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phrase of the old song, to fix upon an idea or situation for the new poem; then, humming or whistling the melody about the fields or the farmyard, as imagination and emotion warmed within him, he worked out the new verses, coming into the house to write them down when the inspiration began to flag. Careful consideration of this process, for the reality of which we have his own authority as well as the evidence of the raw material and the finished product, will explain much of the precise quality and function of Burns as a song-writer. In George Thomson's collection of Scottish Airs) he had a share similar to that in Johnson's undertaking, his work for these two publications constituting the greater part of his poetical activity during the last eight or nine years of his life. It was characteristic that, in spite of his financial stringency during these years, he refused to accept any recompense, preferring to regard this as a patriotic service. And a patriotic service it was of no small magnitude. By birth and temperament he was singularly fitted for just such a task, and his fitness is proved not only by the impossibility of separating, by a mere examination of the finished songs, the new from the old, but by the unique extent to which his productions were accepted by his countrymen, and have passed into the life and feeling of his race. See Tam o' SHANTER; COTTER'S SATURDAY Night; JOLLY BEGGARS, THE.

Bibliography.- Early collections by Currie, Allan Cunningham, Hogg and Motherwell have been incorporated in modern editions. Consult Chambers, R. and Wallace, W. (4 vols., London and New York 1896); W. Scott Douglass (6 vols., Edinburgh 1877-79 and 3 vols., Edinburgh 1893); Smith, Alexander, "Globe) edition (1 vol.); "Cambridge) edition (Boston 1897); Lang, A., and Craigie, W. A., (1 vol., New York 1896); Mckie, Bibliography of Burns) (Kilmarnock 1881); Henley, W. É. and Henderson, T. F., The Centenary of Burns? (4 vols., Edinburgh, 1896); Henderson, T. F., Robert Burns (New York 1904); Dougall, (The Burns Country) (New York 1911); Wallace (editor), Correspondence between Burns and Mrs. Dunlop (London 1898); Carlyle, Burns) in his Essays? (London 1847); Stevenson, Robert Burns (in Familiar Sketches of Men and Books (London 1882).

WILLIAM A. Neilson, Professor of English, Harvard University.

BURNS, William Chalmers, Scottish Protestant missionary: b. Dun, Forfarshire, 1815; d. 1868. He received his education at Aberdeen University and entered on the practice of law, which he soon abandoned to enter the missionary field in 1839. For about seven years he led great revivals throughout the British Isles, but set out for China in 1846. He was very successful, having adopted the native costume and manner of life and becoming a fluent speaker in the native tongue. Consult Burns, Memoir of William Chalmers Burns) (1870).

BURNS, William Wallace, American soldier: b. Coshocton, Ohio, 3 Sept. 1825; d. Beaufort, S. C., 19 April 1892. He was graduated from West Point in 1847. He served in the war with Mexico and also in the Union army during the Civil War, becoming majorgeneral of volunteers. In 1865 he was brevetted

brigadier-general and was for many years afterward in the Commissary Department at Washington, until 1889, when he retired, with the regular rank of colonel.

