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not liave undertaken to interest himself with these letters. To begin with the first. Mr.' the emperor, for their being revealed. Sir, Canning applauds lord Granville Levison I do not blame lord Granville Levison for for not having accepted the mediation of not accepting the mediation unconditional the emperor of Russia, and he states sucly; but the course which he steered does cinctly and intelligibly the points upon which not appear to me to have been the right the question of this acceptance turns. First, one; it was not calculated to turn to the the frank communication of the articles of best advantage, either the disposition of the treaty of Tilsit, secret as well as avowed. the court of Russia, or the opportunities Upon that I have already said so much which might have been created if they did that I will not trouble the house any furnot present themselves, of opening a direct ther. Secondly, a distinct explanation of communication with France. --A second dis- the basis upon which France proposes to patch from lord Granville Levison, (p.1971 treat, and which appeared to his imperial dated on the same day, gives an account of majesty at Tilsit so just and honourable. another conference with gen. Budberg, in [p. 201.]-Sir, it seems to me that a which he conducted himself in a most ami-basis, as preliminary. to negociation, is cable manner; and in the apology which calculated rather to throw difficulties in gen. Budberg is there represented as having the way of a negociation, than to remove offered for the expressions of dissatisfaction any embarrassment which might evencontained in the note which he wrote from tually occur in the course of it. Many Tilsit, be accounted for them on those ob- treaties of peace, in the most complicated vious principles which I have before detailed and perplexed state of Europe, have been to the house. A third dispatch, dated also negociated, and successfully terminated on the same day, transmits to this court a without the previous recognition of a basis ; note (p. 198) delivered to the English am- and even if a basis were necessary, prelimibassador on the subject of the fatal prepa- nary to a negociation, it does not follow rations against Copenhagen, and destroys that a basis is necessary as a preliminary to the momentary illusion which had been the acceptance of a mediation. It was not created in the mind of lord Granville Levi- for Russia to communicate the basis, but son, on what has been termed the reviving for France; and if you had frankly accepted confidence in the court of Russia.—The the offer of mediation on the part of Russia, fourth paper of this series communicated and still thought a basis necessary, as preby the king's command to the house, is a liminary to negociation; and that, added to dispatch signed by Mr. Camping, and dated this necessity, it was further expedient for on the 27th Sept. 1807, (p. 200.] The next such basis to be laid down by the enemy, is a dispatch from the same gentleman, and rather than by yourself; the natural course addressed likewise to my lord Granville would have been to desire the mediator to Levison,dated on the following day. The ask of the contending party to furnish you tone of these two dispatches is perfectly with that basis. A still more simple course dissimilar. The one is written with all of proceeding would have been for you to cordiality, and in all confidence towards lay down to the mediator, the basis upon Russia ; the other is written, as it would which alone you would treat, for the purappear, under feelings of the greatest irri- pose of having such communication made tation towards that power, and expressing to the enemy; but it is inconceivable to me not only doubts of her sincerity, but a be that the communication of a basis from the lief in her hostility towards this country. enemy should be necessary, for the purpose One would imagine, upon a review and of enabling you to accept a mediation.comparison of the two dispatches, that they Mr. Canning proceeds to state, that withcould not have been written by the same out these conditions the acceptance of the person, with all the dispatches of lord Gran-mediation by his majesty, can be nothiog ville Levison, dated the 2d of Sept. before else “ than a complete surrender of his him; and yet it is manifest that they were honour and his interest into the hand of So, not only because those dispatches were the mediator if not of the enemy." [p. 201.) sent off on the same day, but because Mr. A more absurd 'assertion was surely never Canning in the outset of his first letter ac- made. In what way when you accept the knowledges that they were all received by mediation of a party do you confide your the same hand and at the same time. Now, interest or your honour even to him, much sir, I will take the liberty of calling the at- more to the enemy? If indeed you elect an tention of the house to the contents of both umpire, then you do contide both your in



terest, and your honour to that umpire., article of the treaty which recognizes the Even in that case you do not confide them kiog of Naples, as king of Naples only; to the enemy.

