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5.446

The movement by counties during the present century has been as follows : Counties. 1800. 1810. 1820. 1630.

1840.
1850.
1860.

1865, Kristol.... 3,801 5.072 5,637

6,476 8,514 8,907 8,469 Kent..

8,487 9,834 10,298 12,788 13,083 15,068 17,303 15,319 Newport

14,845 16,294 15,771 16,535 16,874 20,007 21,896 20,687 Providence

25,854 30,569 35,736 47,020 58,273 87,626 107,799 122,052 Wasbington ... 10,135 14,362 15.097 15,421 14,324 16,430 18,715 18,468

The progress of the cities of Providence and Newport and the six towns hefore selected has been as follows: (ities, &c.

1800. 1810. 1820. 1830. 1940. 1850. 1800. 1865. Providence.

7.614 10,071 11,767 16,836 23,172 41,513 50,666 54,5915 Newport..

6,739 7,907 7,319 8,010 8,333 9,563 10,508 12,688 Bristol. 1,678 2,693

3,197 3,034 8,490 4,616 5,271 4,649 Warren

1,473 1,775 1,806 1,800 2,437 3,103 2,636 2,792 Cranston

1,644 2,101 2,274 2,652 2,901 4,311 7,500 9.177 Carnberland

2,056

2,210 2,653 3,075 5,225 6,661 8,339 8,216 Vorth Providence. 1,067 1,758 2,420 3,503 4,207 7,680 11,818 14,553 Pawtucket

5,000 Total ...... 22,271 28,575 31,436 39,510 49,765 77,447 956,738 111,670

The rate of increase from census to census of the whole State and the two chief places, Providence and Newport, is shown in the following series of reductions : Cities

Cities Whole Provi. New

Whole Provi NewState. dence. port.

State. dence,

port. 1700-1800. 0.4 19 3 0.3 i 1830-40........

12 0 37.6 4.0 1810-10.. 11.4 32.3 17.3 1840-59..

35.6 79.1 14.8 1910-2). 7.8 16.8 dec. 7.4) 1850-60..

18.8 22.0 9.9 1 20-30.. 17.0 43.1

9.4 1860-65 (5 years)... 5.9 7.8 20.7 The increase in the cities from 1880 to 1865—in Providence 3,929, and in Newport 2,180, or together 6,109. The net increase in the towns above designated (not including Pawtucket) was 3,823. The total increase of the State was 10,345. Hence we find that nearly the whole increase has taken place within a very limited area. The agricultural parts of the State increase very slowly, and frequently retrograde. Washington County in 1790 had 18,075, and in 1865 18,468 inhabitants.

Among the facts deduced from the tabular statements accompanying the report the following are interesting.

There were 28,666 dwelling houses in the State 39,208 families, give ing 1.4 families and 6.45 persons to each dwelling, and 4.72 persons to each family:

In Providence there were 1.68 families and 8.06 persons to each house. There were 926 empty dwelling houses, of which 120 were in Newport, the census baving been taken June 1, before the arrival of Summer visitors. Of the 28,666 dwelling houses in the State, 27,959 were constructed of wood, and only 432 of brick and 275 of stone. Even 1u Providence only 3.64 per cent. were of brick or stone.

More than one-half the colored population was found in Providence and Newport. The total number in the State was 4,087, being 135 more than in 1860, and forming 2.21 per cent. of the total population.

In regard to sex, there were in the State 8,439 more females than males. The proportion of the sexes were as follows:

Wbite population
Colored
White and colored

47:80 males, and 52:20 females in each 100. 43:87

56:13 47:72

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52:28

* Belonged to Massachusetts up to 1862.

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Generally in New England there is, for obvious reasons, a large excess of females in the population, while in the newer States the opposite is

In the whole country, in 1860, there was an excess of 730,000 males in a population of 31,000,000.

With regard to the nativity of the population the following facts are deduced. Of the 184,965 inhabitants of the State, 75,055 were born in the towns in wbich they resided, and 37,152 bad migrated from the towns in which they were born to other towns in the State; the number of inhabitants born in the State and still living in it baving been 112,207. Inhabitants born in other of the United States numbered 33,055, and those born in foreign countries 39,703. Every town in the State is represented in Providence, and nearly so in Newport. Natives of Newport are living in every other town except Glocester. There seems, however, to be no special law governing migration within the State, except the tendency of the population of the smaller towns and farming districts to cities and manufacturing towns.

Every State in the Union, except Oregon, was represented in the population of 1865. The following compares the American born within Rhode Island in 1860 and 1865 :

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The large increase of natives of Nassachusetts in 1865 was partly owing to the annexation of Pawtucket and East Providence in 1862.

The foreign population of 1865 represented thirty different countries, and numbered 39,703 persons, making 21.46 per cent of the total popuJation. The proportion in 1850 was 15.66, and in 1860 21.41 per cent. The following shows the number of foreigners in the State in 1850, 1860 and 1865 :

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Total..

