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correspondent for the London Times with Don Carlos in Spain, and joined Gordon in the Sudan. In 1875 he made his famous ride to Khivaa journey that presented great difficulties. During the ride, which he undertook partly because he had learned that the Russian government kept Europeans out of central Asia, he suffered severely from the intense cold prevailing at the time when he crossed the steppes. In 1876 he rode through Asiatic Turkey and Persia. Of both these journeys he published narratives, namely, Ride to Khiva' (1876, 11th ed., 1877, new ed., 1884), and 'On Horseback Through Asia Minor) (1877). In 1880 he was the unsuccessful candidate for the Birmingham seat in Parliament. While serving as lieutenant-colonel of the Royal Horse Guards in the Egyptian campaign, he was killed at the battle of Abu-Klea. Consult Mann, 'Life_of Burnaby (London 1882) and Wright, Life of Colonel Fred Burnaby' (London 1908).

The

BURNAND, SIR Francis Cowley, English author: b. 29 Nov. 1837; d. 21 April 1917. He was educated at Eton and Trinity College, Cambridge, and at first studied with a view to entering the Church of England, but when in 1858 he became a Roman Catholic he devoted himself to legal studies, and was called to the bar in 1862. By that year he had already achieved some success as a writer, and in consequence he seldom practised. After about a year's connection with Fun he joined the staff of Punch in 1863, and was editor from 1880 to 1906. His book, 'Happy Thoughts, republished from Punch went through several editions, and was followed by 'More Happy Thoughts (1871); 'Happy Thought Hall (1872); Quito at Home (1890). Other successful productions of his are the extravaganzas, New Light on Darkest Africa,' and 'Ride to Khiva' (making fun out of Stanley and Colonel Burnaby respectively), the parody on Ouida's novel, Strathmore, which he published under the title of 'Strapmore, and The Modern Sandford and Merton. Numerous plays have come from his pen, mostly of the nature of burlesques and light comedies, such as the plays 'Black-eyed Susan (a burlesque of Douglas Jerrold's drama), and 'The Colonel.' He issued a history of the Amateur Dramatic Club which he had founded at Cambridge University. He collaborated with Sir A. Sullivan in the light operas The Chieftain,' produced in 1894, and Contrabandista. He was knighted in 1902, and published an interesting volume of 'Records and Reminiscences.'

BURNE-JONES, SIR Edward, English painter: b. Birmingham, 28 Aug. 1833; d. London, 17 June 1898. In 1852 he went to Exeter College, Oxford, where he was a fellow student of William Morris, and afterward became acquainted with A. C. Swinburne (who dedicated his Poems and Ballads' to him). His first intention was to enter the Church of England, and it was not till he had reached his 22d year that he seriously devoted himself to art studies; but, going to London in 1855, he came under the influence of D. G. Rossetti and the PreRaphaelite movement, and soon attained considerable success in various departments of artistic work. In 1859 he set out on a journey through Italy in order to see the productions of the early Italian painters and sculptors, and on

his return to England he gave in his stainedglass designs and his pictures splendid promise of his subsequent triumphs. In 1865 he began a series of illustrations to Morris' 'Earthly Paradise, and he also executed some 70 designs for the Story of Cupid and Psyche, besides pictures dealing with the same subject. He was elected a member of the Old Society of Painters in Water Colors in 1864, but withdrew from it in 1870, and from this year till 1877 scarcely ever exhibited in London. In the Grosvenor Gallery exhibition of the latter year, however, his works formed the chief attraction. He received the Cross of the Legion of Honor in 1880, was elected in 1885 Associate of the Royal Academy, a position which he resigned in 1893 (having only exhibited one picture at the Academy, The Depths of the Sea'), and he was created a baronet in 1894. His most important pictures are 'Day, Night'; 'Spring, Summer, Autumn, Winter) (1867-68); The Wine of Circe' (1869); 'Chant d'Amour (1873); 'Beguiling of Merlin' (1877), an illustration of Tennyson's 'Merlin and Vivien'; 'Six Days of Creation' (1877); 'The Golden Stairs (1880); The Wheel of Fortune' (1883); Wood Nymph'; 'King Cophetua) (1884); Laus Veneris; The Depths of the Sea (1886); and 'The Briar Rose' series (1890). He holds a specially high place as a designer for stainedglass windows, and in many other departments of decorative art. His leading characteristics as a painter are his fertile imagination and fine poetic feeling, qualities which no painter of the century has possessed in anything like the same degree. The Old-World dreaminess of his work is finely aided by his wonderful power as a colorist. In common with his friends, Morris and Rossetti, he exercised a most potent imfluence on Victorian art. Consult Bell, 'Edward Burne-Jones' (1902).

