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plied no small amount of amusement to all his readers. The poet caricatures them thus in his verses entitled, "Rivington's last Will and Testament," of which I will only quote an occasional verse: —

"To the king, my dear master, I give a full sett,
In volumes bound up, of the Royal Gazette,
In which he will find the vast records contain'd
Of provinces conquer'd, and victories gain'd.

"As to Arnold, the traitor, and Satan his brother,
I beg they will also accept of another;
And this shall be bound in morocco red leather,
Provided they'll read it, like brothers, together.

"But if Arnold should die, 't is another affair,

Then Satan, surviving, shall be the sole heir;
He often has told me he thought it quite clever,
So to him and his heirs, I bequeath it forever.

"I know there are some, that would fain be thought wise Who say my Gazette is a record of lies;

In answer to this I shall only reply —

All the choice that I had was, to starve or to lie.

"My fiddles, my flutes, French horns and guitars,1
I leave to our Heroes, now weary of wars
To the wars of the stage they more boldly advance,2
The captains shall play and the soldiers shall dance.

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"To Sir Henry Clinton his use and behoof,

I leave my French brandy, of very good proof;
It will give him fresh spirits for battle and slaughter
And make him feel bolder by land and by water:

"To Baron Knyphausen, his heirs and assigns,

I bequeath my old Hock, and my Burgundy wines,

1 Rivington seems to have prided himself on his supply of "good fiddles."

2 "It became fashionable at this period with the British officers to assume the business of the drama, to the no small mortification of those who had been holding them up as the conquerors of North America."

To a true Hessian drunkard, no liquors are sweeter,
And I know the old man is no foe to the creature.

"To a General, my namesake, I give and dispose
Of a purse full of clipp'd, light, sweated half Joes:
I hereby desire him to take back his trash,
And return me my Hannay's infallible Wash.

"My chessmen and tables, and other such chattels
I give to Cornwallis, renowned in battles:
By moving of these, not tracing the map,
He'll explain to the king how he got in a trap."

The type of the "Gazette" being rather delicate through age, Freneau commemorates the fact in an epigram entitled " Epigram. Occasioned by the Title of Mr. Rivington's New York Royal Gazette being scarcely legible."

Undoubtedly to please Freneau, the editor of the "Gazette" got new types, and this fact called for some "Lines. Occasioned by Mr. Rivington's new Titular types to his Royal Gazette of February 17, 1782."

Then his arms fell under Freneau's fire and the editor had new ones engraved, which called for another set of verses:


From the regions of night, with his head in a sack,
Ascended a person accoutred in black,

And upward directing his circular eye whites;

(Like the Jure-divino political Levites)
And leaning his elbow on Rivington's shelf,
While the printer was busy thus mus'd with himself :
"My mandates are fully complied with at last,

New Arms are engrav'd, and new letters are cast;
I therefore determine and freely accord,
This servant of mine shall receive his reward."

Then turning about, to the printer he said,
"Who late was my servant shall now be my aid;
Since under my banner so bravely you fight,
Kneel down! for your merits I dubb you a knight,
From a passive subaltern I bid you to rise
The Inventor, as well as the Printer of Lies."

Freneau's other victim, Hugh Gaines, an Irishman by birth, had settled in New York as a printer in 1750; and two years later established a newspaper called the "New York Mercury." His sign was a Bible and a crown; his politics, whichever side was uppermost. After the war he was allowed to continue his book store, striking the crown from his sign; but his paper was discontinued. At the beginning of the war he sided with the patriots, and when the British seized New York, he retired to New Jersey and published his paper there for a few weeks, but returned to New York and continued his printing, under the protection of the royal army. Freneau has written a Poetical Biography, of Gaines, in which he depicts his retreat to New Jersey, and in which occurs an image to which Mr. Delancey draws attention as being an "exceedingly fine one-one of the striking creations of the true poet."

.. IV.

"From this very day 'till the British came in,
We liv'd I may say, in the Desert of Sin;

Such beating, and bruising, and scratching, and tearing ;
Such kicking, and cuffing, and cursing and swearing!
But when they advanc'd with their numerous fleet,
And Washington made his nocturnal retreat,1
(And which they permitted, I say to their shame,
Or else your New Empire had been but a name).
We townsmen, like women, of Britons in dread,
Mistrusted their meaning, and foolishly fled;

1 Retreat from Long Island.

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Like the rest of the dunces I mounted my steed,
And gallop'd away with incredible speed,
To Newark I hastened - but trouble and care
Got up on the
crupper and followed me there.”1

Before the war Gaines had published some of Freneau's satires against Great Britain, and the poet puts these words in Gaines' mouth in apology for the act:

"I first was a whig with an honest intent;

Not a Rebel among them talk'd louder or bolder,
With his sword by his side, or his gun on his shoulder,
Yes, I was a whig, and a whig from my heart,
But still was unwilling with Britain to part-
I thought to oppose her was foolish and vain,
I thought she would turn and embrace us again,
And make us as happy as happy could be,
By renewing the aera of mild Sixty-three;
And yet, like a cruel undutiful son,

Who evil returns for the good to be done,
Unmerited odium on Britain to throw,

I printed some treason for Philip Freneau,
Some damnable poems reflecting on Gage,

The King and his Council, and writ with such rage,
So full of invective, and loaded with spleen,

So sneeringly smart, and so hellishly keen,

That, at least in the judgment of half our wise men,
Alecto herself put the nib to his pen."

Dr. Francis, in his reminiscences, relates the meeting of Freneau and his victim after the war. The former was quietly looking at some books in the store of the latter, when a friend entered; and in saluting Freneau, called him by name quite distinctly. The name arrested the attention of the old printer, who, lifting up his eyes, said,

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"Is your name Freneau ?"

"Yes," replied the poet, " Philip Freneau."
Philip Freneau?" repeated Gaines.
"Yes, sir, the same."

"Then, sir," warmly returned the latter, "you are a clever fellow; let me have the pleasure of taking you by the hand. Will you join me in my parlor around the corner and we will have a glass of wine together. You have given me and my friend Rivington a wide and lasting reputation."

In 1784 we find Freneau dating a poem from Port Royal; and from another, dated Charleston, 1786, we learn that he was visiting his brother in that year. From a note in a very old book we find that he made two voyages to Madeira as commander of the brig Washington," which was owned and freighted by his brother.


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Pierre, or Peter Freneau, as he was usually called, was the younger and only living brother of the poet. It has been stated that he was graduated at Princeton College, but his name is not found upon their records. This may be satisfactorily accounted for by the fact of his being a student at the time the British took possession of Nassau Hall, and the rolls then in use may have been destroyed, while the earlier records were, probably, safe by having been stored away, and have thus been handed down. Some years after his graduation, and in the year 1782, Peter took up his residence in Charleston.

South Carolina was a favorite location for the Huguenot refugees; consequently their numbers in that State exceeded that of any other. They founded large plantations on the banks of the Cooper River, and to them it is said the State is indebted for the introduction of the olive and mulberry. In the city of Charleston they added many new streets, and their merchants were distinguished as being the most active

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