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“ of the attractive power of the whole mass, the
particle will not be attracted equally on all sides. “ « And much harder is it to suppose all the parti“cles in an infinite space should be so accurately
poised one among another, as to stand still in a
perfect equilibrium. For I reckon this as hard “ as to make not one needle only, but an infinite “ number of them (so many as there are particles “ in an infinite space) stand accurately poised upon “ their points. Yet I grant it possible, at least " by a divine power; and if they were once to be
placed, I agree with you that they would con“ tinue in that posture, without motion for ever, “ unless put into new motion by the same power. • When therefore I said, that matter evenly spread “ through all space, would convene by its gravity " into one or more great masses, I understand it - of inatter not resting in an accurate poise.”
Let not it be thought irreverence to this great name, if I observe, that by matter evenly spread through infinite space, he now finds it necessary to mean matter not evenly spread. Matter not evenly spread will indeed convene, but it will convene as soon as it exists. And, in my opinion, this puzzling question about matter is only how that could be that never could have been, or what a man thinks on when he thinks of nothing.
Turn matter on all sides, make it eternal, or of late production, finite or infinite, there can be no regular system produced but by a voluntary and meaning agent. This the great Newton always asserted, and this he asserts in the third letter; but proves in another manner, in a manner perhaps more happy and conclusive.
“ The hypothesis of deriving the frame of the “ world by mechanical principles from matter
evenly spread through the heavens being incon“sistent with my system, I had considered it
very “ little before your letter put me upon it, and “ therefore trouble you with a line or two more “ about it, if this comes not too late for your use.
“ In my former I represented that the diurnal ro“tations of the planets could not be derived from “gravity, but required a divinearm to impress them. “ And though gravity might give the planets a mo“ tion of descent towards the sun, either directly, “ or with some little obliquity, yet the transverse “ motions by which they revolve in their several “orbs, required the divine arm to impress them “ according to the tangents of their orbs. I would “now add, that the hypothesis of matter's being “ at first evenly spread through the heavens, is, in
my opinion, inconsistent with the hypothesis of “ innate gravity, without a supernatural power to “ reconcile them, and therefore it infers a Deity. “ For if there be innate gravity it is impossible now “ for the matter of the earth, and all the planets “ and stars, to fly up from them, and become
evenly spread throughout all the heavens, with“out a supernatural power; and certainly that 66 which can never be hereafter without a superna“ tural power, could never be heretofore without “ the same power.”
R E VI E W
* JOURNAL OF EIGHT DAYS JOURNEY,
from PORTSMOUTH to KINGSTON UPON THAMES, • through SOUTHAMPTON, Wiltshire, &c. with Mis• cellaneous Thoughts, moral and religious ; in Sixty
four Letters: addressed to Two Ladies of the Partie. "To which is added, An Essay on Tea, considered as
pernicious to Health, obstructing Industry, and impoverishing the Nation : with an Account of its Growth, and great Consumption in these Kingdoms; with several Political Reflections; and Thoughts on Publick • Love: in Thirty-two Letters to Two Ladies. By • Mr. H*****.'
[From the Literary Magazine, Vol. II. No xiii. 1757.]
UR readers may perhaps remember, that we
gave them a short account of this book*, with a letter extracted from it, in November 1756. The author then sent us an injunction to forbear his work till a second edition should appear: this prohibition was rather too magisterial; for an author * The short account is in these words.
" This book is gecerally known to be the work of Mr. Hanway, a man who has formerly travelled to a greater distance, and whose travels have been for several years in the hands of the publick. The author has not printed it for sale, but distributes it among his acquaint
It may be wondered how a large quarto should arise from a ramble of eight days. The account of what he has seen fills but a small part. We are told much that might have been as well told without the journey. Digression starts from dligression, and one subject follows another with or without connexion. It is said that those letters were not written to be printed ; they were printed, perhaps, only because they had been written. Of such a book it imports little which part is first read, or first examined. For the entertainment of the present month, we have selected letters from a long and vehement invective against tea. Perhaps we may hereafter exhibit some of his descriptions, for we are far from thinking the relation less curious or useful, for being confined to our own country."
is no longer the sole master of a book which he has given to the publick; yet he has been punctually obeyed; we had no desire to offend him, and if his character may be estimated by his book, he is a man whose failings may well be pardoned for his virtues.
The second edition is now sent into the world, corrected and enlarged, and yielded up by the author to the attacks of criticism. But he shall find in us no malignity of censure. We wish indeed, that among other corrections he had submitted his pages to the inspection of a grammarian, that the elegancies of one line might not have been disgraced by the improprieties of another; but with us to mean well is a degree of merit which overbalances much greater errors than impurity of style.
We have already given in our collections one of the letters, in which Mr. Hanway endeavours to show, that the consumption of Tea is injurious to the interest of our country. We shall now endeavour to follow him regularly through all his observations on this modern luxury; but it can scarcely be candid, not to make a previous declaration, that he is to expect little justice from the author of this extract, a hardened and shameless Tea-drinker, who has for twenty years diluted his meals with only the infusion of this fascinating plant, whose kettle has scarcely time to cool, who with Tea amuses the evening, with Tea solaces the mid. night, and with Tea welcomes the morning.
He begins by refuting a popular notion, that Bohea and Green Tea are leaves of the same shrub, gathered at different times of the year. He is of opinion, that they are produced by different shrubs.
The leaves of Tea are gathered in dry weather ; then dried and curled over the fire in copper pans. The Chinese use little Green Tea, imagining that it hinders digestion and excites fevers. How it should have either effect is not easily discovered ; and if we consider the innumerable prejudices which prevail concerning our own plants, we shall very little regard these opinions of the Chinese vulgar, which experience does not confirm.
When the Chinese drink Tea, they infuse it slightly, and extract only the more volatile parts; but though this seems to require great quantities at a time, yet the author believes, perhaps only because he has an inclination to believe it, that the English and Dutch use more than all the inhabitants of that extensive empire. The Chinese drink it sometimes with acids, seldom with sugar; and this practice our author, who has no intention to find any thing right at home, recommends to his countrymen.
The history of the rise and progress of Tea-drinking is truly curious. Tea was first imported from Holland by the earls of Arlington and Ossory, in 1666; from their ladies the women of quality learned its use. Its price was then three pounds a pound, and continued the same to 1707. In 1715, we began to use Green Tea, and the practice of drinking it descended to the lower class of the people. In 1720, the French began to send it hither by a clandestine commerce. From 1717 to 1726, we imported annually seven hundred thou, sand pounds. From 1732 to 1742, a million and two hundred thousand pounds were every year