BURNSIDE, Ambrose Everett, American soldier: b. Liberty, Ind., 23 May 1824; d. Bristol, R. I., 13 Sept. 1881. He served an apprenticeship to a tailor, but received a nomination to West Point, where he was graduated in 1847. After serving some years in garrison duty, he left the army as first lieutenant in 1852, and from 1853 to 1858 was engaged in the manufacture of firearms at Bristol, R. I., during this period, in 1856, inventing the Burnside breech-loading rifle. On the outbreak of the Civil War (q.v.) in 1861, he returned to the army as colonel of volunteers, serving from May to August of that year as colonel of the Rhode Island Volunteers, and as such taking part in the first battle of Bull Run (q.v.). On 6 August he was promoted brigadier-general of volunteers and from October 1861 to January 1862 supervised the organization of the Coast Division of the Army of the Potomac. From January to July 1862 he commanded the Department of North Carolina; in February captured Roanoke Island, occupied Newbern, N. C., and took Fort Macon, Beaufort. He was raised to the rank of major-general of volunteers on 18 March 1862 and placed in command of the troops that subsequently constituted the 9th Army Corps. In July 1862 and again after the second battle of Bull Run (q.v.) he was offered the command of the Army of Virginia which, after the battle of Bull Run, had been merged into the Army of the Potomac, but each time declined the offer and served with the 9th Army Corps under McClellan. In this capacity he participated in the Maryland campaign (q.v.) against Lee, rendering important services in the battles of South Mountain and Antietam (qq.v.), in the latter action on 17 September commanding the left wing. On 10 November of that year he superseded General McClellan in command of the Army of the Potomac. On 13 December he crossed the Rappahannock and attacked General Lee near Fredericksburg, but was repulsed with a loss of over 10,000 men, and was soon after transferred to the Department of Ohio. In November 1863 he successfully held Knoxville against a superior force, and in 1864 he led a corps, under General Grant, through the battles of the Wilderness and Cold Harbor. Resigning in April 1865, he was elected governor of Rhode Island (1866-68), and United States senator in 1875 and 1881. Consult Poore, Life and Public Services of Ambrose E. Burnside) (Providence 1882); Woodbury, Major General Burnside and the Ninth Army Corps' (Providence 1867).

BURNSIDE, Helen Marion, English artist and poet : b. Bromley Hall 1844. She published a book of poems in 1864, which made her widely known. From 1880 to 1889 she was designer to the Royal School of Art Needlework. She has published The Lost Letter,' «Tales for Children,' The Girl without a Penny) and many occasional contributions in prose and verse to leading magazines.

BURNSIDE, Ky., town in Somerset County on the South Fork River, and on the C. B. & C. R, and Cincinnati & Southern rail

roads. The chief industries are lumber manu- Canadian Alps! (1914); Sandford Fleming, factures and roller mills. Taxable property Empire Builder (1915). amounts to $800,000. Pop. 1,500.

BURR, Aaron, American clergyman: b. BURNT OFFERING, one of the sacrifices Fairfield, Conn., 4 Jan. 1716; d. Princeton, N. enjoined on the Hebrew Church and nation. It

J., 24 Sept. 1757. He was graduated at Yale is called, in their language, olah, from the root and was settled as pastor of the Presbyterian alah, to ascend, because, being wholly con- Church of Newark, N. J. In 1748 he became sumed, all but the refuse ashes, was regarded as president of the College of New Jersey, now ascending in the smoke to God. In the New Princeton University, succeeding the first presiTestament it is called holokautoma, meaning a dent, Dickinson, who held office only a few whole burnt offering, an offering wholly burnt. months. He married a daughter of Jonathan In the Vulgate it is called holocaustum, which Edwards, and was the father of Aaron Burr has the same meaning. Stated burnt offerings (q.v.), third Vice-President of the United were presented daily, every Sabbath, at the new States. He published a Latin grammar, known moon, at the three great festivals, on the day as the Newark Grammar,' and 'The Supreme of atonement and at the feast of trumpets. Divinity of Our Lord Jesus Christ.' Private ones might be presented at any time.

BURR, Aaron, American statesman: b. BURNT SIENNA, an ochreous earth Newark, N. J. (son of the preceding), 6 Feb. known as sienna earth (terra di Sienna) sub

1756; d. Port Richmond, Staten Island, 14 mitted to the action of fire, by which it is con- Sept. 1836. Before he was three years old his verted into a fine orange-brown pigment used

parents died, leaving him a considerable estate. in both oil and water-color painting.

He entered the sophomore class of Princeton BURNT STONES, a kind of carnelian College in 1769, and was graduated in 1772. At often met with in ruins. The red color dis- the outbreak of the Revolution Burr enlisted as played by holding it up to the light is believed a private and joined the force before Boston. to be the result of fire and artificial methods He volunteered for the expedition against Cantoward the same end have been tried with more ada and took part in the attack upon Quebec. or less success.