But when you accept a and to ask whether it may not be contramediation, you only accept a facility of dicted by a secret article which adds to this communication with the enemy; which title, that of the two Sicilies. There is no from the hostile situation in which you have end of creating difficulties of this nature, long been reciprocally placed, you are not and there could be no end of asking and able to find without a mediator. There answering such questions if the mind was are difficulties to be overcoine, asperities to disposed to raise doubt upon every article be smoothed, punctilios of etiquette to be of the treaty. If there did exist secret arremoved, which prevent either the one ticles of this sort, for the reason before party or the other from making the first given, they could not be disclosed; and the communication: the mediałor brings you bare recognition, without a stipulation to together, and by communicating from each co-operate for the purpose of making that to the other, makes a channel of intercourse, recognition effectual, could be of no avail. and prevents that sort of communication A stipulation of that nature would directly which even if intercourse was begun be affect the interests of England; and you tween two hostile parties, might terminate had already been told general de Budineffectually, merely on account of the berg, that there existed no such article. In temper in which each was disposed to com- the whole of this dispatch however, Mr. municate towards the other. As we pro- Secretary Canning writes as if he had been ceed in this letter Mr. Canning expresses acquainted merely with the conciliatory doubts as to the sincerity of general Bud-conversation which had taken place between berg, in the assurances he had given to lord general Budberg and the English ambassaGranville Levison ; assurances conveyed in dor ; and as if he had no knowledge of the terms such as could leave no doubt in the angry note respecting the affair of Denmark. mind of any person (who did not think that He proceeds to direct lord Granville Levigeneral Budberg was one of the basest of son to abstain from all reproach, even when mankind,) that he was speaking the truth, confessing the suspicion of engagements when he took upon him to assert that there which the king cannot but disapprove. was no stipulation in the treaty of Tilsit, for Then in the true principles of the new the exclusion of the commerce of Great moralily, in the conclusion of his letter, he Britain from the ports of Russia. Mr. Can- hints that it would be better for the Empe

" it will immediately have occur- ror of Russia to break all the engagements red to your excellency, a distinction might which he has entered into with France, and probably have been taken in general Bud to return to the alliance of Great Britain, berg's inind, between a stipulation for the and a co-operation with her in the further immediate and eventual execution of a pur- prosecution of the war. This is no less pose; and the agreement to resort to it than calling upon Russia to violate the eventually under circumstances which may most sacred ties, calling upon her to do not yet lave occurred, and that supposing that which would render it impolitic and the former only to be the sense of Mr. de inespedient to enter into any alliance with Budberg's 'assurance, that assurance might her yourself; because if she could be induce be literally true, without in fact conveying ed to break one treaty, there is no treaty any thing essentially satisfactory." [p. 201.] which she could make which she might not Such a distinction would never have occur- on the same principles be called upon by my mind. If general de Budberg other powers to break. From all obligation was a man worthy to be conversed with at she must thenceforward proclaim herself to all, I should have thought it unworthy in be absolved, whenever her interest should me to have harboured such suspicions with call for such absolution ; and she is urged regard to him; and I think that the mind to this peasare at a time when if she had which could entertain them must be of a been infamous enough to take the advice, construction, not the most simple, or free from the position of the French arınies, she from a disposition to give a colour to things must have been involved in total and irredifferent from that which they ought really mediable ruin.--The dispatch, No. V. to bear. The letter goes on to express [p. 203.] is dated on the following day, the suspicions upon other parts of the treaty of 28th of Sept. and the secretary of state inTilsit, and to desire lord Granville Levisou forms lord Granville Levison that he into call for explanations upon that public closes hin a copy of the Declaration of the

ning says,


king on the subject of the attack upon through the means of Denmark, and is a Denmark. Having written on the pre- part of that danger with which G. Britain ceeding day with all the documents before is threatened; he calls upon the emperor · him, with a knowledge of wbich he now of Russia (under such circumstances) to mewrites, desiring the ambassador to abstain diate between Denmark and G. Britain, to frori all reproach towards the court of mediate between G. Britain and the power Russia, he now tells him, " that the offer in whose cause Russia, by her public deof mediation under all the circumstances claration, delivered to lord Granville Lewhich belong to it, was calculated to ex- vison, declares herself to be greatly intecite any other feeling rather than that of rested, against whom Russia declares that confidence in the Emperor's good will; and Great Britain has acted with the grossest that every account received in England, of violence and injustice; whose cause Russia the temperin which that proposal was made, declares that she is determined to espouse ; and of the light in which it was put by the between England and that power he calls enemy, justified the belief, that it was in upon Russia to mediate, having before detended by Russia rather as preparatory to clared that impartiality was the necessary hostility, consequent on his majesty's refu- character of a mediator, having declared sal, than as likely to lead to a pacific result that in the mind of a mediator, not only there through his acceplance.” (p. 204.) Is it must be no hostility lurking towards either possible that the same man can be so con- tion is proposed, but that the absence of

of the parties on whose behalf the mediatradictory to himself ? He goes on to state all such hostility must be made manifest that he tisinks there is evidence not only of by the complete exposition and promulthe designs of Buonaparte towards Denmark, but of the “comivance, if not of the parti

