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operation with the board of health. In Chicago the Women's Club has cooperated with the board of health in employing a woman physician after school hours. And in Chicago, again, a part of the baby-welfare campaign has been run in the parks in immigrant sections, with outdoor movies. Good foreignspeaking workers or nurses are valuable in any part of the health work.'

In Philadelphia the Octavia Hill Association buys old houses in neglected sections of the city, puts the dwellings in good condition and manages them. This association has not only proven that good management pays, but that it can be used as a direct and powerful factor in Americanization.

The Octavia Hill Association's rent collectors are much more than rent collectors. They are friendly visitors. They take as much interest in the upkeep of the house as does the best tenant. They not only respond to a tenant's desires for improvements, they tactfully stimulate such desires. They take an interest in family problems and help to solve them. The covers of the association's rent books contain the names and addresses of neighboring agencies that may be of assistance—the nearest social settlement, public bathhouse, library, free clinics, playground. If trouble comes, the friendly rent collector is a friend to whom the tenant turns for information and advice, And all the time, as occasion offers, this unusual rent collector gives hints as to American standards of living, of opportunities for rising in the New World.?

Patriotic societies.-Such organizations may well be given the task of holding the community celebrations welcoming into citizenship those who have become citizens during the year either through reaching their majority or through naturalization. They may take charge of the patriotic programs at the community centers and schools.

Semipublic institutions.—The Young Men's Christian Association and the Young Women's Christian Association have been active for a number of years in Americanization work, and the war has encouraged a number of other organizations of similar character to undertake the work. These organizations are usually provided with buildings which are available to the people of all races and creeds. Many of them have organized classes, trained and employed teachers, and have graduated large numbers of the foreign born with a good working knowledge of English. Community committees may well support and extend the work of such organizations. In some cities such organizations do not themselves conduct the classses, but merely form them and secure a teacher from the public schools. As the schools take up this work more and more and are able to secure an adequate supply of properly trained teachers, the responsibility should be placed upon the board of education. In the meantime we should welcome the assistance of such teachers as we are able to secure.

1 Esther Everett Lape.
2 John Ihlder, in Conference Proceedings.

Lodges and clubs. These organizations, like the chambers of commerce and labor unions, can render valuable service in a community program, and they should be utilized to the fullest possible measure.

Visiting nurses. The nurse that goes into the home of the foreign born can, like the domestic science worker and the home teacher, render yeoman service. The nurse possesses the confidence of the foreign-born woman to an unusual degree and is in a position to be of great assistance to community committees. Read address of Mrs. Bessie A. Harris, in Conference Proceedings.

A visiting nurse may sometimes more quickly than anything else give America a start in the village. The experiment was tried once in a small and very desolate foreign-born community quite without American institutions, on the island to which the garbage of New York City is carried by barges and reduced.

The infant mortality of the island was great. The ignorance of the foreigiborn mothers, the poor drainage, badly built houses on filled-in creeks, condensed milk, etc., easily explained it. With the cooperation of the Health Department of the City of New York a nurse was put upon the island. Gradually the mothers began coming to the nurse's office and became interested in the infant scales and bathtubs and the ways of using them. The office became also an emergency dispensary--there was no regular doctor on the island-a gathering place for the children, a social center,

The signs of an American community began to appear; organizations came into being; a " little mothers' league” of the older girls whom the nurse instructed how to help their mothers with the babies; a Boy Scont group; a society of Camp Fire Girls; an Altar Society which, by dint of regular sweeping and dusting and evergreen decoration, made a different place of the musty old church. It is better if the nurse is authorized by the local or State health authorities; but it is a good deal better to have a nurse on private funds and private authority than not to have one at all.' The doctors and layers.--The medical and legal profession can be of great assistance in Americanization in eliminating quackery, imposition, and exploitation. They can assist in the education of the foreign born through talks before the parent-teacher associations, in the community centers, and in the schools. They can serve upon committees on legal and medical aid and in many ways become a potent force for the raising of the standards of life in a community.