For this service he was raised to the rank of BURNT UMBER, a pigment of reddish

major. As aide-de-camp to General Putnam, brown color obtained by burning umber, a soft

Burr was engaged in the defense of New York, earthy mixture of the peroxides of iron and

and shortly after (1777 was promoted lieutenmanganese, deriving its name from Umbria in ant-colonel with the command of his regiment, Italy.

the colonel being a civilian. He was at Valley BURNT WOOD WORK.

Forge, and distinguished himself at the battle


of Monmouth, where he commanded a brigade

in Lord Stirling's division. During the winter BURNTISLAND, búrnt-i'lạnd, Scotland, of 1778 he was stationed in Westchester County, a royal burgh and seaport of Fife, on the north N. Y., but early in the following spring he shore of the estuary of the Forth, 71/2 miles resigned his commission, partly on account of north by west of Edinburgh and five miles by

ill health, and partly through disappointment steam ferry north of Granton. It is a favorite

at not being more rapidly promoted. Burr besummer residence and bathing-place as well as

longed to the Lee and Gates factions; he always a busy port. Its parish church dates from 1594,

affected to despise the military talents of Genand close by is Rossend Castle, where Chastel

eral Washington; and it is not improbable that ard's indiscreet love affair with Mary Queen of these circumstances interfered with his profesScots was followed by his execution. Ĉhe har

sional career. In 1782 he was admitted to the bor is capacious, of great depth and of easy bar in Albany, and in July of the same year he access, and the docks are extensive and weil

married Mrs. Provost, the widow of a British equipped. Vegetable oil and oil-cake are made, officer who had died in the West Indies. In and there are railway repairing works and a

1783 he began to practise in New York, and distillery. It unites with Kinghorn, Dysart and soon obtained a lucrative business. In politics Kirkcaldy in sending a member to Parliament.

his success was rapid and brilliant. In 1784 Pop. 4,708.

he was elected to the State legislature; he was BURPEE, Lawrence Johnston, Canadian appointed attorney-general of New York in author: b. Halifax, Nova Scotia, 5 March 1873. 1789 and United States senator in 1791. While He entered the Canadian public service in 1890; in the Senate several influential members of in 1905 he was appointed librarian of the Car- Congress recommended him for the mission to negie Public Library, Ottawa. In 1912 he was France, but Washington, with marked emphasis, appointed secretary of the Canadian section of refused to appoint him. He left the Senate the International Joint Commission. In addi- in 1797, and the following year was returned tion to editorial work for the publications of to the State legislature. Some aspersions the Canadian Archives and the Royal Society upon his conduct while in that body, which of Canada, contributions to various encyclo- were thrown out by John B. Church, led to a pædias and Canada and Its Provinces,' he has duel between Burr and that gentleman, in published, among others, the following works: which, however, neither party was injured. Bibliography of Canadian Fiction (1904); Burr was very efficient in the presidential can(The Search for the Western Sea) (1907), a vass of 1800. To his efforts may be attributed notable contribution to the history of explora- the success of the Republicans in New York, tion; (By Canadian Streams); Songs of upon the action of which State the result in French Canada) (1909); Dictionary of Cana- the Union depended. On account of the promdian History) (with A. G. Doughty); La inence he thus obtained the friends of Jefferson Verendrye and the Western Sea' (1911); brought him forward for the Vice-Presidency. Canadian Humour) (1912); Among the An equal number of votes having been thrown

