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des Chartes in 1822, passed as a lawyer in 1824 pointed time battered in a door and attempted and soon after devoted himself to the study of the rescue themselves, relying upon assistance Oriental languages. In 1826 he attracted the in their undertaking. The size of the meetattention of of learning throughouting, however, prevented the signals from workEurope by publishing, in conjunction with his ing well and the leaders from emerging, and friend, Lassen, an Essay on the Pali, or the after a scuffle in which a deputy was fatally sacred language of the Buddhists in Ceylon and stabbed and several assailants wounded, the the Eastern Peninsula, and in 1827 by furnish- latter retired. The next day Loring, an ardent ing an explanatory text to the series of litho- upholder of the Fugitive Slave Law, delivered graphic plates prepared by Geringer and Cha- Burns to his claimant on evidence entirely ilbrelle to illustrate the religion, manners, cus- legal and worthless even under that_law. Estoms, etc., of the Hindu nations inhabiting the corted by a strong military guard, Burns was French possessions in India. This work was taken to a government cutter, through streets not completed till 1835. In 1832 he was ad

draped in mourning and crowds ready to stone mitted into the Academy of Inscriptions, and in the soldiers. A riot at the wharf was only prethe same year was appointed to the professor- vented by the action of Rev. Daniel Foster upon ship of Sanskrit in the Collège de France, an his saying "Let us pray!” The crowd uncovoffice which he held till his death. His fame is ered and stood quiet while Burns was taken on chiefly due to his having, so to speak, restored to board. Indictments were drawn against his life an entire language, the Zend or old Persian would-be rescuers, but quashed for want of evilanguage in which the Zoroastrian writings dence. Burns afterward gained his liberty, were composed. Anquetil-Duperron had ob- studied theology at Oberlin College and was tained the text of the extant works of this eventually settled over a Baptist colored church sacred language of the Persians. It is the glory

in Saint Catherine's, Ontario, where he died. of Burnouf to have interpreted those works

Consult Stevens, Anthony Burns: a History' with the aid of the Sanskrit. To this part of his

(1856); Adams, Richard Henry Dana: a labors belongs his Extrait d'un commentaire

Biography) (1891); Higginson, Cheerful Yeset d'une traduction nouvelle du Vendidad

terdays) (1898). Sade! (1830); Observations sur la grammaire de M. Bopp (1833); Commentaire sur le BURNS, John, English labor organizer and Yasna (1833-35) Burnouf also distinguished statesman: b. London, October 1858. He was himself by his labors on Buddhism. On this of humble birth and became a factory employee subject he published the text accompanied by a at the age of 10. He was an omnivorous reader translation of the Bhagavata Purana) (1840- and imbibed his socialistic views from a French 47); Introduction à l'histoire du Bouddhisme fellow laborer. By working a year as engineer Indien' (1st vol., 1844), etc. A fortnight be- on the Niger River, he earned enough for a six fore his death the Academy of Inscriptions months' tour of Europe. He constantly adelected him secretary for life. Consult Lenor- dressed audiences of workingmen, and was a mant, Eugène Burnouf?. (Paris 1852); Bar- persistent labor agitator. He was one of the thélemy-St.-Hilaire, Notice sur les travaux leader's in the West End riot in London, Febde M. E. B.? (in the 2d ed. of the Introduc- ruary 1886, and was imprisoned the same year tion à l'histoire du Bouddhisme (1876); Choix for maintaining the right of public meeting in de Lettres d'Eugène Burnouf) (1891).

Trafalgar Square. He, in conjunction with BURNOUF, Jean Louis, French classical

Ben Tillett, organized the successful dock scholar: b. Urville, Manche, 1775; d. Paris,

strike in London in 1889. He has been thrice 1844. He was appointed assistant professor at

elected to the London county council and has the Collège Charlemagne in 1807 and professor

sat in the House of Commons as Labor memof Latin there in 1816. In 1840 he became uni

ber for Battersea since 1892. From 1905-14 versity librarian. He exercised a profound

he was president of the Local Government influence on classical learning in France. He

Board, and in the latter year he became presipublished a translation of Tacitus? (6 vols.,

dent of the Board of Trade. On the out1827–33, 1881) and a Méthode pour étudier la

break of the Great European War in August langue grecque) (1814, 1893).