BURNELL, Arthur Coke, English Orientalist: b. Gloucestershire 1840; d. 1882. He was educated at Bedford and King's colleges, entered the Indian Civil Service, and became immersed in South Indian palæography. His 'Handbook of South Indian Palæography) was regarded by Max Müller as indispensable to every student of Indian literature.' A 'Classified Index to the Sanskrit MSS.' in the palace at Tajore appeared in 1880. 'The Law of Partition and Succession' showed how well he had grasped the fundamentals of Indian law. He left unpublished A Translation of the Ordinances of Manu' (1885); and (jointly with Colonel Yule) Hobson-Jobson; being a Glossary of Anglo-Indian Colloquial Words and Phrases (1886). He was a remarkable linguist, having a knowledge of Sanskrit, Tibetan, Pali. Kawi, Javanese, Koptic and Arabic, and in his later years he became deeply absorbed in the Italian writers of the Renaissance. An ardent booklover himself, he overflowed with helpfulness and generosity to other students. His collection of over 350 Sanskrit MSS. was gifted in 1870 to the India Library, and by the time of his death he had again collected an equal number, which were purchased from his heirs on behalf of the same institution.

BURNES, SIR Alexander, Scottish soldier and traveler: b. Montrose 1805; d. Cabul, 2 Nov. 1841. Having obtained a cadetship, he joined the Bombay native infantry in 1821.

to

scence.

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Here his proficiency in Hindustani and Persian of the popish plot was in agitation. It procured procured him two regimental appointments as for the author the unprecedented honor of interpreter, and contributed greatly to his future thanks from both houses of Parliament. The promotion. In 1830 he was appointed to pro- second appeared in 1681;

the third, which was ceed to Lahore, ostensibly for the purpose of supplementary, in 1714. The high character of delivering a present of horses from the King Burnet as a divine caused him to be sent for by of England to Runjeet Singh, but really for the the witty and profligate Earl of Rochester, purpose of acquainting himself with the lower when, exhausted by a course of libertinism, he Indus, with the view of opening it up to com- was sinking into the grave. The result of his mercial enterprise. On returning from this conferences with the dying nobleman he gave mission, which he successfully accomplished, he to the world in his celebrated Account of the proposed a mission into central Asia, and Life and Death of the Earl of Rochester.) having obtained the sanction of the government, About this time he wrote a letter to the King set out in January 1832, descended the Sutlej censuring his public misgovernment and private to Lahore, and proceeded thereafter vices. His connection with the opposition party Peshawur, Cabul and Bokhara. He afterward was now very intimate, and he attended Lord traveled with a caravan across the desert of William Russell to the scaffold, when executed Merv, visited the Shah of Persia in his capital for his share in the Rye House plot. He pubof Teheran, traveled southward to the Persian lished during this period several works in favor Gulf and reached Bombay after a year's ab- of liberty and Protestantism, and wrote the

