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tirely new country. They embraced more of the abnormal and ephemeral, and a great deal of the criminal and vicious, in early California life. They might build cities and organize society, but there were those among them who made the cities hotbeds of vice and corruption, and converted the social fabric into a body nondescript, at the sight of which the rest of the world stood wrapped in apprehension.26

26 Additional authorities: U.S. Gout Docs, 30 Cong. 1 Sess., H. Ex. Doc. 1, p. 32; Id., 30 Cong. 2 Sess., U. S. Acts and Resol. 1-155; Id., 31 Cong. 1 Sess., H. Ex. Doc. 5, pt. i., 224, 429-33; H. Ex. Doc. 17, passim; H. Ex. Doc. 52, xiii. 94–154; H. Ex. Doc. 59, 7, 26; Id., 31 Cong. 2 Sess., H. Ex. Doc. 1, p. 77, 208; Sen. Doc. 19, ii. 12-15; II., 32 Cong. 1 Sess., Sen. Doc. 50, passim; Sen. Doc. 124, pp. 1-2:22; Mess. and Docs, 1847-8, ii. 955-6; Wilkes' Exp., v. 181; Velasco, Notic. Son., 289, 320–33; Simonin, Granit Ouest, 290 et seq.; Sherman's Mem., i. passim; Larkin's Docs, iii. 215; vi. 74, 111, 116, 128, 130, 132, 144, 173, 178, 180, 185, 198, 203, 219; vii. 24, 94; Manrow's Vig. Committee, MS., 1-67; Hayes' Life, MS., 69-70; Id., Diary, passim; Id., Scraps Ariz., v. 29; Id., Scraps L. Ang., i. 205; Id., Miscel. Hist. Papers, doc. 27; Id., Coll. Mining Cal., i. 1; Id., Coll. Mining, v. 3-12, 85; Id., Cal Notes, i. 101; iii. 153; v. 16, 20, 85; Williams' Stut., MS., 1-3, 6-12; Yreka Journal, Feb. 18, 1874; Janssen's Vila y Avent., 209-10; k'ünzel, Olercalifornien; Bigler's Diary of a Mormon, 56-79, 91; Buffum's Sir Months, 68-9, 111-22, 156; Burnett's Recoll., MS., passim; Carson's Early Recoll.; Gillespie's Vig. Com., MS., 3-4; Hitchcock's Suit., MS., 1-7; Annals S. F'., passim; Beadle's West. Wills, 38-40; Blu.come's Vig. Com., MS., 1-2; Connor's Early Cal., MS., 1-5; Cerruti's Rumblings, 66–7, 94 et seq., Mollien's Travels Col.

, 409–13; Robinson's Cal. Goll Region, passim; Stillman's Golden Fleece, 19-32, 327–52; Stuart's Trip to Cal., 2–3; Tyson's Geol. of Cal., 84; Bolton vs U.S., app. 88-95; Kirkpitrick's Journil