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for Jefferson and Burr in the Electoral College, the election of a President devolved upon the House of Representatives. Most of the Federal members, taking advantage of the singular turn in affairs, supported Burr. The contest lasted several days. Upon the 36th ballot Jefferson was chosen President, and, in accordance with the provisions of the constitution at that time, Burr became Vice-President. His conduct in permitting himself to be used by his political opponents in order to defeat the candidate of his party, whom he himself had supported, dissolved his connection with the Republicans and destroyed his political influence. The Federalists nominated him for governor of New York in 1804. Some of the leading men of that party refused to support him, and he was defeated. The contest was bitter and led to a duel between Burr and Alexander Hamilton (q.v.), 11 July 1804, in which the latter was killed. Burr was compelled to give up his residence in New York. After his retirement from the Vice-Presidency in April 1805, he made a journey to the Southwest. His conduct gave rise to the suspicion that he was organizing an expedition to invade Mexico, with the purpose of establishing an empire there which should embrace some of the southwestern States of the Union. He was arrested in Mississippi and taken to Richmond, Va., for trial upon an indictment for treason. After a protracted investigation before Chief Justice Marshall the prosecution was abandoned and Burr was acquitted in September 1807. In 1808 he went to Europe, expecting to get means to carry out his Mexican design. He was disappointed; and after being abroad four years, part of the time in extreme poverty, he returned to America in 1812. He resumed his profession in New York, but never regained his former position at the bar. In 1833 he married Mme. Jumel, a wealthy widow, but they soon separated. Mr. Burr had but one child, the accomplished Theodosia Allston. (See BURR, THEODOSIA). In person he was below the medium height, but his manners and presence were very attractive. He was an adroit, persevering but not a great lawyer. He cannot be said to have been an orator, yet he was an effective and ready speaker. It has been usual to regard Burr as a brilliant, and even a great, man, who was led astray by moral obliquity. In regard to the looseness of his principles, there can be no doubt; but there is a growing tendency to relieve his name of much of the odium that formerly attached to it. He survived nearly all his contemporaries. His body was laid beside his father's at Princeton. Consult Adams, (History of the United States) (9 vols., New York 1889–91); Davis, Memoirs of Aaron Burr) (2 vols., New York 1836); Orth, S. R., Five American Politicians: A. Burr? (Cleveland 1906); Parton, Life of Aaron Burr) (New York 1858); Schouler, History of the United States of America under the Constitution' (6 vols., last ed., New York 1899); Tompkins, (Burr Bibliography) (Brooklyn 1892); Todd, (The True Aaron Burr' (ib. 1902); McCaleb, "The Aaron Burr Conspiracy) (ib. 1903).

BURR, Edward, American soldier: b. Boonville, Mo., May 1859. He studied at Washington University 1874–78, and at the United States Military Academy 1878-82, and on graduation at the latter was assigned to

the corps of engineers with the rank of second lieutenant. He was promoted first lieutenant in 1883 and captain in 1894; and as lieutenantcolonel of volunteers commanded the battalion of engineers in the campaign against Santiago de Cuba in June-July 1898. He was appointed colonel 2 March 1912. He is a member of the American Society of Civil Engineers.

BURR, Enoch Fitch, American mathematician and clergyman: b. Green's Farms, Fairfield County, Conn., 21 Oct. 1818; d. 1907. He was graduated at Yale in 1839, and became pastor of the Congregational Church in Lyme, Conn., in 1850. From 1868 till his death he was a lecturer at Amherst College. Among his works are A Treatise on the Application of the Calculus to the Theory of Neptune' (1848); A Song of the Sea (1873); (Aleph, the Chaldean (1891); Pater Mundi (1869); Ad Fidem? (1871); Ecce Terra' (1884); Celestial Empires (1885); Universal Beliefs (1887); Supreme Things in their Practical Relations(1889); besides several historical stories.

BURR, George Lincoln, American historian: b. Oramel, N. Y., 30 Jan. 1857. He was educated at Cornell University, where he was graduated in 1881, and studied also at Leipzig, the Sorbonne and at Zürich. He became professor of ancient and mediæval history at Cornell in 1888 and in 1898 was appointed librarian of the White, Historical Library. , In 1896–97 he served as historical expert of the Venezuelan Boundary Commission. He has made an especial study of the history of superstition. He has published The Literature of Witchcraft (1890) and (The Fate of Dietrich Flade) (1891). He edited the Century. Historical Series) and is a member of the editorial staff of the American Historical Review.

BURR, Theodosia (Mrs. Joseph ALLSTON), daughter of Aaron Burr, b. New York 1783; d. 1813. She was carefully educated and became very accomplished, showing particular linguistic talent. After the death of Mrs. Burr she presided over her father's household until her marriage in 1801 to Governor Allston of South Carolina. Her correspondence with her father after her removal to the South is of great interest and shows continued devotion to his interests. Her beauty, brilliant personality and relationship to the famous statesman drew public, attention to her, especially during her father's trial, and had the effect of enlisting the public sympathy on his behalf. In 1812 she sailed from Charleston in the Patriot for New York, but the vessel was never heard from and was believed to have been lost in the storm or sunk by pirates.