He published an account of this lives of Bishop Bedell and Sir Matthew Hale journey in 1834, under the title of Travels into (1682); and in 1683 made his translation of Bokhara. He was afterward sent to England More's Utopia. On the accession of James as the bearer of his own despatches, received he made a tour in France and Italy, and in 1687 the special thanks of the court of directors and he published an account of his travels in a series was presented with the gold medal of the Royal of letters to Robert Boyle. When at Utrecht and the silver medal of the French Geographical he was invited to The Hague by the Prince and Society. He returned to India in 1835, and in Princess of Orange, and had a great share in the following year was sent on a commercial the councils relative to Britain. James caused mission to Cabul. While there he discovered a prosecution for high treason to be commenced that Russia was intriguing to detach the Emir, against him in Scotland, and demanded his Dost Mohammed, from the British alliance, and person from the States, who refused to deliver on finding the Emir disposed to be friendly to him up. In the revolution he took an active Great Britain, he urged Lord Auckland to come part, accompanying the Prince of Orange to to terms with him. His advice was, however, England as chaplain, and was rewarded for his rejected, and a force was dispatched in 1839 to services by the bishopric of Salisbury. On reinstate Shah Sujah on the throne. Burnes taking his seat in the House of Lords, he disaccompanied the force as second political played his usual moderation in regard to the officer, and received the honor of knighthood. non-juring clergy and dissenters. As a prelate, On the breaking out of an insurrection in Cabul, Bishop Burnet distinguished himself by fervor, he was murdered with his brother and several assiduity, tolerance and charity. In 1699 he other Europeans.

published his Exposition of the Thirty-nine BURNET, Gilbert, British prelate and his

Articles. The scheme for the augmentation of torian : b. Edinburgh, 18 Sept. 1643; d. London,

poor livings out of the first-fruits and tenths 15 March 1715. Having graduated at Marischal

due to the Crown, known as Queen Anne's College, Aberdeen, he zealously devoted him

Bounty, originated with Burnet. He left behind self to the study of law and divinity. In 1661

him in manuscript his well-known History of he qualified as a probationer in the Church, and

His Own Times) (1723–34), upon which the best traveled into Holland in 1664. On his return

judgment to-day is that nothing could be more he was made fellow of the Royal Society in

admirable than his general candor, his accuracy London, and ordained to the living of Saltoun,

as to facts, the fullness of his information and Haddingtonshire, in 1665. In 1669 he was made

the justice of his judgments, both of those a professor of divinity at Glasgow, where he

whom he vehemently opposed and of those published his Modest and Free Conference

whom he greatly admired. The value of the between a Conformist and a Nonconformist,' work, says a recent authority, (as a candid and wrote his Memoirs of the Dukes of

narrative and an invaluable work of reference, Hamilton (1676); and was offered a Scottish

has continually risen as investigations into bishopric, which he refused. His Vindication

original materials have proceeded.” of the Authority, Constitution, and Laws of the BURNET, Jacob, American jurist: b. NewChurch and State of Scotland, in which he ark, N. J., 22 Feb. 1770; d. Cincinnati, Ohio, 10 maintains the cause of episcopacy, was much May 1853. He was graduated at Princeton approved of at court, and several bishoprics 1791, was admitted to the bar in 1796, removed were successively offered him and refused. In to Cincinnati, then a village with about 500 in1673 he was made chaplain in ordinary to the habitants, and was a member of the territorial King, and was in high credit both with Charles government from 1799 till the establishment of and the Duke of York. Removing to London a State government in 1803. In 1821 he was he received the appointment of chaplain to the appointed judge of the Supreme Court of Ohio, Rolls Chapel in 1675, and shortly afterward the and was elected United States senator in 1828, lectureship at Saint Clements. The nation be- and was prominent in the legislation to remove ing alarmed on account of the progress of the national debt of the Middle West for public Catholicism, Burnet undertook a History of lands; and for the completion of the Miami the Reformation in England. He gave a first Canal. Burnet was elected a member of the volume to the public in 1679, when the affair French Academy of Sciences upon the recommendation of Lafayette, and published in 1847 a the creation, paradise and the deluge, with the volume of Notes on the Northwestern Ter- traditions of the ancient and the principles of ritoryHe was prominent in civic enterprises modern science. His speculations are recomin Cincinnati for over half a century, assisting mended by sublimity of description and eloto establish the Lancastrian Academy; helping quence of style. In his Archæologiæ Philoto found the Cincinnati College, whose first sophicæ, he has combatted the literal interprepresident he was; besides being president of the tation of the history of the fall of man; and Ohio Medical College and the Cincinnati to expose its improbability he has introduced Colonization Society and the Cincinnati branch an imaginary dialogue between Eve and the of the United States Bank.