, MS., 3-16; Jenkins' U. S. Ex. Exped., 431-2; The Friend, Honolulu, vii. 21; viii. 28; Kanesville, la, Front Guird, July 25, 1819; Petaluma Argus, Apr. 4, 1873; Pan. Star, Feb. 24, 1849; Ryckman's Steit., MS., 11, 20; Estrella de Occid., Nov. 16, 1860; Retes, Pors tentosas Riq. Min.; Sac. Direct., 1871, 36; Abbey's Trip across Plains, 5, 26, 56; Alger's Young Advent., 185–293; Brooks' Four Months, passim; Brackett's U. S. Cóv., 125–7; S. F. Argonaut, passim; Revere's Tour of Dutyj, 254–6; Id., keel and Saddle, 151-4; S. F. Whig and Advert., June 11, 1853; Treusury of Trav., 92-4; Truckee Trilnine, Jan. 8, 1870; Revue des deux Moniles, Feb. 1, 1849; Browne's Min. Res., 14-15; Arch. Mont. Co., xiv. 18; Arch. Sta Cruz Co., 107; Fay's Hist. Facts, MS.; Dwinelle's Add., 104-12; Doc. Hist. Cal., i. 505; Digger's Hand Book, 45-53; Henshaw's Slaut., MS.; Helper's Land of Gold, 101; Borthwick's Stat., MS., 2–5; Brown's Early Days of Cal., MS., 1-7; Boynton's Stut., MS., 1; Codman's The Round Trip, 28; Tiffany's Pocket Erch. Guille, 16; Gilroy All vocate, Apr. 24, 1875; Folsom Telegraph, Sept. 17, 1871; Ferry, Cal., 105-6, 306-28; Colusa Sun, March 8, 1873; Bryant's What I Saw in Cal., i. 142–3; Ashley's Docs Hest. Cal., 223, 271-396; Antioch Lelger, Dec. 24, 1870; July 1, 1876; Tuthill's Cal., 234; Thornton's Oregon and Cal., 270; Gold Hill Daily News, Apr. 16, 1872; Coke's Rule, 156, 166; Findli's Stat., MS., passim; Dowell's Letters, MS., 1-34; Duncan's Southern Oregon, MS., 1-2; Quigley's Irish Race; Grass Valley Repub., March 8, 1872; Cronise's Nat. Wealth, 56-7; Roach's Stat., MS., 1-2; Del Mar’s Hist. Precious Met., 258 et seq.; Dameron's Autobiog., MS., 19; Taylor's Betw. Gates, 25-30, 61-7, 131; Id., El Doralo, i. 26–9, 48; ii. 36, 2.22-3; Van Allen, in Miscel. Stut., 31; l'an