BURR, William Hubert, American educator: b. Watertown, Conn., 14 July 1851. He was graduated at: Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute 1872; was employed by the Wrought Iron Bridge Company of New York, and later on the water supply and sewerage systems of Newark, N. J. He was assistant professor and later professor of rational and technical mechanics at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute 1876-84; became assistant engineer of the Phoenix Bridge Company 1884, and subsequently its general manager; was professor of engineering in the Lawrence Scientific School of Harvard

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University 1892-93; consulting engineer to the New York city department of public works 1893-95, of parks and of docks 1895-97, and later of bridges. Since 1893 he has been professor of civil engineering at Columbia, and in 1904 became a member of the Isthmian Canal Commission. He is author of The Stresses in Bridge and Roof Trusses (1879); Arched Ribs and Suspension Bridges' (1913); Elasticity of the Materials of Engineering (1883); 'The Theory of Masonry Arches, Ancient and Modern Engineering and the Isthmian Canal' (1902), etc.

BURRAGE, Henry Sweetser, American clergyman: b. Fitchburg, Mass., 7 Jan. 1837. He was graduated from Brown University, 1861, and entering the 36th Massachusetts as a private, rose to the rank of captain and brevetmajor of volunteers. After the war he resumed his studies, graduated at Newton Theological Institution, 1867, was at the University of Halle, Germany, 1868-69, and became a Baptist clergyman in 1869. He was pastor at Waterville, Me., 1869-73; editor of Zion's Advocate, 18731905; recording secretary of the American Baptist Union, 1876-1904; recorder Maine Commandery, Loyal Legion, 1889-1912; chaplain National Soldiers' Home, 1905-12; trustee Colby College, 1881-1905; Newton Theological Institution, 1889-1906; fellow of Brown University since 1901. He has edited 'Brown University in the Civil War) (1868); 'Henry W. Longfellow's 75th Birthday (1882); History of the 36th Regiment of Massachusetts Volunteers (1884); and has written (The Act of Baptism in the History of the Christian Church (1879); History of the Anabaptists in Switzerland (1882); Rosier's Relation of Waymouth's Voyage to the Coast of Maine in 1605) (1887); 'Baptist Hymn Writers and their Hymns (1888); History of the Baptists in New England, (1894); History of the Baptists in Maine) (1904); Gettysburg and Lincoln' (1906); Early English and French Voyages' (1906); Maine at Louisburg in 1745) (1910); The Beginnings of Colonial Maine' (1914.

BURRARD INLET, an inlet at the southwest corner of British Columbia, a little north of the mouth of the Fraser River. It is nine miles long, is one of the finest harbors on the Pacific coast, and has Vancouver, the terminus of the Canadian Pacific Railway, on its southern shore.

BURRELL, David James, American clergyman and author: b. Mount Pleasant, Pa., 1 Aug. 1844. He was graduated at Yale in 1867 and at Union Theological Seminary in 1870. He spent four years in mission work at Chicago and thereafter was successively pastor at Dubuque, Iowa, 1876-87, Westminster Church, Minneapolis, 1887-91, and the Marble Collegiate Church, New York. He has published Religions of the World' (1891); Gospel of Gladness' (1892); "The Early Church' (1897); The Religion of the Future) (1894); The Wonderful Teacher' (1902); Teachings of Jesus (1904); The Lure of the City' (1908); The Cloister Book' (1909); In David's Town' (1910); 'At the Gate Beautiful (1911); The Home Sanctuary) (1911); The Gateway of Life (1912); The OldTime Religion (1913) The Sermon (1913); 'The Church in the Upper Room' (1913);

VOL. 5-5

'We Would See Jesus' (1914); and (The Apostles' Creed' (1915); 'Why I Believe the Bible (1917).

