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pecuniary aid, the state should give it liberally and ungrudgingly. The people of California are among the most free-hearted and free-handed of any in the world; there never has been any popular feeling against Marshall and Sutter; that more was not given them was neither a matter of money nor a matter of ill-will or prejudice. The question was simply asked, What had these men done to entitle them to lavish reward on the part of the people? To one of them, and him a foreigner, was secured by the general government a title to princely possessions in the midst of princely opportunities. That he failed to secure to himself the best and most lasting advantages of his position, and like a child let go his hold on all his vast possessions, was no fault of the people, and entitles him to no special sympathy. Marshall

, made of quite common clay, but still a free-born American citizen, with rights equal to the best, happened to stumble on gold a week, or a month, or six months before some one else would certainly have done so. The fame of it was his, and as much of the gold as he chose to shovel

up
and
carry away.

There was not the least merit on his part connected with the event. That he failed to profit by his opportunity, assuming that the world, by reason of the immortal accident, owed him a great debt which it would not pay; that he became petulant, half-crazed, and finally died in obscuritywas no fault of the people. Any free-born American citizen has the right to do the same if he chooses. I grant that he as well as Sutter could justly claim recompense for spoliation by mobs—though there is no evidence that they ever suffered greatly at the hands of mobs—and the continuance of the temporary pension granted them would not have been particufarly objectionable, on grounds similar to those applied to Hargrave, the Australian gold-finder. The services of the latter, however, had the consecration of a selfimposed task—exploration with an aim. As a blind

GIVE EVERY MAN HIS DUE.

107

instrument in the hands of inevitable development, as a momentary favorite of fortune, I concede Marshall every credit. I also admit that Sutter, as the builder of a great establishment in the wilderness, with industries supporting numerous dependents, thus bringing the truest method of culture to savages, and as the promoter of the undertaking at Coloma, is entitled to a share in the recognition which must connect him with the accidental founders of the golden era of California. But to talk of injustice or niggardliness on the part of the state of California; to imply that there was any necessity for either of these men to throw themselves away, or that the people of California did not feel or do rightly by them—is, as I said before, silly and absurd.si