23,111

37,894

39, 703

In the city of Providence the number of foreigners has increased but little for the last fifteen years, while the per centage bas decreased. The Providence enumerations show the following: Total For- p. cent.

Total For. p. cent. Census. populat'n. eign. Foreigp. Census. populat'n. eigp, Foreig. 1845 (city)..

31,747 5,965 18.79 | 1860 (United States) 50,666 12,570 24.80 1950 (United States) 41,513 10 275 24.75 | 1865 (State)

54,595 13,432 24.54 1555 (city)..... 47,7-5 13,282 27.69 Increase in twenty years...

22,848 7,437 32.53

The Irish population comprised, in 1850, 68.99; in 1860, 67.61, and in 1965, 68.08 per cent. of ibe foreign born population of the city.

Taking the whole State together, we find that of the 145,262 classed as American born, 27,946 were the offspring of foreign parents. There is

also included among the native born 3,558 persons of mixed parentage, of which 1,759 had foreign-born mothers and 1,799 foreign-born fathers.

In every 100 persons there are 10.20 under 5 years of age; 10.91 between 5 and 10 years; 10.07 between 10 and 15; 10.06 between 15 and 20; 18.10 between 20 and 30; 14.36 between 30 and 40; 11.20 beiween 40 and 50; 7.67 between 50 and 60; 4.68 between 60 and 70; 2.09 between 70 and 80; 0.60 between 80 and 90, and 0.06 90 and over. Only two persons attained the century-Sylvia Whipple 102, and Hannah Gully 100, both living in Smithfield on June 1, 1865.

It will be observed that the number under 5 years of age is remarkably lox. In 1800, the same class was 11.81, the decline being accounted for from the decrease of births op account of the war. But even this bigher number is far below the average of the United States, which, in 1860, was 15.43. In Lower Canada the same class was, in 1852, 18.89 per cent. of the total population.

The report returns a good account of the educational status of the little State. The whole number of children between 5 and 15 years of age was 38,788, of which 33,774 were at school, leaving only 5,014, or 12.9 per cent. who had not attended school during the year. The highest rate of Don-attendance was in the manufacturing towns, where the maturer portion of those of the school age were probably employed in the mills and manufacturing establishments. In these towns, also the foreign population chiefly reside, and among the lower classes of these many children are allowed to grow up in ignorance.

In regard to adult ignorance there were in the State, in 1865, 10,181 persons who could not read or write. Of these 15.24 (10.65 white and 4.59 black) per cent. were native born, and 84.76 (Irish 71.83, British 3.84, German 0.43, and others 8.66) per cent. were foreign born. A glance at these figures shows at once and unmistakably the source of the mass of ignorance unveiled, and indicates the direction in which efforts should be made for its removal.

Of 16,910 foreign male persons, only 1,260, or 13,4 per cent., have been naturalized under the laws; and of the whole number of the foreign born in the State (39,703), only one in 31.5 is the owner of real estate.

The number of (184,965) inhabitants of the State that enlisted in the army or navy, during the late war, was 7,521, or one in every 24.6 inhabitanis. The number of males between 20 and 50 was 37,474, and hence the same enlistments gives one to every 4.9, or 20.1 per cent. This list includes only i he soldiers and sailors of the Stare residing within its limits in 1865. Those who enlistsd and did not return are not included.

The number of different occupations given by the census of 1865 was 348, and the number of persons whose occupations was given was 65,059. The occupations, in which more than 500 are returned, are as follows: blacksmiths 861, carpenters 2,457, clerks 1,927, dressmakers 692, farmers 10,754, (fisherinen 497), grocers 631, jewelers 1,215, laborers 5,440, machinists 2,193, merchants 1,150, mariners 1,070, Casons 767, operatives 13,604, painters and glaziers 708, servants 3,503, shoemakers 513, tailors and tailoresses 828, teachers 856, teamsters 692. The productive force of the State is summed up as follows: Products of agriculture..

$7,590,079 of fisberies ...

422,412 of manufactures

103,106,395

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-making a total of $111,118,886 per annum. This shows an annual production of $601 for each man, woman and child in the State. This does not include the products of the whale and other foreign fisheries or other items, which are not found in the productions as reported in Rhode Island.

The agriculture and manufacturers of the State are also accounted for in the volume, but considering the length of the present article we are obliged to postpone any further notice of them to a future time.

Taking the work as a whole we have found it to be the best systematised census that has yet appeared, and we pronounce it higbly creditable to its compiler, Dr. Snow, the erudite compiler of the well-known censuses of Providence for 1845 and 1855.

RAILROAD EARNINGS FOR MAY.

The gross earnings for the under-specified railroads for the month of
May, 1866 and 1867, and the difference (increase or decrease) between
the two periods are exhibited in the subjoined statement :
Railroads.

1866. 1867. Increase. Decr're. Atlantic and Great Western..

