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French revolution cost the United States, substantially, two wars; we could hardly have expected to escape at a less price. America is not a member of the holy alliance; she is not connected with any nation by the form of her government, or by situation, or family compacts. But she is one of the great confederation of Christian states,—one of those powers who, by religion, arts and sciences, compose, what is called the civilized part of the world. In this respect, Eu
such tribes or nations shall agree to desist from all hostilities against the United States of America, their citizens and subjects, upon the ratification of the present treaty being notified to such tribes or nations, and shall so desist accordingly. And his Britannic Majesty engages, on his part, to put an end, immediately after the ratification of the present treaty, to hostilities with all the tribes or nations of Indians with whom he may be at war at the time of such ratification, and forthwith to restore to such tribes or nations, respectively, all the possessions, rights and privileges which they may have enjoyed or been entitled to, in one thousand eight hundred and eleven, previous to such hostilities: Provided always, that such tribes or nations shall agree to desist from all hostilities against his Britannic Majesty, and his subjects, upon the ratification of the present treaty being notified to such tribes or nations, and shall so desist accordingly.
"ART. 10. Whereas the traffic in slaves is irreconcilable with the principles of humanity and justice, and whereas both his Majesty and the United States are desirous of continuing their efforts to promote its entire abolition, it is hereby agreed, that both the contracting parties shall use their best endeavours to accomplish so desirable an object."
The commissioners were duly appointed, under these respective articles; but, as their reports on all the points of boundaries have not yet been accepted by the respective governments, we are obliged to abstain from making any remarks on those topics. In order to complete the course of treaties and conventions with Great Britain, to the treaty of Ghent, we shall mention in this place, that in January 1802, Mr. King concluded, with lord Hawkesbury, at London, a convention, by which the United States agreed to pay 600,000l. to his Britannic Majesty, for the benefit of British creditors under the sixth article of the treaty of '94, on condition of being released from all the obligations of that article. A commission was appointed, under the seventh article of the same instrument, on the subject of American claims for capture, who awarded a large sum, which was paid by Great Britain. 8
rope becomes only a geographical term. America, maintaining a more constant and frequent intercourse with the most powerful members of the European continent, than (with one exception) they hold with each other, must, unavoidably, partake, in some degree, of the changes, to which they are subject. Her territory, it is true, is not exposed to invasion or dismemberment; but she has rapidly created a great connexion and influence, moral, political and commercial, which will, at all times, render her liable to become involved in the general quarrels, that disturb the old world.
COMMERCIAL CONVENTION OF 1815 WITH G. BRITAIN.
Pitt first proposed a reciprocity of duties-Introduced a bill into Parliament in 1783 for that purpose-Failed-Eden's remarks—1790, date of navigation laws of this country-System of protection still continued, though application altered-Adams, Clay and Gallatin negotiate a convention at London with Robinson, Adams and Goulbourn―Points of laws of nations not touched-Convention strictly commercial-East but not West India trade regulated—Remarks on specie-Perfect equality of importation duties and tonnage ratesColonial possessions give England great advantages--Theory of convention unequal-Still favourable in practice to U. States-No trade with Indians allowed-Nor between respective territories on this continent-Consuls-Adams minister to England-Bagot to this country.
THE Treaty of Peace of Ghent was immediately succeeded by a commercial convention, concluded at London in the following July, a document of uncommon importance and interest, being the first successful endeavour, on the part of the U. States, to abolish, by the grave process of a treaty, all discriminating duties, charges and tonnage rates. The experiment was made under the most formidable circumstances, that could be assembled,--the trade of the country being thrown, at once, into competition with that of the wealthiest, as well as greatest commercial nation of the old world, encouraged and reinforced by the contributions and resources of colonies and possessions in every sea and on every continent. These surprising advantages awakened apprehensions in the breasts of some of our ministers for the result of the operation. And at the time of the negotiation, one, who has been much employed of late years in discus
sions with Great Britain, expressed to his own government a decided and deliberate opinion against the plan; a judgment, that, in regard to the first action of the convention of 1815, was undoubtedly well founded.
William Pitt, Chancellor of the English Exchequer, is entitled to the applause of having first proposed an abrogation of duties between the United States and Great Britain, probably urged to it, rather, by the original habits of trade,a desire to continue the ancient commercial system of his country, than by a partiality for the principle, embraced in the arrangement. It is likely, also, that great minister entertained the idea, then prevalent in England, that the mother country could readily attract back to its ports the whole American commerce, in the manner it was carried on before the revolution. And as the commissioners, in concluding the treaty of peace of 1783, had not succeeded in making provision for the regulation of trade and navigation, the proposition should rather be considered a measure, merely necessary to restore and confirm the former commercial intercourse, undoubtedly important to Great Britain, as the American colonial market was one of the best, the world offered. Few statesmen have possessed a more capacious, profound intellect than William Pitt, though not altogether adapted to the times, in which he governed England, from an absence of that energy and decision, with which his illustrious father was so amply endowed; but we have no idea, that at the commencement of his long political and eventful life, he had deliberated fully and maturely upon this great commercial subject, a conception of modern times, proceeding directly from the freedom of enquiry, now indulged in regard to all important political concerns, and as immediate and distinct a deviation from the commercial system upon which, in the opinion of every Englishman, then rested the prosperity of his country. For the first time Chancellor (in the Shelburne administration) when only twenty-three years of age, Mr. Pitt introduced, in March 1783, into the House of Commons a bill to regulate the commercial intercourse with this country, in which will be found this remarkable language:
"And whereas it is highly expedient, that the intercourse between Great Britain and the said United States should be established on the most enlarged principles of reciprocal benefit to both countries, but, from the distance between Great Britain and America, it must be a considerable time, before any convention or treaty, for establishing and regulating the trade and intercourse between Great Britain and the said United States of America upon a permanent foundation can be concluded.
"Now, for the purpose of making a temporary regulation of the commerce and intercourse between Great Britain and the said United States of America, and in order to evince a disposition of Great Britain to be on terms of the most perfect amity with the said United States of America, and in confidence of a like friendly disposition on the part of the said United States towards Great Britain, be it further enacted, that from and after the
the ships and vessels of the subjects and citizens of the said United States of America, with the merchandises and goods on board the same, shall be admitted into all the ports of Great Britain in the same manner, as the ships and vessels of the subjects of other independent sovereign states, but the merchandises and goods on board such ships or vessels of the subjects or citizens of the said United States, being of the growth, produce or manufacture of the said United States, shall be liable to the same duties and charges only as the same merchandises and goods would be subject to, if they were the property of British subjects and imported in British built ships, or vessels navigated by British natural born subjects."
"And be it further enacted, that during the time aforesaid, the ships and vessels of the subjects and citizens of the said United States shall be admitted into the ports of his Majesty's islands, colonies or plantations in America with any merchandises or goods of the growth, produce or manufacture of the territories of the aforesaid United States, with liberty to export from his said Majesty's islands, colonies or plantations in America to the said territories of the said United States any merchandises or goods whatsoever, and such merchandises and goods, which shall be so imported into, or exported from the said British islands, colonies or plantations in America, shall be liable to the same duties and charges only, as the same merchandises and goods would be subject to, if they were the property of British natural born subjects, and imported or exported in British built ships or vessels, navigated by British seamen.