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"This office was established by S. Res. 17, 95-1, agreed to Jan 10, 1977 (effective Jan 5, 19771 The resolution provided that "lany Member of the Senate who has held the Office of President of the United States or Vice President of the United States shall be a Deputy President pro tempore".

2 Died Jan. 13, 1978.

798.5

PERMANENT ACTING PRESIDENT PRO TEMPORE OF THE SENATE 1

Congress

Name

State

Elected

88th-95th

Lee Metcalfa

Montana

Feb. 7, 1964

Development of this office started in 1963 upon adoption of S. Res. 232 and S Res. 238, making Senator Metcalf Permanent Acting President Pro Tempore from Dec. 9, 1963, until meeting of the second regular session of the 88th Congress. On Feb. 7, 1964, S. Res. 296 was adopted authorizing Senator Metcalf to perform the duties of the Chair as Acting President Pro Tempore until otherwise ordered by the Senate.'

2 Died Jan. 12, 1978.

[799]

SENATORS OF THE UNITED STATES

FROM THE FIRST CONGRESS TO THE BEGINNING OF THE FIRST

SESSION OF THE NINETY-SEVENTH CONGRESS

CLASSIFICATION OF SENATORS

Under Article I, section 3, clause 2, of the Constitution of the United States, relating to the classification of Senators in the First and succeeding Congresses, it was provided that, “Immediately after they shall be assembled in consequence of the first election they shall be divided as equally as may be into three classes. The seats of the Senators of the first class shall be vacated at the expiration of the second year, of the second class at the expiration of the fourth year, and of the third class at the expiration of the sixth year, so that one-third may be chosen every second year.” The classification of the Senators of the First Congress was made in accordance with this provision by lot. The following table shows the classes to which the Senators of the First Congress, and from States subsequently admitted into the Union, were severally assigned, and the succession in each State to the beginning of the first session of the Ninety-seventh Congress.

TERMS OF SENATORS

Technically, pursuant to the Twentieth Amendment to the Constitution of the United States, ratified January 23, 1933, the terms of Members of the Senate commence at noon on the third day of January and end six years later at noon on the third day of January. In view of the impracticality of dealing with split days, however, it has been the long established practice for payment of salaries, computation of allowances, and recording of service to credit a Member for the full day of the third of January he takes office and to consider his term as ended at the close of business on the second of January six years later.

TABLE OF SENATORS FROM THE FIRST CONGRESS

TO THE FIRST SESSION OF THE NINETY-SEVENTH
CONGRESS

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16th-29th 28th 28th-32d. 30th-31st 31st-32d 33d-38th

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William R. King

Dec. 14, 1819
Dixon H. Lewis

Apr. 22, 1844
..do..

Dec. 10, 1844
Benjamin Fitzpatrick Nov. 25, 1848
Jeremiah Clemens.

Nov. 30, 1849
Clement Claiborne Clay, Mar. 4, 1853

Jr.'.
Willard Warner ?

June 25, 1868
George Goldthwaite 3 Mar. 4, 1871
John T. Morgan.

Mar. 4, 1877
John H. Bankhead

June 18, 1907
.do

July 16, 1907
Braxton B. Comer

Mar. 5. 1920
J. Thomas Heflin.

Nov. 2, 1920
John H. Bankhead, 2d. Mar. 4, 1931
George R. Swift 5

June 15, 1946
John Sparkman

Nov. 6, 1946
Howell Heflin,

Jan. 3, 1979

40th-41st
42d-44th
45th-62d
60th
60th-68th
66th
66th-71st.
72d-80th
79th.
79th-95th
96th-98th

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Res. Dec. 12, 1822.

Died Jan. 25, 1826.
By gov., to fill vac.

John W. Walker
William Kelly
Henry H. Chambers.
Israel Pickens
John McKinley
Gabriel Moore
John McKinley
Clement Comer Clay
Arthur P. Bagby
William R. King

Res. Apr. 22, 1837.
Res. Nov. 15, 1841.
Res. June 16, 1848
By gov., to fill vac.
Res. Dec. 20, 1852.
By gov., to fill vac.

do

16th-18th, 17th-18th 19th-21st 19th 19th-21st 22d-24th 25th 25th-27th 27th-30th 30th 31st-33d 32d-33d 33d-36th 40th-45th 46th-48th 46th, 46th-54th 55th-60th. 60th-63d 63d 64th-69th. 70th-75th 75th 75th-90th 91st-96th 95th 95th-96th 96th-99th

