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Article, and that no State without its Consent, shall be deprived of its equal Suffrage in the Senate.

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1 All Debts contracted and Engagements entered into, 766.1 before the Adoption of this Constitution shall be as valid against the United States under this Constitution, as under the Confederation.

2 This Constitution, and the Laws of the United States 766.2 which shall be made in Pursuance thereof, and all Treaties made, or which shall be made, under Authority of the United States, shall be the supreme Law of the Land, and the Judges in every State shall be bound thereby, any Thing in the Constitution or Laws of any State to the Contrary notwithstanding.

3 The Senators and Representatives before mentioned, 766.3 and the Members of the several State Legislatures, and all executive and judicial Officers, both of the United States and of the several States, shall be bound by Oath or Affirmation, to support this constitution; but no religious Test shall ever be required as a Qualification to any Office or public Trust under the United States.

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The Ratification of the Conventions of nine States shall be sufficient for the Establishment of this Constitution between the States so ratifying the Same. Done in Convention by the Unanimous Consent of the 768

States present the Seventeenth Day of September in the
Year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and
Eighty seven and of the Independence of the United
States of America the Twelfth. IN WITNESS whereof We
have here unto subscribed our Names,

Go WASHINGTON-
Presidt and deputy from Virginia.

New Hampshire

NICHOLAS GILMAN.

JOHN LANGDON,

Massachusetts

NATHANIEL GORHAM,

RUFUS KING.

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ARTICLES IN ADDITION TO, AND AMENDMENT OF, THE CONSTITUTION OF THE

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, PROPOSED BY CONGRESS, AND RATIFIED BY THE
LEGISLATURES OF THE SEVERAL STATES, PURSUANT TO THE FIFTH ARTICLE
OF THE ORIGINAL CONSTITUTION 1

AMENDMENT [I]2

771

Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances.

AMENDMENT (II)

772

A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed.

AMENDMENT (III)

773 No Soldier shall, in time of peace be quartered in any house, without the consent of the Owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law.

* In Dillon v. Gloss, 256 U.S. 368[1921), the Supreme Court stated that it would take judicial notice of the date on which a State ratified a proposed constitutional amendment. Accordingly the Court consulted the State journals to determine the dates on which each house of the legislature of certain States ratified the Eighteenth amendment. It, therefore, follows that the date on which the governor approved the ratification, or the date on which the secretary of state of a given State certified the ratification, or the date on which the Secretary of State of the United States received a copy of said certificate, or the date on which he pro claimed that the amendment had been ratified are not controlling. Hence, the ratification date given on the following pages is the date on which the legislature of a given State approved the particular amendment (signature by the speaker or presiding officers of both houses being considered a part of the ratification of the "legislature"). When that date is not available, the date given is that on which it was approved by the governor or certified by the secretary of state of the particular State. In each case such fact has been noted. Information as to ratification is based on data supplied by the Department of State and the General Services Administration.

2 Brackets enclosing an amendment number indicate that the number was not specifically assigned in the resolution proposing the amendment. It will be seen, accordingly, that only amendments XIII, XIV, XV, and XVI were thus technically ratified by number.

774

AMENDMENT (IV) The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no Warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by Oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.

775

AMENDMENT [V]

No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or other wise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the Militia, when in actual service in time of War or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offenses to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation.

776

AMENDMENT (VI) In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the State and district wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the Assistance of Counsel for his defence.

777

AMENDMENT (VII) In suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact tried by a jury, shall be otherwise reexamined in any Court of the United States, than according to the rules of the common law.

778

AMENDMENT (VIII]

Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.

779

AMENDMENT (IX] The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.

780

AMENDMENT [X]
The powers not delegated to the United States by the
Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are re-
served to the States respectively, or to the people.

The first 10 amendments 3 to the Constitution (i.e. nos. 3 to 12 of those
proposed) were ratified by the several State legislatures on the following
dates: New Jersey, November 20, 1789; Maryland, December 19, 1789;
North Carolina, December 22, 1789; South Carolina, January 19, 1790;
New Hampshire, January 25, 1790; Delaware, January 28, 1790; New
York, February 27, 1790*; Pennsylvania, March 10, 1790; Rhode Island,
June 7, 1790; Vermont, November 3, 1791; Virginia, December 15, 1791;
Massachusetts, March 2, 1939; Georgia, March 18, 1939; Connecticut,
April 19, 1939.

781

AMENDMENT (XI) The Judicial power of the United States shall not be construed to extend to any suit in law or equity, commenced or prosecuted against one of the United States by Citizens of another State, or by Citizens or Subjects of any Foreign State.

3 The first 10 amendments along with 2 others which failed of ratification were proposed by Congress on September 25, 1789, when they passed the Senate [1 Ann. Cong. (1st Cong., 1st sess.) 90), having previously passed the House on September 24 (Id., 948). They appear officially in 1 Stat. 97. Ratification was completed on December 15, 1791, when the eleventh State (Virginia) approved these amendments, there being then 14 States in the Union. On March 1, 1792, Thomas Jefferson, Secretary of State, addressed letters to the Governors of the several States, advising them of the said ratifications (National Archives, Department of State, American Letters, IV, 355).

The two amendments which failed of ratification (i.e. nos. 1 and 2 of those proposed) prescribed the ratio of representation to population in the House, and specified that no law varying the compensation of Members of Congress should be effective until after an intervening election of Representatives. The first was ratified by 10 States (1 short of the requisite number) and the second by 6 States (2 Doc. Hist. Const., 325-390).

*By Council of Revision. State legislature approved Feb. 24, 1790.

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