serpent, which, as coming from the pen of a BURNET, John, Scottish engraver, painter

divine, is singular enough. It is only to be and art-critic: b. Musselburgh, near Edinburgh,

found in the first edition of the work. 20 March 1874; d. 1868. He learned etching and BURNET, William, American colonial govengraving, and, with Sir William Allan and Sir ernor: b. The Hague, Holland, 1688; d. Boston, David Wilkie, was a student in drawing and 7 Sept. 1729. He was a son of Gilbert Burnet painting at the Trustees Academy, Edinburgh, (q.v.) and was appointed governor of New In 1806 he went to London, where he engraved York and New Jersey in 1720. Two years later Wilkie's Jew's Harps'; Blind Fiddler'; Rent he founded at Oswego the earliest English Day); (Rábbit on the Wall; Chelsea Pension- trading post on the Great Lakes as the first step ers Reading the Gazette of the Battle of Water- in his able Indian policy in New York which loo) (his largest and most elaborate work); accomplished very much for the interests of the Letter of Introduction); Death of Tippoo mother country and the colonies. In 1728 he Sahib); and “Village School. He also engraved was transferred to the governorship of Massaplates from several recent painters, from the chusetts and New Hampshire and was speedily Rembrandts in the National Gallery and from involved in disputes with the assembly of the several of his own paintings. Among his writ- former colony over the question of salary. He ten works, for which he still maintains a repu- was fond of astronomical studies and published tation, are Practical Treatise on Painting observations in the Transactions) of the Royal (1827); Rembrandt and His Works! (1849); Society.

Life and Works of J. W. M. Turner,' with BURNET, the popular name of two genera Cunningham (1852). He was a sound and

of plants of the family Rosacea (1) Garden careful painter, but possessed little originality. Burnet (Sanguisorba), a perennial plant He was made a fellow of the Royal Society, which grows to the height of about two feet; and in 1860, receiving a civil pension, he retired. leaves smooth, alternate, imparipinnate, comConsult Pye, Patronage of British Art' (in posed of serrate leaflets; flowers arranged in Art Journal 1850, 1868).

rounded heads of a purplish color, with the BURNET, John, Scottish classical scholar: female flowers above and the male flowers b. Edinburgh, 9 Dec. 1863. He was educated at below. It is a native of Europe but has become the Royal High School and University, Edin- naturalized in sunny places among rocks and burgh, and Balliol College, Oxford, and has in open fields, from New York to Maryland. been professor of Greek in Saint Andrew's It is cultivated in kitchen gardens for its University since 1892. His works include aromatic leaves, which are used to Early Greek Philosophy). (1892); Greek salads. (2) Canadian Burnet (S. canadensis) is Rudiments) (1897); Platonis Opera (5 vols., also a perennial plant; calyx of four divisions; 1899–1907); Plato's Phædo' (1911); Greek stamens four. Its stem is straight, from three Philosophy, Part 1 (1914).

to six feet in height; leaflets ovate, smooth. BURNET, Thomas, English divine and

This plant gļows chiefly in bogs and wet places

from Labrador to Georgia, and west to Michiphilosopher: b. Croft, Yorkshire, about 1635;

gan. d. London, 27 Sept. 1715. He was educated under Dr. Ralph Cudworth at Cambridge, and

BURNET MOTH, the name for the genus afterward traveled as tutor to several young

of hawkmoths, called Anthrocera, or, by some, noblemen. In 1681 he made himself known by

Zygana. Anthrocera filipendule is the six-spot his (Telluris Theoria Sacra, which he subse

burnet moth. The six spots, which are on the quently translated into English. In 1685 he

superior wings, are red, while the rest of the became master of the Charterhouse and after wings are green. Its caterpillar, which feeds the revolution of 1688 was appointed chaplain on the plantain, trefoil, dandelion, etc., is yelin ordinary and clerk of the closet to King

low, spotted with black. A. loti is the five-spot William. In 1692 he published Archæologiæ

burnet moth. It is less common. The caterPhilosophicæ, sive Doctrina Antiqua de Rerum

pillar feeds on honeysuckle, bird's foot, trefoil, Originibus, but the freedom of opinion dis

etc. played in this work led to the removal of the BURNETT, Frances Eliza Hodgson, author from the clerkship of the royal closet. Anglo-American novelist: b. Manchester, EngTwo posthumous works of this author appeared land, 24 Nov. 1849. In 1856 went to Tennessee in 1727 — the treatise De Fide et Officiis with her widowed mother, and lived there until Christianorum';

