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are read; in the house of lords by a bishop, and in the commons by their chaplain. The former usually meet at five o'clock in the afternoon, the latter at four.

§ 9. Three members in the house of peers, and forty in the house of commons, make a quorum for the transaction of public business. When any question arises on which a difference of opinion is expressed, those in affirmative in the house of lords answer content, and those in the negative non content. In the house of commons the answer is aye and no.

§ 10. When the presiding officer cannot decide by the voices, which party has the majority, or when his decision is questioned, a division takes place. In the house of lords the contents or the non-contents, as the case may be, pass to the outside of the bar, leaving the other party in the house.

See Jeff. M.,

p. 179, this

11. A similar practice prevailed in the house of commons up to 1836. Since that time a new last clause, plan has been adopted which gives better satisfac-book. tion, because the party remaining in the house had an advantage in securing the votes of the "inattentive, the indifferent, and the indolent."

§ 12. There are two small halls at each end of the house; on a division the main room is entirely cleared, one party being sent to each hall. Two clerks are stationed at each of the entrances to the main hall, holding lists of the members in alphabetical order, printed on large sheets of paste-board, to avoid the delay of turning over pages.

§ 13. While the members are passing into the house again, the clerks place a mark against the names of each, and the tellers count the number. These sheets are sent to the printer, who sets up the marked names in their order; and the division lists are then printed the following morning, together with the votes and proceedings of the house.

§ 14. When matters of great interest are to be debated in the house of peers, the lords are summoned. In the house of commons an order is made that the roll be called, and the absent members are ordered to attend on a certain day.

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§ 15. A peer has the right to make another lord of parliament his proxy, to vote for him in his absence, in all cases except in committee, or in the trial of another peer. He is also entitled, when a question is decided contrary to his sentiments, to record his opinion, and the reasons of it, by a protest in the journals, together with the names of all the peers who concur therein.

§ 16. All proposed laws must be introduced to the notice of parliament in the shape of bills which may originate in either house, unless they are for granting supplies, or unless they directly or indirectly involve the levying or appropriation of some tax, in which cases they must originate in the house of commons.*

* See corresponding rule of the government of the United States, Sec. 7, page 14.



§ 1. THE laws of Congress on the subject of natu- Foreigners ralization have been frequently changed. The act of 1790 required only two years' previous residence. In 1795, the period was enlarged to five; and in 1798, to fourteen; but in 1802, it was reduced back to five years, and this act is still unaltered.

§ 2. Foreigners, who move to this country, with the intention of making it their permanent residence, have many inducements to become citizens, since they are unable as aliens, to possess a permanent freehold interest in land, and are precluded from voting at the elections, or holding any civil office, or taking any active part in the administration of the government.

§ 3. Any white foreigner may obtain the privileges of a natural born citizen, by declaring, on oath, before any State court of record, having common law jurisdiction* and a clerk; or before any circuit, or district court of the United States, or before a clerk of either, two years, at least, before his admission, his intention to become a citizen, and to renounce his native allegiance.

§ 4. At the time of his admission, his country must be at peace with the United States, and he must, before one of the aforenamed courts, take an

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* The following is the form of the declaration: I, A declare on oath, that it is bonâ fide, [i. e. in good faith, or in reality] my intention to become a citizen of the United States, and to renounce forever, all allegiance and fidelity to all and every foreign prince, potentate, state, and sovereignty whatever, and particularly to the king of whom I was a subject.


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See Acts of ch. 28.

Cong. 14th
April, 1802,

The 3d of

March, 1813,
And 22d of

ch. 184.


ch. 32.

See Acts of 1824,ch.186,

Con.26 May,

and 24 May, 1828,ch.116.

oath to support the constitution of the United States, and likewise an oath to renounce and abjure his native allegiance. He must, at the time of his admission, satisfy the court, that he has resided five years at least, within the United States, and one year at least in the State where the court is held, and he must satisfy the judges that during that time, he has behaved as a man of good moral character, attached to the principles of the constitution of the United States, and well disposed to the good order and happiness thereof.‡

* The following is the form: I, A B—, do solemnly swear that I will support the constitution of the United States of America. †I, A B do absolutely and entirely renounce and abjure all allegiance and fidelity to every foreign prince, potentate, State, or sovereignty whatever, and particularly to




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The children of Persons duly naturalized, being minors at that time, shall, if dwelling in the United States, be deemed citizens. following is the form of a certificate of citizenship :



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Lord one thousand eight hundred and fifty


peared in the court, [which is a court of record having common law jurisdiction and a clerk and seal] and applied to the court aforesaid, to be admitted to citizenship of the United States of America, pursuant to the several acts of Congress for that purpose made and provided; and the said applicant having thereupon produced to the court such evidence, made such declaration and renunciation, and taken such oaths as are by the said acts required; thereupon it was ordered by the said court, that the said applicant be admitted, and he was accordingly admitted by the said court to be a citizen of the United States of America. In testimony whereof, the seal of the said court is hereunto affixed this day of, A. D. 185-, and in the year of our Independence. Clerk.

By order of the court,

[Seal of the court.]

S- T


§ 1. As a general rule, all elections by the people should be held between the hours of nine A. M., and six P. M. There are usually three persons appointed to receive the tickets and see that none are illegally cast, or that none but those qualified, vote. These persons are known in different States by different titles. They are usually called inspectors or judges of the election. It is their duty to have a position that will enable them best to receive the tickets of the voters, and over or near the window, door, or place, at which the tickets are received, should be printed or written in legible characters, the name of the town, township, or ward.

§ 2. Every person claiming the right to vote at any election should, if required by the inspectors or judges, prove that he is a natural born citizen of the United States; or that having been an alien, he has been naturalized conformably to the laws of the United States. The only evidence required is the certificate of naturalization, under the seal of the court where his admission to citizenship took place. The names of all voters should [whenever circumstances will allow it] be registered in alphabetical order by the collector of taxes or some other officer, and be used as reference, when necessary, by the inspectors or judges. § 3. Every voter may deliver either written or printed tickets, but each ticket should be on a sepa

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