Hist. CAL., VOL. VI. 11

derbilt, in Miscel. Stat., 1, 32-3; Wheaton's Stat., MS., 2-3; Charton, Tour du Monde, iv. 160; Barnes' Or. and Cal., MS., 19, 26; Weik, Cal. wie es ist, 29– 51; Du Hailly, in Rev. des deux Mondes, Feb. 15, 1849; Barrow's Twelve Nights, 165-268; Vallejo Recorder, March 14, 1868; Oct. 12, 1869; Woods' Sixteen Months, passim; Dunbar's Romance, 48, 55–89, 102-6; Ware's Emig. Guile, 1–55; Alameda Co. Hist. Atlas, 14; Valle, Doc., 58; Cal. Past and Present, 77, 146-7; Castroville Argus, June 12, 19, 1875; Robinson's Stat., MS., 23-4; Willey's Pers. Mem., MS., 25, 58-75, 111-18; Ross' Stat., MS., 1-12; Ryan's Pers. Adv., ii. 273–5; Id., Judges and Crim., 72-9; Pion. Mag., iv. 380; Olympia Transcript, June 17, 1876; Dept. St. P. (Ang.), viii. 6, 16; Dean's Stat., MS., 1-2; Kane, in Miscel. Stat., 7-11; Humboldt Times, March 7, 1874; Schlagentweit, Cal., 216; Winans' Stat., MS., 1-5, 23-4; Lake Co. Bee, March 8, 1873; Napa Reg., Aug. 1, 1874; McClellan's Golden State, 119– 46; Barry's Up and Down, 93-7; Schmiedell's Stat., MS., 6; Walton's Facts from Gold Regions, 8, 19–32; Crosby's Events in Cal., MS., 13-26; Santa Cruz Times, Feb. 19, 26, 1870; 8. F. Times, July 20, 1867; Shearer's Journal, MS., 1-3, 11; Warren's Dust and Foam, 12–14, 133, 153–6; West Coast Signal, Apr. 15, 1874; Nev. Co. Hist., 41, 45; Merrill's Stat., MS., 1-3; Alamela Co. Gaz., March 8, 1873; March 14, 1874; Jan. 9, May 29, 1875; Barstow's Stat., MS., 1-4, 14; St Louis Union, May 25, 1849; Cassin's A Few Facts, 1-5, 17-18; Doolittle's Stat., 1-22; Morgan's Trip across the Plains, 1-21; Carver's Travels, 122; Cal. Pioneers, Docs, passim; Wilmington Enterprise, Jan. 21, 1875; Sayward's Pers. Rem., MS., 2; San José Argus, Oct. 16, 1875; Stockton Indep., Nov. 1, 1873; Apr. 4, 1874; Jan. 30, Oct. 19, 1875; Low's Stat., MS., 1-5; Massett's Exper. of a '49er, 1-10; Sand. Islands News, ii. 134, 147, 158, 186; Hawley's Observ., MS., 1-3; Sta Cruz Sentinel, July, 15, 1875; Vandyke's Stat., MS., 1-2, etc.; Souli's Stat., MS., 1-2; Vallejo D. Indep., June 1-8, 1872; Staples' Stat., MS.; Neall's Vig. Com., MS., 3, 22–4; Coleman's Vig. Com., MS., 175-83; Matthewson's Stat., MS., 1; Swan's Trip, 1-3, 13; Lord's B. Col. Naturalist, 271; Cent. Amer. Miscel. Docs, 44; Delano's Life on the Plains, passim; Home Miss., xxii. 44, 185–6; Sonora Book, iv. 174, in Pinart, Coll.; Sherwood's Pocket Guide to Cal., 27, 47-64; Sac. Union, Jan. 23, 26, Feb. 13, Dec. 30, 1856, etc.; Solano Repub., Sept. 29, 1870; S. F. Ev'g Post, July 14, 1877; Nev. D. Gaz., June 9, 1866; Jan. 20, 22, 1868; Leavitt's Scrap Book; Little's Stat., MS., 1-4; Cerruti's Ramblinys, 46; Holinski, La Cal., 144; Vallejo Chron., July 25, Oct. 10, 1874; San José Mercury, Apr. 28, 1876; Cronise's Nat. Wealth, 57; Id., Stat., MS., 1; Sutton's Early Exper., MS., 1; South. Quart. Rev., xv. 224; Melbourne Mg Herald, Feb. 6, 7, 10, 1849; Stockton D. Herald, May 18, 1871; Nevada City and Grass Valley Dir., 1856, 43; L. Ang. Repub., Feb. 28, March 14, May 18, 1878; Cal., Adv. Capt. Wife, 18, 20, 41-2; Sac. Transcript, Oct. 15, 1850; Feb. 1, 1851; Overland Monthly, ix. 12-13; xii. 343; xv. 241-8; S. F. Cal. Star, Oct. 1847 to June 1848, passim; S. F. Evåg Post, Aug. 8, 1883; Mayer's Mex. Azt., ii. 393; Sluter's Mormonism, 5-12, 87; Pfeiffer's Sec. Journ., 290; Soc. Mex. Geog., xi. 127–34; San Diego Union, July 22, 1874; S. F. Evening Picayune, Aug. 30, Sept. 4, 12, Oct. 5, Nov. 27, Dec. 18, 1850; Scherzer's Narr., iii. 425-30; Oakland Alam. Co. Gaz., May 29, 1875; Oakland Transcript, Aug. 7, 1872; March 1, 1873; June 16, 1876; S. F. Pac. News, Nov. 1849 to Dec. 1850, passim; S. F. Bulletin, Apr. 9, May 12, 31, July 29, Dec. 2, 1858; Jan. 31, Feb. 12, Apr. 29, 30, May 25, June 2, 3, Aug. 15, Sept. 18, 30, Oct. 29, 1859; March 1, 29, 1860; Aug. 21, 1862, etc.; Pion. Arch., passim; Pearson's Recoll., MS., 1-2; Preble's Hist. Steam Navig., 321-4; S. F. Daily Herald, June 1850 to Feb. 1851, passim; Solano Co. Hist., 65–6, 154, 368–9, 451; San José Pioneer, Jan. 27, Feb. 24, Aug. 4, Dec. 8, 29, 1877; Oct. 9, 1880; Pio Pico, Times, MS., 141-6; Hunt's Merch. Mag., xviii. 467-76; xx. 55-64; xxi. 585-6; xxxii. 354-5; Par. son's Life of Marshall, passim; Californian, 1847–8, passim; McCollum's Cal. as I Saw It, 17, 25-6; Perry's Travels, 14-69: First Steamship Pioneers, passim; Polynesian, v. and vi., passim; vii. 18, 62, 131; Shuck's Scrap Book, 83-4; Moore's Pion. Erper., MS., 1; Id., Recoll. of Early Days, MS., 2; Shasta Courier, Nov. 18, 1865; March 16, 1867; Placer Times, Apr. 28, May 19, 26,