BURRELL, Martin, Canadian legislator: b. England 1858. He was educated at Saint John's College, Hurstpierpoint, Sussex, and came to Ontario in 1886, where for 14 years he engaged in fruit growing near Niagara. He removed to British Columbia in 1900, and continued at fruit growing and began to take an interest in local politics. He became widely known as an authority on horticulture, and in 1907 the government of British Columbia appointed him fruit commissioner and sent him as lecturer to England. In 1908 he was elected as a Conservative to the House of Commons and re-elected in 1911. In the latter year he was appointed Minister of Agriculture in the Borden administration.

BURRIANA, Spain, town in the province of Castellón, eight miles south of the town of Castellón, on the river Seco, and about one mile from the Mediterranean. It is situated in a fertile region. Agriculture and fishing are the principal industries and it has a trade in oil, wine and fruit. Pop. 14,243.

BURRILL, Thomas Jonathan, American naturalist: b. Pittsfield, Mass., 25 April 1839. He was graduated at the Illinois State Normal University in 1865, and in 1867 was botanist of Powell's first Rocky Mountain Expedition. Since 1868 he has been a member of the faculty of the University of Illinois and has held the following offices in the university: Professor of botany and horticulture since 1868; dean of the College of Science, 1877-84; vice-president since 1879; acting president, 1889-90, 1891-94 and 1904; dean of the Graduate School since 1894. The degree of LL.D. was conferred upon him in 1893 by the Northwestern University. He is a member of several American and foreign scientific societies, and is well known from his writings under more than 100 titles, mostly upon the parasitic diseases of plants, bacteriology, microscopy, fruit growing, forestry, landscape gardening and modern education.

BURRILLVILLE, R. I., town of Providence county, 24 miles northwest of Providence, on the New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad. It manufactures woolen goods. Nearby is Wallum Lake, a popular summer resort. Burrillville is governed by a town council, chosen every year. Pop. 7,878.

BURRITT, Elihu ("THE LEARNED BLACKSMITH"), American reformer: b. New Britain, Conn., 8 Dec. 1811; d. 7 March 1879. The son of a shoemaker, he was educated in the common schools of his native village, and at the age of 16 was apprenticed to a blacksmith. An early conceived project of reading the Scriptures in their original language led him to philological studies in the intervals of labor, and by diligence and a remarkable facility he was soon able to understand works in several languages. He removed to Worcester to take advantage of the library of the Antiquarian Society there, and while still plying his trade became acquainted with the principal ancient and modern languages. In 1846 he went to England, where he formed the "League of Universal Brotherhood," whose object was "to

employ all legitimate means for the abolition of war throughout the world." He was constantly engaged in writing and lecturing, and took a prominent part in all the European peace congresses. He returned to America in 1853. He was consular agent at Birmingham, 1865-68. The promotion of temperance, cheap ocean postage and the abolition of American slavery were leading objects of his continued exertions. His principal publications 'Sparks from the Anvil (1848); Thoughts and Things at Home and Abroad' (1854); 'Chips from Many Blocks,' etc.




BURROUGH, BOROUGH, BURROWE, or BORROWS, Stephen, or Stefan, English navigator: b. Devonshire, 23 Sept. 1525; d. 1584. In 1553 he took a very active part in the expedition dispatched from the Thames under Sir Hugh Willoughby to look for a northwest passage to Cathay and India. There were three ships in the expedition, one of which was under the command of Burrough, who got separated from the other craft during He continued the voyage alone, reaching Nova Zembla and the island of Waigatz. In 1556 he made a second voyage into the same regions and in 1560 he took charge of another expedition to Russia. In 1563 he was appointed chief pilot and one of the four masters of queen's ships in the Medway, a position which he held for many years. Burrough, who reached 70° 30' N. on one of his Russian expeditions, was looked upon, in his day, as a noted explorer. He seems to have been a very active and intelligent sailor.