The banks.—The banks individually or as a clearing house association should take steps to meet the needs of the foreign born, if we are to encourage among them proper methods of saving their money. If the banks do not remain open at times that meet the needs of these people, a joint office of all the banks might be arranged which could be so opened. Such an office can also be placed in that portion of the city where it is most accessible to those of foreign birth. Some such plans must be worked out if we are to eliminate the "quack” banker who thrives upon the credulity of the foreign born.

1 Esther Everett Lape.

The city officials.Practically every city and county officer comes into contact with the foreign born and affects his opinion of the justice and fairness of American institutions. Such officials have an unusual opportunity to create favorable impressions of this country. Too often the man who speaks English brokenly or who is dressed poorly gets scant attention and less courtesy from public officials, policemen, firemen, street-car conductors, and others in places of authority. Through the heads of these various departments, community committees can bring about an improvement in such situations which will be far-reaching.

The boys and girls. Here is an opportunity for Americanization at its source. Through the children in the schools, through the boys' and girls' organizations, the elimination of insulting nicknames and of racial prejudice, may be carried out. The boys and girls should invite the immigrant children to their parties and exercises exactly as they invite other children. They should help them with their struggle with the new language and not laugh at their mistakes. The children of the foreign born should be encouraged to tell the native born boys and girls about their former country, about its greatness and its heroes.

Other organizations. It is impossible to name all the organizations which stand ready to assist in this great work. It is impossible to suggest ways in which all may serve. It is impossible to designate any work which may be undertaken exclusively by any one organization. Team work must prevail. We must all put aside our pride of organization when America asks us to serve.

Finally.It is our duty to show friendship without paternalism; encourage education without compulsion; extend hospitality unstintingly; provide informiltion on matters which pertain to his (the foreign born's material welfare; protect him from common abuses-shyster lawyers, un-American propagandists, and social leeches; cultivate and maintain proper contact with his organization leaders; make him feel that he is a desirable and invaluable asset to the commonwealth, rather than a liability; afford him opportunities for self-improvement, for an understanding of American history, and a working of the civic machinery."

And the test of our democracy is in our ability to absorb that man and incorporate him into the body of our life as an American. He will learn to play the game, to stand to the challenge that makes Americans; the unfostered selfsufficiency of the man who knows his way and has learned it by fighting for it will yet be his."

1 E. E. Bach, in Conference Proceedings.
? Franklin K. Lane.

2

Chapter VI.

BIBLIOGRAPHY.

For the guidance of those who desire to prepare themselves more fully for the work of Americanization a brief list of available books covering the various phases of the work is given herewith.

Americanism.

Vol. 2, (hapters, ei, cii, exir.

BRYCE, JAMES. The American Commonwealth.

New York [etc.], Macmillan Co.

11:

DE TOCQUEVILLE. Democracy in America. 2 vols. Colonial Press, 1862. FOERSTER, NORMAN, and PIERSON, W. W., editors. American icleals, Boston

[etc.], Houghton Mifflin Co. $1.25. Hill, DAVID J. Americanism: what is it. New York, 1), Appelton & Co., 1916.

$1.25. KELLOR, FRANCES A. Straight America. New York [etc.], Macmillan Co., 1916.

50 cents. LANE, FRANKLIN K. The American spirit. (Addresses in war tịne.) New

York, Frederick A. Stokes ('0., 1918. 75 cents. ROOSEVELT, THEODORE. American ideals and other essays. New York, G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1901. $1.50.

The great adventure. New York, Charles Scribner's Sons, 1918. $1. VAN DYKE, HENRY. The spirit of America. New York (etc.), Macmillan Co., 1910. $1.50.