1914, on account of the war policy of the As

quith cabinet, he resigned his place in the govBURNS, Anthony, American fugitive slave: ernment. b. Virginia, about 1830; d. Saint Catherine's, Ontario, 27 July 1862. Escaping from slavery

BURNS, Robert, Scottish poet : b. near Ayr, he worked in Boston during the winter of Scotland, 25 Jan. 1759; d. Dumfries, 21 July 1853–54; but on 24 May 1854 — the day after the 1796. His father, William Burnes or Burness, repeal of the Missouri Compromise and the a native of Kincardineshire, had been a garpassing of the Kansas-Nebraska Bill had in- dener, but at the time of the poet's birth was a famed the North against the slave power nurseryman on a small piece of land on the was arrested on warrant of Charles F. Suttle banks of the Doon in Ayrshire. He was a man through his agent Brent. The next day he was of strong intelligence and deep piety, but untaken before United States Commissioner Ed- successful in his struggle with poverty. His ward G. Loring for examination; but Wendell mother was Agnes Brown, a woman of ability, Phillips and Theodore Parker secured an ad- and, though of meagre book education, well journment for two days. Burns, meanwhile, versed in folk-song and legend. Robert, the was confined in the courthouse under a strong eldest of seven children, went to school for guard, and on the evening of the 26th a great three years, 1765–68, under John Murdoch in the mass meeting in protest was held at Faneuil neighboring village of Alloway. Later he was Hall. T. W. Higginson and others had planned in attendance for a few months each at Dalto stampede the meeting into storming the rymple parish school in 1772, at Ayr Academy courthouse and rescuing Burns, and at the ap- in 1773 and at Kirkoswald about 1776; but the more important part of his education he re- for Mrs. McLehose, the «Clarinda) of his letceived from his father and his own reading. ters, and the inspirer of a number of lyrics; In 1766 William Burness had borrowed money much difference of opinion as to whether and to rent the farm of Mount Oliphant; and the how long he was in love with his wife. Into future poet by the time he was 16 was do- these details we do not enter. It is clear enough ing a man's work, overstraining his immature that Burns was a man of exceptionally powerphysique in performing his share in the vain ful passions, that the extreme and depressing effort of the family to keep its head above hardships of his youth, and, indeed, of the water. The scene of the struggle was moved greater part of his life, along with his natural in 1777 to Lochlea, about 10 miles distant, tendencies to conviviality, drove him to excesses where in 1784 his father died. During the of self-indulgence; and that while he strove Lochlea period, Burns, ambitious to improve often and painfully after better things, his his position, went to the neighboring town of striving was many times without avail.«The Irvine to learn flax-dressing. Nothing came of sport,” he calls himself, “the miserable victim this move; but while resident there he formed of rebellious pride, hypochondriac imagination, that acquaintance with a dissipated sailor to agonizing sensibility and bedlam passions." which he himself ascribed the beginning of his These phrases are true enough, though they do licentious adventures. On his father's death, not imply the further explanation of his pitiful Robert and his brother Gilbert rented the farm career that is found in the habits of his class of Mossgiel, but this experiment was no more and time, and the untoward nature of his ensuccessful than those previously made. While vironment. here he contracted an intimacy with Jean Something of his education has already been Armour, which brought upon him the censure indicated. His schooling left him with a good of the Kirk-session. Finally the poet, dis- grammatical knowledge of English and a readheartened by successive bad harvests and irri- ing, knowledge of French. His father's care tated by the attempts of his father-in-law to and his own eagerness gave him no slight cancel his irregular marriage with Jean and to knowledge of literature; and among other hand him over to the law, determined to emi- authors we know that he read, of older litergrate. For 10 years he had been composing ature, the Bible, Shakespeare, Spenser, Johnson, verses, some of which had brought him con- Bunyan, Dryden, Locke, Molière, Wycherley; siderable local fame, and these he collected and of his own century, Addison, Steele and Pope; published in order to raise money for the voy- Ramsay, Fergusson, Thomson and Beattie; age; but the unexpected success of this volume Fielding, Smollett, Sterne and Mackenzie; (Kilmarnock 1786) roused his literary ambition, Shenstone, Gray, and Goldsmith; Hume, Robgave him fresh courage and led him to change ertson and Adam Smith, and a number of his plans. Instead of sailing for the West philosophical and theological works. This list Indies, he went to Edinburgh in November is by no means complete, but it is sufficient to 1786, and during that winter was the literary correct the impression that Burns's was an lion of the season. Here he met such celebrities untutored Muse." as Dugald Stewart, the philosopher; Blair, the The literary influences apparent in the work rhetorician; Henry. Mackenzie, the author of of Burns are of two main classes: English and (The Man of Feeling); Lord Glencairn; the Scottish. So far as he fell under the former of Duchess of Gordon, and Creech, the publisher. these he was an inferior poet of the school of The last named undertook an enlarged edition Pope, an ardent admirer and imitator of such of his poems (Edinburgh 1787); and while a minor master as Shenstone. In this field his waiting for the profits of this volume, Burns critical judgment was never more than commade several tours through the country, traces monplace, and his imitations never first-rate. of which are to be found in a number of occa- Almost all of his greatest work was done in his sional poems. Creech finally paid him enough native dialect; and here he is the heir, as well to enable him to give substantial help to his as the last great representative, of an ancient brother in Mossgiel, and to rent and stock the national tradition. Previous to the 17th century farm in Ellisland in Dumfriesshire. Hither there existed a Scottish literature of considerin 1788 he brought Jean Armour, to whom he able variety and distinction, produced in part was now regularly married, his success and under the patronage of the court. But the Reffame having reconciled her parents to the ormation and the union of the crowns of Engmatch; and for three years he tried farming. land and Scotland resulted in the disuse of the But failure still dogged him, and in 1791 he vernacular for dignified and courtly writing, moved to Dumfries, where he lived on a posi- and it rapidly lost social prestige, until as a tion in the excise service which he had obtained literary medium it survived only in the songs while still at Ellisland through the influence of of the peasantry and in an occasional piece of some of the powerful acquaintances he had satire. The 18th century, however, saw a revival made in Edinburgh. He had, however, lost of interest in purely Scottish letters, and the heart; and after a few years of drudgery, varied publication of such compilations as Watson's with the drinking bouts to which he was con- Choice Collection of Comic and Serious Scots stantly tempted both by habit and by the invita