: gation of all the acts done, all the engagecipation, of Russia in those designs:" " and between the mediating power and the

ments entered into both public and private that Russia forned a large part of the other Belligerents! Sir, I defy the right danger, whieh the measures taken against hon. gent. to reconcile these inconsistenDenmark by the king of England were

cies in his own conduct; and I think such calculated to repel.”. Why, sir, if this inconsistency of conduct shews that the · were the feeling of the king's minister,

person to whom it is justly attributable is was it not his duty to have told lord Gran

not fitted for the high and important situville Levison directly to break off all com- ation which he holds under his majesty's munication with the court of Petersburgh? government. The rest of the corresponRussia was not only partial to France, but dence from lord Granville Levison, gives was conniving in measures calculated for

an account of the removal of gen. Budthe destruction of England ; or according. berg from his office of foreign minister; to the emphatical words of lord Granville the appointment, ad interim, of count SolLevison in his note to general Budberg, tikott: and the further appointment of dated the 2d of Sept. she formed a large count Romanzow to the same office, I shall part of the danger “ which in the view of not dwell upon that part of the corresponEngland, threatened not only the welfare dence, because it relates principally to of his people, but the existence of his the subject of Dennark, which I now, wish crown." (p. 199.) Was it possible that he to leave wholly out of my view. I will could advise his majesty to accept (with only observe, that upon the appointment whatever conditions annexed), the medi- of each of those ministers, lord Granville ation of a power so circuinstanced ? But Levison still requested a communication of we see that the foreign secretary does not the secret articles of Tilsit ; that count Solabsolutely disown the possibility of the 'tikoff said, that he would take the empeacceptance of the Russian mediation. He ror's orders respecting the communication still hesitates. This is extraordinary. But of those articles, that having taken those what must surprise us still more, is, that orders, he told lord Granville Levison hesitating upon the acceptance of the me that the emperor had refused them, adding diation of Russia, as between France and these remarkable words; " that the empeEngland, declaring that mediation to be

ror did not refuse them on account of their offered in a manner evincing an hostile, containing any stipulations prejudicial to rather than an amicable mind, in the court England, but having once determined that of St. Petersburgh, and affirming that Rus they should not be made public, he saw sia is conniving at, if not instigating the hostility of France towards this country nation.” [p. 207.] The subject of the

no reason for receding from his determiCommercial Treaty was again touched | devised. At the same time, adding that upon, and again put aside. The same de- although the mediation of Russia was demand was renewed by lord Granville Le- clined for the reasons stated, a direct comvison to count Romanzow, and again re- munication with France would be acceptfused. It is only necessary to observe ed, if offered on the part of that power; that count Romanzow made use of terms and even avowing frankly to Russia, not expressive of the emperor's friendship only that such was the disposition of the towards his Britannic majesty; and of his English government, but that if England anxious desire for the re-establishment of felt that her overtures would be received peace. The last of these communications in a manner becoming her honour and is dated the 19th of Sept. [p. 209.). Buť dignity, and upon the footing of equality, although the mediation had not advanced she would not be indisposed to make such during this interval, the discussion respect- overtures. I am of opinion, that if such ing it had not ended. Demands were still overtures had been made at that moment, made with which Russia would not com- it was a period of the war most favourable ply, but her non-compliance did not in- for them, and that they might have led to duce us entirely to break off upon the sub- peace. There was a third course; that of ject of the mediation ; and it was not till suspicion, petulance, and half confidence, the 29th of Oct. more than five weeks after to which the evil genius of England dithe date of the letter I have just men- rected the councils of her ministers. This tioned, giving an account of the confe- was a course which was sure to fail ; a rence between count Romanzow and lord course which must necessarily bring disGranville Levison, that his lordship deliv- credit upon the government of the counered an official Note to the court of St. try. It has failed, it has brought discredit Petersburgh to bring the matter of medi- upon the councils of the king, and what ation to a point. [p. 211.] It does not ap- appears to me to have been a golden oppear that any answer was given to that portunity for entering into a negociation, official note. On the 8th of Nov. the De- has been irretrievably lost. I now pass claration of the emperor of Russia on the on to the series of papers relative to the attack of the English upon Copenhagen mediation of Austria. The first of these was made public; and a Note was deliv- carries us back to the 18th of April ered to lord Granville Levison which putan 1807, when it appears that Austria made end to all communication between G. Bri- an offer of her mediation to all the bellitain and Russia, and placed them in a situa- gerent powers. The offer of Austria and tion of hostility with regard to each other. the answer of England, are both of them [p. 216.]—Sir, I have thus gone through conceived in the most dignified and approthe

papers which have been submitted to priate terms. I do not know that there is

upon the Russian offer of mediation, and any reason to make further observation the investigation furnishes me with this upon the two first papers, excepting so far conclusion, that there were three modes as is necessary to call the attention of the in which the king's servants might have house to one paragraph of the Austrian proceeded with regard to that mediation. note, which is this : “ in considering how The first was to have accepted, it in the very complicated and extensive the preonly way in which it could with propriety sent war is become, the emperor would be accepted; with promptitude, frank- think that he had but very imperfectly ness and confidence. I do not say that expressed his fervent desire for peace, and ministers are censurable for not having a hope of its complete and speedy re-estadone this. The responsibility they would blishment, if he did not at the same time have taken


themselves, was undoubt- state the entire conviction he feels, that it edly great : the issue might have been is only by the united endeavours of the fortunate. No blame, however, attaches powers principally concerned in the war, to those who declined such a decided line and by a negociation in common, which of conduct. The second course which should embrace the whole of their recipromight have been taken, was to have told cal interests, that permanent tranquillity, Russia immediately, that in the circum- and a secure and solid peace, can be atstances of the case, England could not ac- taineds a peace which should secure the cept her mediation : but to have done future political relations of Europe.” And this