De Statu Mortuorum her marriage in 1873 to Dr. S. M. Burnett. She Resurgentium. All the works of Burnet ex- has since lived in Washington and Europe. hibit him as an ingenious speculator, rather than Between the ages of 16 and 20 Mrs. Burnett as a patient and sober inquirer concerning the wrote numerous stories for magazine publicamoral and natural phenomena of which he tion —- including Vagabondia); Theo?; The treats. His great work, the “Theory of the Fortunes of Philippa Fairfax,

This Earth,' is one of the many systems of cos- girlish work was collected later by Charles mogony in which Christian philosophers have Scribner's Sons in an edition known as Mrs. attempted to reconcile the Mosaic account of Burnett's Earlier Stories. Her first serious

season

et

etc.

literary success was "That Lass o' Lowrie's) (1877), a novel founded on colliery life in Lancashire. This appeared serially in Scribner's Magazine and in book form in 1877. This was followed by Haworths) (1879); Louisiana (1880); A air Barbarian (1881); (Through One Administration? (1883); A Lady of Quality (1896); His Grace of Osmonde); The De Willoughby Claim? (1899); Emily Fox-Seton'; 'The One: I Knew the Best of All'; The Shuttle); (T. Tembarom) (1913), etc. Her books for children are (Little Lord Fauntleroy! (1886); A Little Princess) (1905); (Two Little Pilgrims' Progress'; 'The Secret Garden'; The Lost Prince, etc. Her dramatic work comprises plays founded upon Little Lord Fauntleroy';

A Little Princess';. Esmeralda! (1881); Phyllis'; A Lady of Quality'; (The Dawn of a To-morrow, etc.

BURNETT, James (LORD MONBODDO), Scottish judge: b. at the family seat of Monboddo, in Kincardineshire, 1714; d. Edinburgh, 26 May 1799. After studying at Aberdeen and Edinburgh he went to the University of Groningen, whence he returned in 1737, and commenced practice as an advocate at the Scottish bar. In 1767 he was raised to the bench on the decease of his relative, Lord Milton. He distinguished himself by his writings as a metaphysician, having published a work on the Origin and Progress of Language) (1773-92), and Ancient Metaphysics) (6 vols., 1779–99)! Lord Monboddo was an enthusiastic admirer of ancient literature, and especially of the works of Plato and other Grecian philosophers. His works contain many interesting observations, but also exhibit some strange and paradoxical opinions. Thus he seriously advocates the existence of satyrs and mermaids, and has advanced some pre-Darwinian speculations on the affinity between the human race and the monkey tribe, which exposed him to a good deal of ridicule on the first publication of his theories. Both his official and his private character were of high standing, and he was, notwithstanding some eccentricities, a man of learning and ability.

BURNETT, Peter Hardeman, first State governor of California and author: b. Nashville, Tenn., 1807; d. San Francisco 1895. After residence in Missouri and Oregon, where he practised as a lawyer and assisted in the organization of territorial government, serving two terms in the legislature, he went to California in 1848 with one of the first band of gold diggers, and became prominent in organizing State government without waiting for Congressional sanction. He was elected governor on the adoption of the constitution, but resigned in 1851. In 1857–58 he was judge of the Supreme Court and from 1863 to 1880 president of the Pacific Bank of San Francisco. His published works, marked by lucid exposition and clear logical thinking, include "The Path which led a Protestant lawyer to the Catholic Church (1860); "The American Theory of Government considered with reference to the Present Crisis (1861); Recollections of

an old Pioneer) (1878); Reasons why we should believe in God, Love God, and Obey God (1884).

