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"The Government of South Africa.” "

We beg to inform our readers that every effort is being made to issue the complete and corrected edition of The Government of South Africa before the meeting of the National Convention. The book will be bound and issued in two volumes, the first containing the text and the second the tabular statements, diagrams and maps. The price has been fixed at ios., in order to bring the book within the reach of everyone at a time when the future constitution of South Africa is under consideration. This price will scarcely cover the cost of printing and binding, and the authors cannot engage to produce a further reprint.

To prevent disappointment, therefore, we should be glad if those who wish to possess copies will order them beforehand, so that a fairly accurate statement may be formed of the number to be issued. Orders may be booked through any of the local depots of the Central News Agency, Limited, or may be sent direct to the office of the Central News Agency, Limited, at Johannesburg or Cape Town. The copies will be supplied as fast as they come from the press to subscribers according to the priority of the date of their orders. Those who wish to receive early copies are therefore requested to book their orders as soon as possible. The book can be delivered through any of the local depots of the Central News Agency, Limited, or may be ordered through booksellers, who will be supplied on the usual terms. If, however, it is desired that the two volumes (which are necessarily large) should be sent by post, an additional 25. should be sent for postage.

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Prepared for and issued by the Closer Union Society.

CAPE TOWN :
PRINTED BY CAPE TIMES LIMITED.

1908.

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PREFACE.

As this work has been prepared for, and is published by the Closer Union Society, the author feels that it is necessary to explain that the aim which underlies it is to provide a manual of reference to the Constitutions of other countries which havə achieved Closer Union. At first it was intended merely to bring up-to-date a manual prepared for the Convention of 1891 in Australia by Mr. R. C. Baker (now the Hon. Sir R. C. Baker, K.C.M.G.), who very kindly gave permission for this to be done. But it was found that conditions had altered so greatly since 1891 that a mere bringing up-to-date of Sir R. C. Baker's manual would scarcely serve the purpose required; and the author therefore decided to incorporate only those parts of Sir R. C. Baker's work which will be found in Chapters II., III. and IV. of Part II. of this book.

As the book appears, it has been composed with the sole idea of supplying at once some elementary knowledge, and the necessary references for a far more complete knowledge, of such parts of the achievements of other countries in the matter of Closer Union as appeared to be of practical use to South Africa. The test of utility will explain some otherwise inexplicable omissions. Thus nothing has been said of the American Executive, and the Executive Department of Government generally, receives far less attention than the other two great Departments. Similarly, the organization of the separate States is dealt with only in one confessedly inadequate chapter; and the Constitution of Germany is hardly ever referred to. These and other omissions are all due to the fact that the author has tried always to keep before him the single aim of utility for those who are studying the problem of Closer Union in South Africa.

To say that is to touch on another difficulty with which the author has continually found himself confronted—that of deciding how deeply he should go into those many intricate questions of legal interpretation which appear to be the inevitable consequence of the adoption of a written Union Constitution in any country, and here the author can only say that he has tried in every case to avoid unnecessary technicality without descending to a treatment of his subject which would be merely popular and superficial, and

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