, accompanied with all the expressions to the concluding sentence of the paraof tenderness, conciliation, and confidence graph immediately succeeding that which towards Russia, which could have been I have quoted, in which it is said that the

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essential relations of all the parties inte-| there is a coincidence of dates, which at rested should as far as is practicable be least will justify some observation upon combined.” (p. 102.) An official answer the fact. To this note of the 20th of Nov. is returned by Mr. Secretary Canning in a cold and distant Answer (p. 104,] is rea Note dated the 25th of April, and I have turned by the English secretary of state : no fault to find with that official document. but such a one as did not prevent further [p. 102.] It is only to be remarked that intercourse. For on the 1st of Jan. 1808, England acknowledges the intention of another very short Note (p. 105,] is deAustria that her mediation should be ap- livered by the prince de Stahremberg to plied to all the powers concerned in the Mr. Canning, to which I beg to call the war on both sides. And the mediation is serious attention of the house, and even to accepted upon that condition. This other the particular construction of the phrases of mediation was issued on the same day of it. First, Sir, I deem the communicato the courts of France, Petersburgh and tion of the 20th of Nov. to have been a London, but before all the answers could renewal of the offer made on the 18th of be received at Vienna, the events of war April, and not to be an absolutely new had reduced Russia and Prussia to the offer in itself; and therefore that the court terms of the conqueror. I did expect that of Vienna meant England to understand, there would have been some supplemen- that in this renewed proposition, she intary documents between the note dated cluded the whole of her original offer of the 25th of April, and the next note which mediation; and that all the conditions we find from the Prince de Stahremberg, said by her to be necessary for bringing dated on the 20th of November, but I have the negociation to a happy issue, (and been informed that none such exist. · On) particularly that of including all the powthe 20th of Nov. the prince de Stahremberg ers engaged in the war on both sides, was addressed a note to Mr. Secretary Can- referred to, and remained in full force. ning, by the positive order of his court, If I am right in this assumption, there making the most urgent representations could be no ground for doubt as to the upon the importance of obtaining a paci- true interpretation of any equivocal phrase fication between England and France; that might be used by the prince de Stahacknowledging the constant desire ex- remberg : but even without such assumppressed by the court of St. James's for the tion, I think I am warranted in saying re-establishment of peace, and requesting that the very terms of the prince de Stahto know what were the sincere intentions remberg's letter conveyed the same offer. of his Britannic majesty at this time upon Sir, the prince de Stahremberg says, that the same subject. [p. 104.) I beg the he has the orders of his owo court, and house to attend to the date of this com- conforms to the desire of the court of the munication. The last note on the subject | Thuilleries in giving the information with of the Russian mediation was delivered at, which he is then charged, and that he isorSt. Petersburgh on the 29th of Oct.; the dered to propose in consequence of the parenewal of the offer of Austrian mediation cific dispositions evinced by his Britannic was made at London on the 20th of Nov. majesty, in his note of the 23d of NovemNow supposing for a moment that the em- ber, that plenipotentiaries shall be immeperor of the French was desirous of ob- diately sent to Paris, to treat for the retaining peace, through any channel by establishment of peace. Now, sir, I beg which he could eftect his object; finding to quote the French expression, that he had failed at St. Petersburgh, bý toutes les puissances actuellement en guerre the date it will appear that he renewed avec l'Angleterre.” (p. 105.] The transhis offer through the means of the court of lation given to this phrase is, “ for the esVienna, at the very first moment at which tablishment of peace between all the by possibility it could be renewed. There powers at present at war with England.” is just time for the news of the total failure This upon the face of it is wrong; it canof the Russian mediation to have arrived not be meant the establishment of peace at Paris, and for a communication to have between all the powers at war with Engbeen made by the count de Metternich land to the exclusion of England, which is (the Austrian ambassador at the court of the strict grammatical import of these the Thuilleries,) to the prince de Stah- words. But having thus made a false remberg in London, between the 29th of translation, Mr. Canning in his answer to Oct. and the 20th of Nov. - Sir, I do not the prince de Stahremberg's note, builds build much upon this, but at the same time upon it a reasoning which leads us to sup.

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