31 Fuller references for the preceding six chapters are: Bidwell's Cal. in 1841-8, MS., passim; Galindo, A puntes, MS., 68-9; Buffum’s Six Months, 45-6, 50, 53–5, 67-9, 104–5, 126–38; Dunbar's Romance of the Age, 92-100, 103, 107–16; Kip, in Overland Monthly, ii. 410; Zamacois, Hist. Méj., x. 1141; Ferry, Cal., 103-4, 315–20; Ilust. Napa Co., and Hist. Napa and Lake, passim; Annals of S. F., 130-2, 174, 210, 311, 407, 486; Arch, Cal., Un. bound Docs, MS., 141, 318, 408–11; Clyman's Diary, MS.; Colton's Three Years, 266, 451; Revere's Tour of Duty, 228–52; Castañares, Col. Doc., MS., 23; Vallejo (S.), Notas Históricas, MS., 35; llall's llist., 192-3; Findia's Statement, MS., 5-7; Tinkham's Hist. Stockton, 1-50, 71-4, 108–15, 303; U. S. Gov. Docs, H. Ex. 17, 528-36, 561; Farnham's Cal., 354-6; Duinelle's Add. before Pioneers, 1866, 28; Hancock's Thirteen Years, MS., 121–2; Yolo Co. Hist., passim; Dana's Tuco Years, 324; Coast Reviewo, iv. 73–5, 217, 265-8; V. 25-8, 65–8, 107-8; Treasury of Travel, 99-101; Napa Register, Aug. 1, 1874; First Steamship Pioneers, 368; Janssens, Vida y Avent., MS., 198–200; Johnson's Cal. and Or.; Coutt's Diary, MS., passim; Slocum and Co.'s Contra Costa Co. Hist., passim; Foster's Gold Regions, 17-22; Yuba Co. Hist., 33–7, 107, 129-30; Coronel, Cosas de Cal., MS.; Hist. Atlas Alameda Co., 17-26; Revue des Deux Mondes, Feb. 1, 1819; Tyler's Mormon Buttalion, 333; T'uthillos Cal., 226–34; Wood's Hist. Alam. Co., passim; Bandini, A puntes Hist. Alta Cal., MS., 7, 17-19, 48–9; Schuck's Scrap-Book, 76-83; Tullidge's Life of Young, 203-4, 207–8; Hist. Marin Co., passim; Sac. Direct., 1871, 17; Frignet, Hist. Cal., 79-80; Palmer's Wagon Trains, MS., 43; Truckee Tribune, Jan. 8, 1870; Browne's Mining Res., 13-16; Cal. Pioneers, Celebration Scraps; Herbert Ainslie's Journal, Panamá, Feb. 1849; Bryant's What I Saw in Cal., 451, etc.; Gold Hill News, Apr. 16, 1872; Capron's Cal., 184–8; Auger, Voy. en Cal., 149–56; Baxter's W. Coast Amer., 408; Oroville Mercury, Dec. 31, 1875; Birnie's Biog., in Pion. Arch., 93-4; Monterey Herald, Oct. 1.), 1875; Cal. Past and Pres., 72–105; J. Ross Browne, in Overland Monthly, xv. 315; Wells' Hist. Butte Co., 129; Calistoga Tribune, Apr. 4, 11, 12, 1872; Coloma Argus, in Hittells Handbook, 14; Thompson and West's Hist. Sac. Co., passim; Utah, Habk of Ref., 65; Frost's Hist. Cal., 39-535; Dept Rec., MS., ix. 136; Elliott & Co.'s Hist. Ariz., 190; Centenn. Book Alam. Co., 37-56; Colusa Co. Hist., 25–36; Placer Timer, vol. i. no. 48, p. 2; Velasco, Sonora, 288-97; Bol. Soc. Mex. Geog., xi. 108–9; Alam. Encinal, March 2, 1878; Butte Co. Ilust., 127-9; Carver's Travels, 12:2; Willey's Pers. Mem.,