BURNETT PRIZES, The. Two prizes in theology founded by John Burnett, of Dens,

Aberdeen, Scotland, for the two best treatises on «The evidence that there is a Being all-powerful, wise and good, by whom everything exists; and particularly to obviate difficulties regarding the wisdom and goodness of the Deity; and this independent of written revelation, and of the revelation of the Lord Jesus; and from the whole to point out the inferences most necessary and useful to mankind.” Burnett, who was born in 1729 and died in 1784, was a merchant of Aberdeen, and was known for his benefactions to the poor. On his death he bequeathed his fortune to found the prizes above referred to, and to establish funds for the relief of the poor and of pauper lunatics. He ordered the prize fund to be accumulated for 40 years at a time, and the prizes (not less than $6,000 and $2,000) to be awarded as above. In 1883 the fund was applied to found a lectureship on natural theology in the University of Aberdeen. Awards of the prizes were, first prize to William Laurence Brown in 1815; second prize to John Bird Sumner in 1848; first prize to Robert A. Thomson in 1855; second prize to John Tulloch in 1860.

BURNEY, Charles, English composer and writer on music: b. Shrewsbury, 12 April 1726; d. Chelsea, London, 12 April 1814. He studied music under the organist of Chester Cathedral there, and at Shrewsbury, under the direction of his half-brother, an organist, and afterward in London between 1744 and 1747, under Dr. Arne. In 1751 he obtained the place of organist at Saint Margaret's Church, Lynn Regis, in Norfolk. Here he commenced his "General History of Music. In 1760 he returned to London, where his compositions and the musical skill of his eldest daughter, then eight years of age, excited admiration. In 1769 he took the degree of doctor of music at Oxford. In 1770 he visited France and Italy, and two years afterward the Netherlands and Germany, for the sake of his great work. He published accounts of both tours. After his second return he became a fellow of the Royal Society. In 1776 appeared the first volume of his (General History of Music from the Earliest Ages to the Present Period! (4to), the second in 1782, and the third and fourth in 1789. He was the author of several other valuable works, among which are the Memoir of Handel, and a 'Life of Metastasio.' He died in the office of organist at Chelsea Hospital, and in receipt of a pension of $1,500. He wrote most of the musical articles in Rees' Cyclopædia. His 2d daughter, Frances or Fanny (Madame D'Arblay, q.v), well known as an authoress, published a memoir of her father.

BURNEY, Charles, English classical scholar and critic, son of Charles Burncy (q.v.): b. Lynn, Norfolk, 4 Dec. 1757; d. 28 Dec. 1817. He received his education at the Charter-house School, at Caius College, Cambridge, and King's College, Aberdeen, where he took the degree of M.A. He carried on a private school, distinguished himself as a writer in the Monthly Review and the London Magazine, to which he contributed many articles on classical literature; subsequently entered into holy orders, and obtained some preferment in the Church. His valuable collection of books, many of them enriched with manu

ones.

was

returns

one

script notes, was purchased by Parliament for the British Museum.

BURNEY, Frances. See D'ARBLAY, MADAME; EVELINA.

BURNHAM, Sherburne Wesley, American astronomer: b. Thetford, Vt., 12 Dec. 1838. He started in life as a stenographer, and became a clerk in the United States Circuit Court, northern district of Illinois. He took up astronomy as an amateur, and, in 1876, became connected with the Chicago Observatory, and later with the Lick Observatory, receiving, also an appointment as professor of practical astronomy at the Yerkes Obşervatory of the University of Chicago. He has made notable discoveries of double stars, having catalogued 1,274 new

In 1874 he was made a fellow of the Royal Astronomical Society of England, receiving its gold medal in 1894 for his discovery and measurement of double stars. In 1900 the Yerkes Observatory issued a catalogue of the stars he discovered. In 1904 he awarded the Lalande prize of the Paris Academy of Sciences. He published General Catalogue of Double Stars within 121° of the North Pole (1906) and Measures of Proper Motion Stars' (1913).

BURNHAM BEECHES, England, remains of an ancient forest in Buckinghamshire. It is situated some 25 miles northwest of London, and is famous for its enormous beech trees. Since 1883, the Burnham Beeches tract of 374 acres has been open to the public as a park by the Corporation of London.