$451,477 $459,370 $7,893 Chicago and Alton

329,851 338,691 8,810 Chicago and Great Eastern.

120,460 89,319

31,011 Chicago and Northwestern

735,082 787,736 52,654 Chicago, Rock Island and Pacific

325,110 251,916

73,194 Cleveland and Toledo..

210,783 180,675

30,103 Erie

1,101,632 1,122,140 20,508 Illinois Central

569,250 477,607

91,643 Marietta and Cincinnati.

95,664 90,526

5,139 Michigan Central

365,196 333,952

31,244 Michigan Southern

426,493 358,601

67,892 Milwaukee and Prarie du Chien..

267,488 119,104

148,883 Milwaukee and St. Paul...

245,598 230,497

15,101 Ohio and Mississippi .

283,130 292,939 Pittsburg. Fort Wayne and Chicago.

682,510 578,292

104,218 Toledo, Wabach and Western.

316,433 329.078 12,615 Western Union

86,913 57,852

29,061 Total in May

. $6,613,070 $6,088,325 S.. $524,745 Total in April....

5,096,2106,030,678 331,488 The gross earnings per mile of road operated for the same month of the years, respectively, are shown in the following table :

-Length in miles Earnings Differ'e Railroads.

1806. 1867. 1806. 1867. Incr. Dec. Atlantic & Great Western.

507 507 8890 $906 $16 $... Chicago and Alton...

280 280 1,178 1,209 31 Chicago and Great Eastern.

224 224 598 400

188 Chicago and Northwestern.

1,032 1,145 712 CSS

244 Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific

410 410 798 015

178 Cleveland and Toledo

173 1:3 1,218 1,044

174 Erie.....

798 775 1,880 1,448 68 Illinois Central.

708 703 804

130 Marietta and Cincinnati.

251 251 881 360

21 Michigan Cen:ral.

285 285 1,231 1,172

109 Michigan Southern

524 524 814

130 Milwaukee & Prairie da Chien.

234 234 1,142 509

683 Milwaukee and St. Paul..

275 275

S15

48 Ohio and Mississippi .

310

893 882 Pittsburg, Ft. Wayne and Chicago..

893

1

468 468 1,458 1,235

223 Toledo, Wabash and Western.

521 521 607 031 24 Western Union......

177 177 491 327

16. Total in May...

7,207 7,297 $917 $834

$83 Total in April.

7,207 7,297 790 820 86

The above table shows that the gross earnings of the railroads specified

have fallen off in relation to the gross earnings in May, 1866, to the extent of $83 per mile operated, which is equal to 9.05 per centum. This presentation of a month's business would be a serious matter not only to those most intimately interested in the several lines, but also to the public generally, were the results shown, either a measure of the business transacted or of the pet proceeds of that business ; but that they are either the one or the other connot be admitted, the decline in the amount being the natural effect of the same causes which have operated in reducing prices in every department of business, and do not therefore necessarily show a falling off in net earnings.

ON THE COLLECTION OF REVENUE.

(Continued from page 451, Vol. 56.) One of the great articles of production of Pennsylvania is wheat; the annual value of her wheat is more than the annual value of all her iron and its manufactures. In Pennsylvania, nature has indicated that wheat and other grain would yield the largest result for the least labor, and that grain should be the chief product, until such time as the general supply had become so great as not to yield so large a return for the labor employed as would come from working her vast deposits of iron.

At the time Pennsylvania was settled, England had already established iron works, because Nature bad indicated iron as one of the natural products of England, by placing there great beds of coal and iron, and but a Comparatively sinall area of arable land.

The farmer of Pennslyvania wants iron, which exists in its crude form under his own farm. England wants wheat. Let us suppose that, under the circumstances as they are in Pennsylvania, the farmer of Pennsylvania can produce a ton of wheat with twenty days' labor and a ton of iron with thirty days' labor, and let us suppose that, under the circumstances as they are in England, the Englishmen can produce a ton of iron with twenty days' labor but it takes him thirty days' to raise a ton of wheat.

The Englishman wants wheat, and the Pennsylvanian wants iron; exchange is free and the barter is made. It is not necessary to express the exchange in money. It is so many days' labor against so many days' labor. "The desires of both are satisfied by an aggregate of forty days' labor, resulting in a ton of wheat and a ton of iron-each where it is wanted. The element of transportation may be omitted, as the same conditions apply to Canada and the United States, which are only divided by an imaginary line.

But now comes in the Government of the United States and claims a portion of the labor of the Pennsylvacian-say six days, and each day's Ialor is measured in Pennsylvania by one dollar. The Government imposes a duty of six dollars on a ton of iron. But as the ton of iron would cost the Pennsylvanian thirty days' labor, or thirty dollars, he will still give twenty days to wheat, six days to the Government, and import his iron. The Englishman will still expend twenty days on iron and exchange it for wheat.

The desire of the Pennsylvania farmer for iron, of the Englishman for

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