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June 2, Aug. 11, Sept. 15, Oct. 13, Dec. 1, 1849; May 22, 1850; S. F. Directory, 1852 (Parker), 10; Id., 1852–3, 10-14; Sac. Bee, Dec. 7, 1869; Nov. 21, 1871; March 28, Aug. 27, 1874; July 7, 1875; Nov. 26, 1878; S. F. Cal. Courier, 1850-1, passim; S. F. Alta Cal., 1849-75, passim; Hittells Cal., 124-5; Id., Mining, 17; Id., S. F., 125–56, etc.; Id., Hand Book, 12–18; El Sonorense, Feb. 21, March 21, 30, Apr. 18, 26, May 11, 1849; Vallejo, Col. Doc. Hist. Cal., xii. 344; xxxv. 47, 148, 192; xxxvi. 287; Niles' Rey., lxxiv. 257, 336–7; lxxv. 69–70, 113, 127, 288, 320, 348, 383.

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SITE AND SURROUNDINGS-RIVALS-EFFECT OF THE MINES—SHIPPING-IN

FLUX OF POPULATION-PHYSICAL AND COMMERCIAL ASPECTS—BUSINESS
FIRMS – PUBLIC AND PRIVATE BUILDINGS — NATIONAL LOCALITIES–
HOTELS AND RESTAURANTS-PRICES CURRENT_PROPERTY Values-
AUCTION SALES—WHARVES AND STREETS-EARLY ERRORS—HISTORIC
FIRES–ENGINES AND COMPANIES-IMMIGRATION AND SPECULATION
POLITICS-THE HOUNDS--CITY GOVERNMENT.

Many cities owe their origin to accident; some to design. In the latter category may be placed most of those that sprang up upon this western earth's end, and notably San Francisco. When the Englishman Richardson moved over from Sauzalito to Yerba Buena Cove in the summer of 1835, and cleared a place in the chaparral for his trading-tent; when the American Jacob P. Leese came up from Los Angeles, and in connection with his friends of Monterey, William Hinckley and Nathan Spear, erected a substantial frame building and established a commercial house there in the summer of 1836- it would

appear that these representatives of the two foremost nations of the world, after mature deliberation, had set out to lay the foundation of a west-coast metropolis. The opening of the Hudson's Bay Company branch establishment in 1841 added importance to the hamlet. Although founded on the soil and under the colors of Anáhuac, it never was a Mexican settlement, for the United States element ever predominated, until the

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spirit of '76 took formal possession under symbol of the American flag, wafted hither over subdued domains.

The inducements for selecting the site lay in its proximity to the outlet of the leading harbor

upon the coast, a harbor to which so many huge rivers and rich valleys were tributary, and to which so many land routes must necessarily converge. A position so commanding led to the establishment here of a presidio immediately after the occupation of the country, under whose wings sprang up a flourishing mission establishment. The harbor commended itself early to passing vessels, and although finding Sauzalito on the northern shore the best station for water and wood, they were obliged to come under cognizance of the military authorities at the fort, and to seek the more substantial supplies at the mission, both establishments presenting, moreover, to trading vessels, in their not inconsiderable population, and as the abutting points for the settlements southward, an all-important attraction. These primary advantages outweighed greatly such drawbacks as poor landing-places, lack of water sources and farming land in the vicinity, and the growing inconvenience of communication with the main settlements now rising in the interior. The

opportune strategy of Alcalde Bartlett in setting aside the name of Yerba Buena, which threatened to overshadow its prospects, and restoring that of Saint Francis, proved of value in checking the aspirations of Francisca, later called Benicia. And our seraphic father of Assisi remembered the honor, by directing to its shore the vast fleet of vessels which in 1849 began to empty here their myriads of passengers and cargoes of merchandise. This turned the scale, and with such start, and the possession of capital and fame, the town distanced every rival, Benicia with all her superior natural advantages falling far behind.

Opinions upon its merits have been expressed by many prominent explorers. Gen. Smith strongly disparaged the site from a military and commercial point of view, while becoining enthusiastic over the advantages of

Benicia

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