BURNING-BUSH, or WAAHOO, a tall shrub (Euonymus atropurpureus) of the natural order Celastraceæ with oval-oblong leaves and purple flowers occurring in fours. It is common throughout the Middle West from New York to Wisconsin and Nebraska, and southward. It is sometimes cultivated for the ornamental effect of its long drooping peduncles of crimson fruit.

BURNING BUSH, The, the place from out of which Yahwe spoke to Moses on Sinai, when he gave him the tables of the law (Exod. iii, 2-4). The story as there told would appear to have resulted from a fusion of two widely current beliefs — that fire indicated the Divine Presence and that certain trees were the permanent abode of deities. In Deut. xxxiii, il, another form of the story is hinted at according to which the bush was Yahwe's permanent dwelling. The fiery appearance in Exodus is clearly regarded as temporary. Robertson Smith cites some parallels from nonbiblical sources, and argues that "the original seat of a conception like the burning bush, which must have its physical basis in electrical phenomena, must probably be sought in the clear dry air of the desert or of lofty mountains. Consult Baudissin, Studien zur semit Religons-geschichte.'

BURNISHER, a blunt, smooth tool, used for smoothing and polishing a rough surface by pressure, and not by removing any part of the body. Other processes of polishing detach the little asperities. Agates, tempered steel and dogs' teeth are used for burnishing. It is one of the most expeditious methods of polishing, and one which gives the highest lustre. The burnishers used by engravers are formed to

burnish with one end and to erase blemishes with the other.

BURNJIRD, Persia, town of the province of Irak-Ajemi, in the Tahji River Valley, about 190 miles north by west of Ispahan. It has manufactories of cottons, felt hats, caps, etc., and a trade in skins, most of which are exported to Russia. Roads connect the town with Ispahan and Hamadan. It boasts a castle and numerous mosques. Pop. 25,000.

BURNLEY, England, a parliamentary and county borough in Lancashire, about 29 miles north of Manchester by rail, situated on the small river Brun, near its confluence with the Calder. The town presents a modern appearance, and is, generally speaking, well built, mostly of stone. The town-hall is a large, handsome building, erected in 1887; there is also a commodious exchange, and a convenient market hall. Among the churches the chief place is due to Saint Peter's, an ancient building restored in 1867. A splendidly equipped technical school was opened in 1909. The public utilities are nearly all publicly owned. The manufactures and commerce of Burnley have rapidly increased in recent years. The staple manufacture is cotton goods, and there are large cotton-mills, worsted-mills and several extensive foundries and machine-shops, with collieries, quarries and other works in the vicinity. Burnley is situated on the Leeds and Liverpool Canal, has a good water supply and has five railway stations. It seems to have been a Roman station, and various Roman remains have been dug up in and around it. Burnley

member to Parliament. Pop. 106,765.

BURNOOSE, a large kind of mantle in use among the Bedouin Arabs and the Berbers of northern Africa, commonly made of white or undyed wool, but sometimes also of red, blue, green or some other color, and having a hood which may be drawn over the head in case of rain. In Spain also a similar garment is worn which bears the similar name of albornoz, and the name has also been applied to different kinds of upper garments worn by women of other European countries. BURNOUF,

búr-noof, Emile Louis, French Orientalist, cousin of Eugène Burnouf (q.v.): b. Valognes, Manche, France, 25 Aug. 1821; d. 1907. After a normal school training, he became professor of ancient literature in the faculty of Nancy, and in 1867 director of the French School in Athens. Among his works are Essay on the Veda? (1863); SanskritFrench Dictionary! (1863–65), the first of its kind in France; History of Greek Literature (2 vols., 1868); (Science of Religions); The Athenian Legend' ; Essays on Antiquity' (Paris 1879); Method of Studying Sanskrit (1859, 3d ed., Paris 1885); The Mythology of the Japanese,' according to the Koku-si-Ryakel,' the first translation of the work into a European tongue (1875); The City and the Acropolis of Athens (Paris 1877); and

(Contemporary Catholicism? (1879). He also edited the letters of his cousin, Eugène Burnouf.

BURNOUF, Eugène, French Orientalist : b. Paris, 12 Aug. 1801; d. there, 28 May 1852. He commenced his studies at the College of Louis-le-Grand, became a pupil in the École

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