BURROUGHS, George, American clergyman: d. Salem, Mass., 19 Aug. 1692. He was graduated at Harvard College in 1670, was a preacher at Falmouth, now Portland, Me., in 1676, and at Salem in 1680. In consequence of some dispute with his people he returned to Portland in 1683, but, when that town was destroyed by the Indians in 1690, came back to Salem. Though a person of unblemished character, he became one of the victims of accusation by the confessing witches. It was testified that two of his wives had appeared to the witnesses, saying that he was the cause of their death, and threatening, if he denied it, to appear in court. He was also accused of performing feats of extraordinary strength by diabolical assistance, such as carrying a barrel of molasses, holding out a gun by a finger placed in the muzzle, and of having "tortured, afflicted, pined, consumed, wasted and tormented" one Mary Wolcott. Although he asserted his innocence so as to draw tears from the spectators, and recited the Lord's Prayer, which it was supposed no witch could repeat without mistake, he was condemned and executed.

BURROUGHS, John, American essayist and literary naturalist: b. Roxbury, N. Y., 3 April 1837. In his youth he taught school for about 10 years; he began early to write for the magazines; in 1863 he became clerk in the Treasury Department at Washington, D. C., where he worked for 10 years, carrying on his literary activities simultaneously. Later he became a national bank examiner. In 1873 he built "Riverby," his home at West Park, on the Hudson, where he has since lived, devoting himself to fruit culture, nature

study and literature. In 1862 Mr. Burroughs wrote the poem, Waiting,' by which he is perhaps more widely known than by any of his books. His first book, 'Walt Whitman, Poet and Person,' was written in 1867, he being the first person of note in the United States to give public recognition of Whitman. His later book on the Good Gray Poet,' 'Whitman, a Study,' was published in 1896, and was the result of many years of comradeship with the poet. Mr. Burroughs has gathered most of the harvest for his nature books near at home, either at "Riverby," in his bark-covered study, or in the region of "Slabsides," his retreat back from the Hudson, near West Park, or in later years at "Woodchuck Lodge, on the farm in the Catskills where he was born. He has, however, wandered away from these haunts occasionally, as his books testify to many parts of the United States, to Bermuda, the West Indies, the Canadas, twice to Europe, on the Alaskan expedition of 1899 with E. H. Harriman, in the Yellowstone in 1903 with President Roosevelt, through the Southwest and Yosemite with John Muir, in 1909, and also to Hawaii. The personal element is very marked in his writings, and the charm of his easy familiar style, with his remarkable observation and interpretation of nature, has done much to popularize the study of nature in our day, while his work on literary criticism, his character studies and his philosophical essays are eagerly welcomed by lovers of good literature. His books, with the dates of their publication, are (Walt Whitman, Poet and Person' (1867); 'Wake Robin' (1871); Winter Sunshine (1875); 'Birds and Poets (1877); 'Locusts and Wild Honey' (1879); 'Pepacton) (1881); Fresh Fields> (1884); Signs and Seasons' (1886); 'Indoor Studies (1889); Riverby) (1894); Whitman, a Study (1896); The Light of Day' (1900); Literary Values' (1902); Life of Audubon' (1902); Far and Near (1904); Ways of Nature' (1905); Bird and Bough Poems (1906); Camping and Tramping with Roosevelt' (1907); 'Leaf and Tendril' (1908); Time and Change) (1912); "The Summit of the Years) (1913); The Breath of Life' (1915); Under the Apple Trees' (1916). Mr. Burroughs has also edited a volume of nature poems, Songs of Nature' (1901); and several books have been compiled from his works 'Birds and Bees'; 'Afoot and Afloat'; Sharp Eyes'; 'Little Nature Studies'; 'Squirrels and Other Fur Bearers'; A Year in the Fields; 'In the Catskills'; and 'Bird Stories from Burroughs. >

BURROWING BEE, any of the species that burrow in the ground and form their nests there. Among the principal kinds are the Adrena and Halictus. See BEE.

BURROWING OWL, a small owl (Speotyto cunicularia) common on the open plains of both North and South America, where it makes its nest in burrows. It is mottled gray in color, has very long legs, scantily feathered and stands erect upon them in a manner different from that of owls generally. It is gregarious, and is especially prevalent on the North American plains in the "towns" of the prairie dogs; and in South America it lives with the vizcachas and cavies, and is thought to warn them by

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