Dec. 14, 1819
Dec. 12, 1822
Mar. 4, 1825
Feb. 17, 1826
Nov. 27, 1826
Mar. 4, 1831
Mar. 4, 1837
June 19, 1837
Nov. 24, 1841
July 1, 1848
Mar. 4, 1849
Jan. 14, 1853
Dec. 12, 1853
June 25, 1868
Mar. 4, 1879
Jan 7, 1880
Nov. 24, 1880
Mar. 4, 1897
Aug. 6, 1907
May 11, 1914
Mar. 4, 1915
Mar. 4, 1927
Aug. 20, 1937
Jan. 11, 1938
Jan. 3, 1969
June 8, 1978
Nov. 8, 1978
Jan. 2, 1981

Mar. 3, 1825

Do.
Mar. 3, 1831
Nov. 27, 1826
Mar. 3, 1831
Mar. 3, 1837
Mar. 3, 1843

Do.
Mar. 3, 1849

Do.
Mar. 3, 1855
Dec. 11, 1853
Mar. 3, 1861
Mar. 3, 1879
Mar. 3, 1885
Nov. 23, 1880
Mar. 3, 1897
Mar. 3, 1909
Mar. 3, 1915

Do.
Mar. 3, 1927
Jan. 3, 1939

Do.
Jan. 2, 1969
Jan. 2, 1981
Nov. 7, 1978
Jan. 2, 1981
Jan. 2. 1987

Benjamin Fitzpatrick

.do.?
George E. Spencer
George S. Houston
Luke Pryor...
James L. Pugh
Edmund W. Pettus,
Joseph F. Johnston
Francis S White..
Oscar W. Underwood
Hugo Black
Mrs. Dixie Bibb Graves 10
Lister Hill 1
James B. Allen...
Maryon Pittman Allen 12
Donald W. Stewart 13
Jeremiah Denton 14

Died Dec. 31, 1879.
By gov., to fill vac.

Died July 27, 1907.

Res. Aug. 19, 1937.

By gov., to fill vac.
Died June 1, 1978.

Retired from the Senate Jan. 21, 1861. Seat declared vacant Mar. 14, 1861. Vacancy from Jan. 21, 1861, to June 25, 1868, because of Civil War.

2 By legislature, to fill vacancy in term beginning Mar. 4, 1865. 3 Not sworn in until Jan. 15, 1872, because of protest. * By governor, to fill vacancy; not sworn. Footnotes continue on next page.

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* By governor, to fill vacancy. Resigned Nov, 5, 1946.
6 Elected Nov. 5, 1946, to fill vacancy in term ending Jan. 2, 1949

? Retired from the Senate Jan. 21, 1861. Vacancy from Jan. 21, 1861, to June 25, 1868, because of Civil War

By legislature, to fill vacancy in term beginning Mar. 4, 1867.

Died Aug. 8, 1913. Vacancy from Aug. 8, 1913, to May 11, 1914. Henry D. Clayton; appointed by governor Aug. 12, 1913, to fill vacancy; credentials withdrawn, Oct. 21, 1913, Frank B. Glass, appointed by governor Nov. 17, 1913, but by Senate resolution, Feb. 4, 1914, was declared not entitled to a seat.

10 By governor, to fill vacancy. Resigned Jan. 10, 1938. 11 Elected Apr. 26, 1938, to fill vacancy in term ending Jan. 3, 1939. 12 By governor, to fill vacancy in term ending Jan. 2, 1981, until election held on Nov. 7, 1978 13 Elected Nov. 7, 1978, to complete vacancy in term ending Jan. 2, 1981. Resigned Jan 1. 1981

** By governor, to fill vacancy in term ending Jan. 2, 1981.

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Congress

Name of Senator

Commencement of term

Expiration of

term

Remarks

24th-29th William S. Fulton. 28th-32d. Chester Ashley 30th

William K. Sebastian 30th-38th

.do. 40th-41st

Alexander McDonald 2 42d-44th. Powell Clayton.

See footnotes at end of Arkansas table.

Sept. 18, 1836 Mar 3, 1847 Died Aug. 15, 1844.
Nov. 8, 1844 Mar. 3, 1853 Died Apr 29, 1848
May 12, 1948 Nov. 16, 1848 By gov., to fill vac.
Nov. 17, 1848 Mar 3, 1865
June 22, 1868 Mar 3, 1871
Mar. 14, 1871 Mar. 3, 1877

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