for various lines of cooperation, etc.

(The Ayer Newspaper Annual will be found helpful in securing

addresses.) Recommendations:

D. ('ommunity centers reaching immigrants :
Names and location.

Approximate total
number reached.

Approximate number of immigrants reiched per year (five by foreign language groups, if possible).

Remarks: State what funds are available for this work; legisla

tion upon which it depends. What basis of cooperation is there

between the schools and community centers, etc.?
E. Legal aid societies:
Names and location.
Total number reached

Approximate number of immi. per year.

grants reached per year.

Remarks: Are there any special information and translation facili

ties furnished for immigrants? etc.

F. Information bureaus reaching immigrants: ames and addresses. Approximate number aided

per year.

Number immigrants reached

per year.

Remarks: The nature and scope of the bureaus; the use of inter

preters; foreign language literature, etc.
G. Housing committees, bureaus, etc.
Names and addresses.

Remarks: Findings of conditions among immigrants, etc.
H. Charity organizations:
Names and addresses.
Total number assisted

Number immigrants assisted per year.

per year.

Remarks: Plan of charity organization in the community. Condi

tions among immigrants, etc.

I. Recreational facilities:

1. Playgrounds:

Names and loca


Approximate total
number reached per

Gymnasium (yes or no).

Approximate number immi-
grant children reached per
year (give by foreign lan.
guage groups if possible).

Remarks: Legislation upon which the work rests, appropriations,

cooperation with schools, etc., scope of the work. Relation to immigrants.

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Remarks: Yature and scope of work actually carried on in the

community. Work with immigrants. Recommendations:

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