MS., 19–26; Id., Thirty Years, 26; Salt Lake City Trib., June 11, 1879; Bancroft's Pers. Obs., MS., 171; Illust. of Contra Costa Co., 4-33; Whitney's Metallic Wealth, pp. xxi. -xxxii.; J. J. Warner, in Alta Cal., May 18, 1868; Austin Rerse Riv. Reveille, July 17, 1864, Aug. 10, 1865, Jan. 29, 1872; Cal. Chronicle, Jan. 28, 1856; Prescott Miner, Nov. 22, 1878; Niles' Reg., lxiii. 96; lxxv., index “gold mines;” Cronise's Nat. Wealth, 109; Culver's Sac. City Direct., 71; Barnes' Or. and Cal., MS., 11; George M. Evans, in the Oregon Bulletin, Jan. 12, 1872, from Antioch Ledger, Feb. 3, 1872, and Mendocino Dem., Feb. 1, 1872; Hunt's Merch. Mag., xxxi. 385–6; Barstow's Stat., MS., 14; Carson State Reg., Jan. 27, 1872; Castroville Argus, Sept. 7, 1872; Wortley's Travels in U. S., 223; Sac. Ilust., 7; Lo Que Sabe, MS.; Green's Life and Advent., 17; Trinity Journal, Weaverville, Feb. 1, 1868; June 20, 1874; Gilroy Advocate, Apr. 24, 1875; Lake Co. Bee, March 8, 1873; Monitor Gazette, Aug. 19, 1865; Los Angeles W. News, Oct. 26, 1872; Marshall's Discov. of Gold, in Hutchings' Mag., ii. 200; U. 8. Gov. Docs, 30th cong. 2d sess., H. Ex. Doc. 1, pt i. 9-10, 51-69, in Mex. Treaties, vii. no. 9; Hist. Napa and Lake Counties, passim; Russ' Biog., MS., 5; Oakland Times, March 6, 1880; Hardy's Trav. in Mex., 331-2; 8. 1. News, ii. 134, 142, 146–7, 151, 158-66, 193-4; Oroville W. Mercury, Dec. 31, 1875; New Tacoma W. Ledger, Oct. 8, 1880; Harte's Skaggs' Husbands, 299–309; Cal. Star, passim; Californian, passim; Cal. Star and Californian, 1848, passim; 8. F. Direct., 1852–3, 8-9; Ross' Stat., MS., 14; Rul ( Miguel), Consult. Diputado, 60; Red Bluff Indep., Jan. 17, 1866; Henshaw's Hist. Events, 4-6; Herald, Nov. 24, 1848; Jan. 26, 1849; Marin Co. Hist., 52–3; Sac. Rec.-Union, Jan. 20, 1872, Aug. 28, 1880; S. Diego Arch., Index, 92; 8. Diego Union, June 2, 1875; Nevada Gaz., Jan. 22, 1868; S. F. Call, Sept. 16, 1870; Sept. 23, 1871; 8. Joaquin Co. Hist., passim; S. F. News Letter, Sept. 11, 1875; S. F. Post, Apr. 10, 1875; Rosway, diétaux, 209–406; Sac. Daily Union, Apr. 27, 1855; June 5, 1858; Oct. 24, 1864; June 7, 1867, etc.; 8. F. Pac. News, Oct. 28, 1850; S. F. Stock Rept, March 19, 1880; Pfeifer's Sec. Journey, 290; Nlust. Hist. San Mateo Co., 4-16; San Joaquin Valley Argus, Sept. 12, 1874; C. E. Pickett, in Cal. Chron., Jan. 28, 1856; Powers' Afoot, 290–2; S. F. Jour. of Comm., Aug. 30, 1876; Hist. Atlas Santa Clara Co., 9-10, 32-34, 77–81, 96-98, 116–26, 174-218, 244–77, 328–35, 484-8, 543-4; Hist, Santa Cruz Co., 7-49; S. José Pioneer, Jan. 27, 1877; Jan. 19, 1878; 8. F. Picayune, Oct. 12, 1830; S. F. Herald, Dec. 31, 1855; S. F. New Age, June 22, 1867; Quigley's Irish Race, 146; Sherman's Mem., i. 40-58; Scala, Nouv. Ann. Voy., cxx. 362-5; cxliii. 243; cxliv. 382–90; cxlvi. 118-21; Saxon's Five Years, passim; Sherwood's Cal; Grass Valley Union, Apr. 19, 1870; Simpson's Gold Mines, 4-5, 17; Holinski, La Cal., 142-4; Friend (Honolulu), July 1, 1848, Nov. 1, 1848, May 1, 1849, etc.; Scientific Press, May 11, 1872; Hist. Sonoma Co., passim; Hist. Atlas Sonoma Co., passim; Stillman's Golden Fleece, 19-27; Stockton Indep., Oct. 9, 1869; Sept. 14, 1872; Oct. 19, 23, 1875; Dec. 6, 1879; Smith's Addiess to (ialveston, 14; El Sonorense, May 16, 1849; Clark's Statement, MS.; Hughes' Cal., 119; Sutter, in Hutchings' Mag., ii. 194–7; Taylor's Eldorailo, i. 73; Thomas Sprague, in Hutchings' Mag., v. 352; Quart. Review, xci. 507-8; 1850, no. 87, p. 416; Santa Cruz Sentinel, July 17, 1875, May 29, 1880; Hist. Tehama Co., 11-15, 53, 109-12; Méx. Mem. Sec. Est. y Řel., 1835, no. 6; Mendocino Co. Hist., 52-3; Monterey Herald, Oct. 15, 1875; S. F. Chron., Jan. 8, Sept. 19, 1880; Simonin, Grand Quest, 286-9; Id., La l'ie Souterraine, 379; Merced People, June 8, 1872; Mckune, in Cal. Assoc. Pioneer, 1st Annual, 42; South. Quart. Rev., viii, 199; S. F. Bulletin, Dec. 6, 1855; Oct. 2, Dec. 7, 31, 1858; Aug. 13, 1859, etc.; S. F. Alta Cal., Oct. 15, 1851; May 3, Nov. 21, 1832; June 29, 1854; Dec. 22, 1855; July 31, 18.56; March 28, Nov. 11, 1857, etc.; Hist. All. Sol. Co., passim; Hist. Solano Co., passim; Seattle Intelligencer, June 6, 1874; Hunt's Mer. Mag., xx. 91, 111, 209; xxi. 567-8; xxii. 2:26. 7, 321; xxiv. 768; xxxiv. 631-2; J. W. Marshall, in Hutchinys' Mag., ii. 199–201; Mining Rev., 5; Mining Rev, and Stock Ledger, 1878, 126; Hist. Sutter Co., 21-2; Hutchings' Mag., ii. 196–201; iv. 340; U.S. Gov. Docs, H. Ex. Doc. no. 5, p. 158; no. 17, passim; Mason's Repts, July 19, Aug.

