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let them also that hate him flee before him.'

“For the precious and rare possession was being gathered on many a battleof so much devoted valor and manly field for the historic life of the nation. heroism :

“ America," said he, “was peculiarly “For the sentiment of pious duty a providential country. This was the

a which distinguished our fallen in the continent upon which results were to be camp and in the field :

brought forth. Those were short-sighted "And for the sweet and blessed con- men who supposed that the defeat of one solations which accompany the memories party or other would injure the final reof these dear sons of Massachusetts on sult of Freedom. No man, no party, to immortality.

was responsible for this great commotion. “And in our praise let us also be One said it was the Abolition party ; penitent. Let us 'seek the truth and but who made the Abolition party? ensue it,' and prepare our minds for Another said it was the Secession party, whatever duty shall be manifested here- but what had made the Secession party? after.

Underworking all was the providence of May the controversy in which we God. The harvest to which we were stand be found worthy, in its consum- called was a terrible harvest, the harvest mation, of the heroic sacrifices of the of death. From many a Thanksgiving people and the precious blood of their table there were noble sons absent tosons, of the doctrine and faith of the day, some of them sleeping in unshroudfathers, and consistent with the honor of ed graves, where the breezes of the PoGod and with justice to all men. And, tomac sighed their requiem, God grant

that before another year the great na“Let God arise, let his enemies be scattered :

tional table may be spread, and there * As smoke is driven away, so drive them away.?– would be thirty-four plates and thirtyPsalm 68, vs. 1, 2. Scatter them by thy power, and bring them down, four States, and a Star-Spangled Banner O Lord, our shield.'--Psalm 59, v. 11.

waving over all. Out of this trial the “Given at the Council Chamber, this thir- nation already had great gain. It had

ty-first day of October, in the year of fused the discordant elements of the naOur Lord one thousand eight hundred tion; we should be a nobler nation hereand sixty-one, and the eighty-sixth of after than ever before. We had gatherthe Independence of the United States ed in a harvest of -noble names, and the of America. John A. ANDREW.

whole land was the richer for it. EllsBy His Excellency the Governor with Baker, were noble seed from whom rich

worth, Greble, Winthrop, Lyon, and the advice and consent of the Coun-harvests should yet be gathered. People cil. OLIVER WARNER, Secretary.

had said that the American Revolution “GOD SAVE THE COMMONWEALTI OF MASSACHUSETTS."

had secured our liberty for ever.

But The discourses delivered in the vari- we could not live for ever on that ; Libous pulpits breathed the most devoted erty must be earned by a people at least patriotism, while the people were solemn- as often as every century. It was the ly reminded of the work before them, sad, sweet memories of heroic men which and urged to new efforts. From numer- made nations truly rich. Over a harvest ous passages of kindling eloquence, which of weakness and national degeneracy, will be sought hereafter as memorials of had it come, we might well have wept. these troubled days, we select one re- But thank God we had a harvest of flecting the spirit of many,--that in arined men. Let us put in the sickle, which the eminent orator, the Rev. Dr. even though it be the sword, and thank Chapin, from his pulpit, in New York, God for the harvest before us, terrible presented the "terrible harvest " which I with death but rich in the noblest and



dearest beneficences demanded by free- and missing were estimated at a hundred.

a men."