Background of the ruces. BAGOT, R. Italians of to-day. Chicago, F. G. Browne, 1913. $1.25. BALCH, E. G. Our Slavic fellow citizens. New York. Charities Publication Com

mittee, 1910. $2.50. BARNES, MARY C., and BARNES, LEMUEL C. The new America—a study in immi

gration. New York [etc.], Fleming H. Revell & Co., 1913. 50 cents. BOGARDI'S, EMORY S. Essentials of Americanization. Parts 2 and 3. Los

Angeles, Calif., University of Southern California Press, 1919. CLARK, FRANCIS F. Old homes of new Americans (races of former Austro

Hungarian empire). Boston [etc.] Houghton Mifflin Co., 1913. $1.50. COMMONS, John R. Races and immigrants in America. New York (etc.), Mac

millan Co., 1915. $1.50. GRAHAM, STEPHEN. With the poor immigrants to America. (Slavs.) New

York (etc.), Macmillan Co., 1914. $2.25. Kxox, GEORGE WILLIAM. The spirit of the Orient. New York, Thomas Y. Crowell & Co., 1906. $1.50.

STEINER, EDWARD A. On the trail of the immigrant. New York [etc.], Fleming

H, Revell & Co., 1906. $1.50. RUPPIN, ARTHUR. Tl'e Jews of to-car. New York, Henry Holt & Co., 1913.

$1.75. VAN NORMAX, L. E. Poland, knight among nation:. New York (etc.), Fleming

H, Revell & Co., 1907. $1.50. The following articles published in the Literary Digest will be found to be especially valuable. They have the advantage of being concise and to the point.

Americans of Austrian birth (Sept. 28, 1918).

Columbus Day (Oct. 12, 1918).
Greeks in America (Dec. 7, 1918).

Armenians in the United States (Jan. 4, 1919).

Czecho-Slovak Republic (Jun. 11, 1919).

Swedes in the l'nited States (Jan. 25, 1919).

Jugo-Slavia (Feb. 1, 1919).

Norwegians in the l'nited States (Feb. 8, 1919).

Poland (Feb. 15, 1919).

Danes in the l’niiel States (Feb. 22, 1919).

Lithuania (Mar. 1, 1919).

Poles in the l'nited States (Mar. 8, 1919).

Greece (Mar. 15, 1919).

Saniards in the United States (Mar. 22, 1919).

Armenia (Mar. 29, 1919).

Bohemians in the United States (Apr. 5, 1919).

Roumania at the peace table (Apr. 12, 1919).

Lithuanians in the United States (Apr. 19, 1919).

Syrians in the United States (May 3, 1919).

Ukrainé (May 10, 1919).

Finns in the United States (May 24, 1919).

Lettonia (May 31, 1919).

Jirzo-Slavs in the United States (June 7, 1919).

Esthonia (June 14, 1919).

Letts in the United States (June 21, 1919).

Finland (June 28, 1919).

Community centers.

CLARK, Ida C. Little democracy. New York, D. Appleton & Co., 1918. $1.50. JACKSON, HENRY E. A community center--what it is and how to organize it.

Washington, Government Printing Office, 1918. (U. S. Bureau of Education. Bulletin, 1918, No. 11.) 10 (ents,

A community center. New York, [etc.), Niacmillan Co., 1918. $1. Contains reproduction of t'nited States Bureau of Education bulletin, 1918, no. 11,

together with additional material. King, IRVING. Social aspects of education. New York, Macmillan Co. $1.60. MACIVER, ROBERT M. Community. New York (etc.) Macmillan Co., 1917. $3.75. QUICK, HERBERT.

The brown mouse. Indianapolis, Ind., Bobbs-Merrill Co., 1915. $1.25. TERRY, CLARENCE A. Community center activities. Cleveland (Ohio) Founda

tion Survey. Educational Extension. 25 cents. Contains references on various phases of the work.

First step in community center development. New York, Russell Sage Foundation, Publication Dept., 130 East 224 St. WARD, EDWARD J. The social center. New York, D. Appleton & Co., 1913. $1.50.

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