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AMERICANIZATION IN THE CONCRETE. An American of Armenian birth who, after several years in America, has met his mother

and his brother at the wharf. This group pictures in striking fashion just what Americanization means. Here in this "Land of Equal Chance," with the friendly help of the nativeborn Americans, that hopeless, hunted look of fear ard care will gradually give way, and in its place will come that confident look of self-reliance, of optimism, of determination, of prosperity, of equality, which radiates from the other. Here is truly Americanization in the concrete.

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MAKING AMERICANS. View of the school of the Ford Motor Co., at which the employees of this company are taught to speak, read, and write the language of America. This company, which numbers among its employees men born in nearly every country of earth, was one of the first to undertake the work of Americanization upon a definite and practical basis.

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AN INDUSTRIAL STUDY HOUR. Splendid interest in their work has been one of the many results of the English and civic classes conducted by the Seng Co., of Chicago. Note

the well-lighted room and convenient blackboards, seats, and benches.

possible, funds should be raised to recompense such persons for their work. Teachers who work upon purely a volunteer and unpaid basis must possess exceptional interest and determination not to lag sooner or later in their efforts.

Even though there are no funds available, it is a shortsighted and unprogressive school board which will not at least permit the use of the school buildings. Any community that cares can do the rest. “Are future Americans not to be taught English and not to be prepared for citizenship because the school tax does not provide for paying the janitor for night work or for turning on the electric

light?”1

RECRUITING THE CLASSES.

It is human nature to be interested in those things in which we have a part. None of us becomes wildly enthusiastic over those things which come to us ready-made and complete. Classes of the foreign born will be more popular and more permanent if the foreign born themselves have an important part in planning them.

Make it a community matter. Let the foreign born recruit the classes through their Liberty Loan groups, or lodges, or benefit associations. Let them have a voice in determining what shall be taught (the waiters and shopkeepers and peddlers want more arithmetic, perhaps, than the man who is intent only on preparing for his second papers); and when the classes are organized, turn them into clubs and keep them in touch with the town.'

Without the support of the leading spirits of the foreign group, progress will be slow. This support can be realized only by the display of a sympathetic, appreciative attitude, by the paying of full credit to the worth of the people, and by the presentment of reasonable aims and ideals which the foreign born can observe actually applied among the native born of his community. Gain the confidence and active support of the editors of newspapers, the heads of unions and fraternal organizations, and the problem of reaching the masses is largely solved.

We condemn the immigrant for not learning to speak English, yet there are more towns and cities that give no opportunities to learn English than there are municipalities that do. There are more towns that have not established classes for foreign men and women than there are boards of education that have. In the principal city of one of the eastern States I have heard prominent citizens declaiming against the large Italian and Polish population for not learning the English tongue. It did not seem to occur to these estimable Americans that the fault was their own. A survey of the school buildings of this city showed that only one was provided with lighting facilities, and in none of them had evening classes ever been provided to enable the Poles and Italians to learn the American tongue.'

1 Esther Everett Lape.

: Dr. Nathan Peyser, in Conference Proceedings. 146580°—20_3

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