The repulsed assailants returned to their In Western Virginia a sharp engage- camp at Cheat Mountain, and the enemy ment was fought, on the 13th of Decem- presently retired to Staunton. ber, at Camp Alleghany, on the summit A movement in the division of General of the Alleghany mountain, on the bor- McCall, from Camp Pierpont on the der of Pocahontas and Highland coun- Potomac, in December, exhibited the ties, the road to Staunton. The enemy increasing discipline and soldierly spirit having left their intrenched camp at of the Union forces. Learning on the Greenbrier river, where they had been 19th, that the enemy's pickets had adassailed by General Reynolds, in Octo- vanced to within four or five miles of ber, * had fallen back to this place. An the lines, and were carrying off and expedition to attack them in their new threatening good Union men, that officer position, started from the Union camp determined to arrest their movements, at Cheat Mountain summit, seventeen and, if possible, capture the force which miles distant, on the 12th, under the was assembled in the neighborhood of command of Brigadier-General Reuben Dranesville. Brigadier-General E. O. H. Milroy, composed of about two thou- Ord was accordingly sent forward with sand Indiana, Ohio, and Virginia troops, his command, early on the morning of with a company of cavalry. On ap- the 20th, with instructions to surround proaching the position the force was di- and capture the party, and at the same vided for a simultaneous attack on op- time to collect a supply of forage from posite sides. The division accompanied the farms of some of the rank secessionby General Milroy was first on the spot, ists in that vicinity. His brigade conat daylight of the 13th, and driving in sisted of four regiments of Pennsylvania the pickets, reached the top of the moun- infantry, the Bucktail rifles, commanded tain on the enemy's right. They then by Lieutenant-Colonel Kane, a detachadvanced toward the camp, where the ment of five companies of Pennsylvania enemy-two Georgia regiments, a Vir- reserve cavalry, commanded by Lieutenginia regiment, and two battalions with ant-Colonel Jacob Higgins, and Captain two field batteries, under Colonel Edward Easton's battery of four guns, two 12 and Johnson, received them with vigor. The two 24-pounders, altogether numbering a fight was kept up for several hours with force of between 4,000 and 5,000. The heavy losses, when a retreat was order-force of the enemy which they were to ed. Owing to the bad state of the road meet, is represented in a letter, published and its obstruction by the enemy, the in the Richmond Dispatch, as ab ut other division intended to coöperate was 2,500. It was under the command of delayed. It came into action, however, General Stuart, and was composed of and kept up for several hours an "Indian the 11th Virginia regiment, Colonel Garfight," at close quarters with the foe. land; the 6th South Carolina, LieutenantThe losses of the Union side were re- Colonel Secrest ; the 10th Alabama, Colported at twenty killed, one hundred and onel John H. Forney ; the 1st Kentucky, seven wounded, and ten missing.† An Colonel Tom Taylor ; Captain Cutts Sumaccount published in the Richmond En- ter flying artillery, and detachments from quirer, states that twenty of the enemy Ransom's and Radford's cavalry. The fell upon the field, while the wounded parties met near Dranesville. T'he batThere was an attempt to turn the ing one Lieutenant-Colonel and four CapUnion left, but it was at once checked by tains, and three missing. That of the the battery. In front on the right, there rebels was some fifty killed, a hundred was resolute fighting at close quarters. and thirty or more wounded, many seThe excellent position of Easton's bat- verely, and seven prisoners. The Alatery, however, soon drove the enemy's bama and South Carolina troops suffered battery from its position, an advance was severely. The contest lasted an hour, bemade, and the rebels fled toward their tween one and two o'clock in the aftercamp at Centreville, leaving their killed noon. General McCall, who arrived on and wounded on the field. The road was the field after the action commenced, orstrewed with men and horses, two cais- dered the return march to his camp, sons, one of them blown up, a limber, a bringing with him sixteen wagon loads gun carriage wheel, a quantity of artil- of excellent bay, and twenty-two of lery ammunition, small arms, and an im- corn. mense quantity of heavy clothing, blan

teries of the two forces were placed opAnte, vol. i., p. 567

posite each other, at a distance of about + Correspondence of the Cincinnati Commercial, Cheat five hundred yards, on the Centreville Mountain Summit, December 20, 1861. Moore's Rebellion Record, vol. iii., pp. 466-471.

road. On either side were dense thick

* General McCall's Official Report, December 22, 1861. kets, etc. The loss on the Union side was Special correspondence of the Richmond Dispatch, Centre

ville, December 24, 1861. Correspondence New York Tri. seven killed, sixty-one wounded, includ- bune, Camp Pierpont, December 22, 1861.



" You


The Second session of the Thirty- | thy, and no vaunting display of home seventh Congress was promptly organized resources, the conviction so familiar to on the regular day of assembling, the statesmen, that diplomacy in the long run 2d of December. President Lincoln's | must be based upon material interests, Message, delivered the following day, was forcibly impressed upon the suggeswas a calm, temperate review of the tions which he offered. Master of the position of the Government, and the situation, the President evidently felt progress of the war. In a single brief that he could rely on the obvious necesopening sentence, the usual acknowledg- sities of the case in working out a satisment was made of the mercies of Heaven factory solution of the problem. to the nation :" In the midst of unpre- will not be surprised to learn,” said he, cedented political troubles, we have cause that in the peculiar exigencies of the of great gratitude to God for unusual times, our intercourse with foreign nagood health and most abundant harvests." | tions has been attended with profound The foreign relations of the country solicitude, chiefly turning upon our own were then taken up, and significantly domestic affairs. A disloyal portion of touched in a few pithy paragraphs ; a the American people have, during the striking commentary upon or deduction whole year, been engaged in an attempt from the mass of correspondence which to divide and destroy the Union. A the Secretary of State laid before the nation which endures factious domestic public, and which has been freely cited divisions is exposed to disrespect abroad, in these pages.