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17, 1848; Hayes' Coll. Mining Cal., i. 1, 50; Id., Coll. Mining Scraps, v. 2, 3, 17, 175; Id., Coll. Cal. Notes, iii. 7-8; v. 17; Barry's Up and Down, 92 3; Robinson's Cal. and its Gold Regions, 17-27, 47-8; Id., Life in Cal., 190; Duflot de Mofras, Expl. Or. et Cal., i. 137; Wilkes' Narr. U. 8. Ex. Exped., v. 181, 190, 195; Dally's Narr., MS., 53; Osio, Hist. Cal., MS., 506; Bigler's Diary of a Mormon, MS., passim; Vallejo, Docs, MS., i. 140-1, 369-70; xii. 332; Gillespie's Vig. Com., MS., passim; Alvarado, Hist. Cal., MS., i. 77; iv. 161; Sutter's Pers. Rem., MS., passim; Id., Diary, MS., passim; Burnett's Recoll. Past, MS. i.-ii. passim; Amador, Memorias, Ms., 177-80; Larkin's Docs, MS., i. 116; iii. 98; iv. 318; v. 25; vi. passim; vii. 28, 80; Id., Of. Corresp., MS., i. 96; ii. 131-41; Carson's Earlı Recoll., passim; Polynesian, iv. 114, 137; v. passim; Crosby's Events in Cal., MS., 2, 3, 17–19; Hittell's Handbook Mining, passim; Frisbie's Reminiscences, MS., 30-32, 84–36.

CHAPTER VII.

BROADER EFFECTS OF THE GOLD DISCOVERY.

1848-1849.

The REAL EFFECTS ETERNAL-HOW THE INTELLIGENCE WAS CARRIED OVER

THE SIERRA— TO THE HAWAIIAN ISLANDS-BRITISH COLUMBIA-OREGON
AND WASHINGTON-THE TIDINGS IN MEXICO—Mason's MESSENGER IN
WASHINGTON-CALIFORNIA GOLD AT THE WAR OFFICE AT THE PHIL.
ADELPHIA MIXT_THE NEWSPAPER PRESS UPON THE SUBJECT — BIBLIOG-
RAPHY-GREELEY'S PROPHECIES-INDUSTRIAL STIMULATION_OVERLAND
AND OCEANIC ROUTES-GENERAL EFFECT IN THE EASTERN STATES AND
EUROPE-INTEREST IN ASIA, SOUTH AMERICA, AND AUSTRALIA.

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The full and permanent effects of the California gold discovery cannot be estimated. All over the world impulse was given to industry, values changed, and commerce, social economy, and finance were revolutionized. New enlightenment and new activities succeeded these changes, and yet again followed higher and broader developments. It was the forerunner of like great discoveries of the precious metals elsewhere, in Australia, in Nevada and Idaho and Montana, in British Columbia and Alaska. There had been nothing like it since the inpouring of gold and silver to Europe, following the discovery of the New World by Columbus. It is not in its fullest, broadest sense, however, that the subject is to be treated in this chapter. The grand results can only be appreciated as we proceed in our history. It is rather the reception of the news in the different parts of the world, and the immediate action taken upon it, that I will now refer to.

By various ways intelligence of the gold discovery

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