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drove Johnson from his position near the Big Black river into his intrenchments at Jackson, and, after a siege of eight days, compelled him to fly in disorder from the Mississippi Valley. The endurance, valor and general good conduct of the Ninth Corps are admired by all; and its valuable coöperation in achieving the final triumph of the campaign is gratefully acknowledged by the Army of the Tennessee.

Major General Parke will cause the different regiments and batteries of his command to inscribe upon their banners and guidons, Vicksburg' and 'Jackson.""

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This campaign in Mississippi was especially severe in its effects upon the officers and men of the Ninth Corps. The excessive heat, the malaria that settled like a pall of death around. the camps upon the Yazoo river, the scarcity of water and its bad quality, the forced marches and the crowded condition of the transports told fearfully upon the troops. All the accounts of the movement agree in their statements respecting the amount of disease and mortality which accompanied it. The hardships which all were obliged to endure were excessive, Water, which the horses refused to drink, the men were obliged to use in making their coffee. Fevers, congestive chills, diarrhoea, and other diseases attacked the troops. Many sank down upon the road side, and died from sun-stroke and sheer exhaustion. The sickness that prevailed on board the transports upon the return voyage was terrible and almost universal. Nearly every night, as the boats lay up on account of low water and the consequent danger of the navigation, the twinkling light of the lanterns on shore betokened the movements of the burial parties, as they consigned the remains of some unfortunate comrade to the earth.

When the troops reached Cairo, the men were scarcely able to march through the streets. They dropped in the ranks, and even at the market house, where the good citizens had provided an abundant and comfortable meal for the worn-out soldiers, they fell beside the tables, and were carried away to the hospitals. More than half the command were rendered

unfit for duty. There were not able men enough belonging to the batteries to water and groom the horses. In such circumstances, instances of brave, even of heroic endurance were not rare, and the soldiers deserved the commendations which their officers freely bestowed. The diseases which the campaign engendered continued to afflict their subjects long after the close of the operations. Many of the officers and men are suffering to this day from the effects of their unwonted exposure. Some valuable lives were sacrificed. Lieutenant Eli Wentworth, of the 6th New Hampshire, died at Milldale on the Yazoo, on the 18th of August. Assistant Surgeon William H. Paine, of the 20th Michigan, died on board the transport in the Mississippi river, August 5th, exhausted by his severe and trying duties.

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Brigadier General Thomas Welsh, the commander of the first division, contracted disease from which he never recovered. On the return of the Corps, he was so reduced by sickness as to be unable to reach his home in Columbia, Pennsylvania. He was carried to Cincinnati, where he died on the 14th of August. He was a very brave and efficient officer, and by his skill and courage won the high encomiums of his superior officers. He joined the service as Colonel of the 45th Pennsylvania regiment, and went through the campaigns at Port Royal, in Virginia, under General Pope, in Maryland and in Virginia a second time, with great credit, gradually winning his promotion by his gallant and meritorious conduct. Assigned by General Parke to the command of the first division, he added to his already honorable reputation as a soldier, and gave promise of future distinction. Though not wholly in accord with the spirit of the times in respect to the subject of slavery, and not agreeing with the Administration in its policy of Emancipation, he was yet too good a soldier to make his opinions a pretext for any want of zeal in the service. He was always prompt in his obedience and always faithful and vigorous in his discharge of the duties of his position. Honest, straightforward

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and fearless, he made himself felt in the command, and his death was considered a loss to the service which could not easily be supplied. His name is to be added to the list of the departed brave whom the Ninth Corps has contributed to the preservation of the Republic.

CHAPTER III.

JOHN MORGAN'S RAID.

WHEN

HEN General Lee moved from his encampments on the Rappahannock after the battle of Chancellorsville, he had evidently given all the troops in the "Confederacy" to understand that it was a signal for commencing an offensive campaign along the entire line. The government of Jefferson Davis was tired of being kept on the defensive, and the invasion of Pennsylvania was determined upon. In West Virginia and Kentucky, the rebel force felt the impulse and exhibited signs of unusual activity. One raiding party reached as far as Maysville, but was there met by Colonel De Courcy, with four regiments of cavalry, and was broken to pieces and driven off in complete rout.

General Willcox, who was in command in Central Kentucky, had proposed a counter raid into East Tennessee, under Colonel W. P. Sanders, a very brave and skilful cavalry officer. The plan was approved, and the necessary preparations were made. General Willcox was, however, transferred to the command of the district of Indiana, on the 10th of June, in order to quiet some trouble which the disaffected and disloyal people in that quarter were disposed to foment. General Willcox very discreetly and very effectually performed his delicate duty, and was retained in that command. General Hartsuff, succeeding him in Kentucky, completed the preparations for the raid and Colonel Sanders was soon upon the road. The expedition was very successful. Colonel Sanders struck the Virginia and Tennessee Railroad at Loudon, moved up the road, destroying

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portions of it on the way, threatened Knoxville, burnt the important bridge across the Holston.river at Strawberry Plains, captured ten. pieces of artillery, a great number of small arms, and four hundred prisoners, and destroyed a large quantity of the enemy's stores. He returned to our lines on 'the 26th, having gained great credit by his gallant and daring feat. Other movements of troops took place, under Generals Julius White and S. P. Carter, in the direction of Monticello, to distract the attention of the enemy and to support Colonel Sanders's operations.

But the enemy himself was not inclined to accept the situation quietly. He prepared for a raid, whose magnitude was to eclipse all former efforts of that description, and to cause considerable alarm throughout the Department. The plan of the enemy was to break through our lines in Western or Central Kentucky, cross the Ohio, plunder the southern tier of counties of Indiana and Ohio, and either escape into West Virginia, or make a bold march through Pennsylvania, and join General Lee's invading army. It was a design of considerable daring, and, had it been successfully executed, would have caused great trouble to our military authorities East and West. The time was happily chosen. The Ninth Corps was absent. The new levies had hardly become thoroughly accomplished in the duties of the soldier. Colonel Sanders's raid had taken away a considerable portion of our cavalry, that were scarcely fit for arduous service upon their return. General Carter's troops who had been stationed on the Cumberland had been engaged in assisting Colonel Sanders. General Halleck had unwittingly done much to cause a feeling of false security to prevail among the people of the Department South of the Ohio, by repeatedly telegraphing during the month of June, that Kentucky was safe, and that the time was ripe for a movement into East Tennessee. General Burnside might possibly have been disposed to feel, under the influence of such despatches, that his lines were more secure than they really were. Even as late as the 6th of July, the General in Chief stated that

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