Poems (1706-09-11), and Allan Ramsay's tion of foolish admirers, he died at Dumfries Evergreen' (1724) and Tea-Table Miscellany in his 38th year.

(1724-27) was the result of an impulse that Biographies of Burns have frequently been showed itself also in renewed attempts to comcrowded with attempts to disentangle or to ex- pose in dialect. Among the most important plain away the facts of his numerous amours. leaders in this movement were William HamilThere is much controversy over the identity of ton of Gilbertfield (who modernized the 15th the semi-mythical Mary Campbell, the “High- century poem on Wallace), Allan Ramsay and land Mary of the songs; much curiosity over Robert Fergusson; and each of these had a the precise degree of Platonism in his feeling share in inspiring Burns to work in that field

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in which he achieved his greatest triumphs. Their influence was both general and particular, They showed him by their own success what could be done in the native idiom; and they gave him models of which he was not slow to avail himself. Many of Burns's best known poems are all but imitations of productions, usually inferior, by Ramsay and Fergusson, to them and their poetical ancestors he was indebted not only for suggestions as to theme and method of treatment, but also for his most characteristic verse-forms. This readiness on the part of Burns to accept from his predecessors all that they had to give, and to seek to maintain loyally a national tradition rather than to strive after mere novelty, has much to do with his success in carrying that tradition to its highest pitch, and in becoming, in a sense almost unique, the poet of his people.

The first kind of poetry which Burns thoroughly mastered was satire; and the most important of his successful efforts in this form, "The Twa Herds, or the Holy Tulzie, Holy Willie's Prayer,' The Address to the Unco Guid, The Holy Fair,' and the Address to the Deil,' were all written within less than a year (1785-86). Whatever Burns's feelings may have been about what he suffered in his own person from the discipline of the Kirk, it is clear that the impulse that gave these poems their fire and their influence was something much larger than

personal grudge. Against the narrow dogma and tyrannical conduct of the so-called "Auld Licht" party in the Scottish Church, there had sprung up the “New Lichts, demanding some relaxation of Calvinistic bonds and preaching charity and tolerance. Though not a member of this or any ecclesiastical faction, Burns sympathized strongly with their protest; and the shafts of his satire were directed against both the doctrines of the orthodox party and their local leaders. For some time after the Reformation the Scottish people seem to have submitted willingly to the rigorous domination of the Presbyterian ministers; but, after the struggle against Rome and the persecutions of the Covenanting times had alike become matters of history, there began to appear a more critical attitude toward their spiritual leaders. The revolt against authority that spread throughout Europe in the latter part of the 18th century manifested itself in Scotland in a growing disposition to demand greater individual liberty in matters of conduct and belief. It was this disposition that Burns voiced in his satires, the local conditions determining the precise direction of his attack. The substantial justice of his cause, the sharpness of his wit, the vigor of his invective, and the imaginative fervor of his verse, all combined to bring the matter home to his countrymen; and he is here to be reckoned a great liberating force.

Several of the satires were published in the Kilmarnock volume, and along with them a variety of other kinds of poetry. In the words of his preface, «he sings the sentiments and manners he felt and saw in himself and his rustic compeers around him.” Some of these are descriptive of sides of humble Scottish life with which he himself was in the closest contact. (The Twa Dogs) gives a democratic peasant's views of the lives of lairds and farmers; and the sketch of the factor in this poem has been

taken as a reminiscence of what his father had to endure from the arrogance of such an agent. (The Cotter's Saturday Night describes with affectionate reverence the order of his father's house; Puir Mailie,' The Auld Mare Maggie,' (To a Mouse, and others, reveal the kindliness of the poet's heart in his relation to animals; Hallowe'en gives a vivid picture of rustic mirth and manners, and preserves a mass of folk-lore. Of the additional poems that appeared in the Edinburgh editions the most notable was “Tam o' Shanter,' Burns's best sustained piece of narrative, a poem that indicates that, had he worked his vein farther, he might have ranked with Chaucer as a teller of tales in verse.

A large quantity of Burns's poetry remained in manuscript at the time of his death. Of this, much the most remarkable is The Jolly Beggars,' in the opinion of many his most brilliant production. This cantata carries to its highest point the far-descended literature of the rogue and the beggar, and its superb spirit and abandon show how heartily the poet could sympathize with the very dregs of society. It is to be noted that, alone among pieces that reach his highest level, it is chiefly in English. Burns wrote besides a large number of epistles, epigrams, epitaphs and other personal and 'occasional verse, the quality and interest of which vary much, but throughout which one constantly finds phrases and stanzas of superb quality. He came to write verse with great ease; but the result of the training he gave himself in artistic discrimination was to check mere fluency, and to lead him to discard much that was of inferior value in his improvisations. Thus the proportion of his work possessed of real poetic distinction is very high.

But the national importance of Burns, though increased by his influence upon the liberalizing movements of his time, and by his vital descriptions and characterizations of the peasant life of the Scotland of his time, is based chiefly on his songs. The period of Presbyterian despotism already referred to had forced the lyric muse of Scotland into low company, and as a result Burns found Scottish song stih

and fine in melody, but hopelesly degraded in point of both poetry and decency. From youth he had been interested in collecting the sordid fragments he heard sung in cottage and tavern, or found printed in broadsides and chapbooks; and the resuscitation of this all-but-lost national heritage came to be regarded by him in the light of a vocation. Two points are especially to be noted about his song-making: first, that almost all sprang from real emotional experiences; second, that almost all were composed to a previously existing melody. He had begun the composing of love-songs while still almost a boy, and he continued it to the end. During his visit to Edinburgh in 1786–87, he formed a connection with the editor of Johnson's Musical Museum, and for this publication he undertook to supply material. Few of the traditional songs were such as could appear in a reputable volume, and Burns's task was to make them over into presentable form. Sometimes he retained a stanza or two, sometimes only a line or refrain, sometimes merely the name of the melody: the rest was his own. His method was to familiarize himself with the traditional air, to catch a suggestion from some stanza or

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