With no undue expec- and one party, if not both, is sure, sooner tations from the justice of the National or later, to invoke foreign intervention. cause with no appeal to foreign sympa- Nations thus tempted to interfere are

Ante, vol. i., chapter xxviii,, on Foreign Relations, not always able to resist the counsels of



seeming expediency and ungenerous am- commendation was not forgotten, that bition, although measures adopted under “ in view of the foreign dangers necessuch influences seldom fail to be unfor- sarily attending domestic difficulties, adetunate and injurious to those adopting quate and ample measures be adopted them. The disloyal citizens of the Uni- for maintaining the public defences on ted States, who have offered the ruin of every side." our country in return for the aid and Reviewing the domestic affairs of the comfort which they have invoked abroad, country. the President glanced at its have received less patronage and encour- present financial condition, leaving the agement than they probably expected. calculations for the future to the head If it were just to suppose, as the insur- of the Treasury department. A single gents have seemed to assume, that for- statement marks the position of affairs :eign nations in this case, discarding all The revenue from all sources, including moral, social, and treaty obligations, loans for the financial year ending on would act solely and selfishly for the the 30th June, 1861, was $86,835,900, most speedy restoration of commerce, and the expenditures for the same period, including especially the acquisition of including payments on account of the cotton, those nations appear as yet not public debts, were $84,578,034. For to have seen their way to their object the first quarter of the financial year more directly or clearly through the de- ending on the 30th September, 1861, struction than through the preservation the receipts from all sources, including of the Union. If we could dare to be the balance of July 1st, were $102.532,lieve that foreign nations are actuated 509, and the expenses $98,239,723. by no higher principle than this, I am The expenditures of one quarter durquite sure a second argument could be ing a period of war were thus considermade to show them that they can reach ably in excess of the entire previous their aim more readily and easily by aid- year. The progress of the war was ing to crush this rebellion than by giv- briefly described—the achievements of ing encouragement to it. The principal the navy, the preservation of Western lever relied on by the insurgents for ex- Virginia, the decision in favor of the citing foreign nations to hostility against Union of Maryland, Kentucky, and Misus, as already intimated, is the embar- souri. The cause of the Union," he rassment of commerce. Those nations, said, “is advancing steadily and cerhowever, not improbably saw from the tainly southward.” Various matters confirst that it was the Union which made nected with the administration of jusas well our foreign as our domestic com- tice, the efficiency of the Department, and merce. They can scarcely have failed other topics of domestic policy were reto perceive that the effort for disunion ferred to Congress ; among them the produces the existing difficulty, and that project of a military railway connecting one strong nation promises more durable the loyal regions of East Tennessee and peace, and a more extensive, valuable, Western North Carolina with Kentucky and reliable commerce, than can the and other parts of the Union, an imporsame nation broken into hostile frag- tant measure looking to the pacification ments." With these pregnant hints were and further industrial interests of a vast coupled the reflection, the hope “ that it district marked out by nature for the would appear that we have practiced development of free labor. With simiprudence and liberality toward foreign lar benefits in view the nation was conpowers, averting causes of irritation, and gratulated at the organization, “ under with firmness maintaining our own rights auspices truly gratifying, when it is conand honor ; while the prudential re-sidered that the leaven of treason was


found existing in some of these new coun- A passage in reference to the confistries when the federal officers arrived cation act of the recent session of Conthere, of the Territories created by the gress is noticeable for its suggestion of last Congress, of Colorado, Dacotah, and a measure which became afterward a Nevada.” The retirement of General prominent subject of discussion—the furScott was appropriately alluded to with therance of a system of colonization for a suggestion of some further mark of re- the disposal of negroes liberated by the cognition of his services. “During his war or by concert with some of the long life the nation has not been unmind- slaveholding States ; while the suggesful of his merit ; yet on calling to mind tion with which it was coupled of rehow faithfully, ably, and brilliantly he has muneration by Congress for the slaves served the country, from a time far back set free, paved the way for the plans of in our history, when few of the now living compensated emancipation afterward so had been born, and thenceforward contin- strongly urged by the President. ually, I cannot but think that we are still der and by virtue of the act of Congress his debtor.” Of the appointment of Gen. entitled an Act to confiscate property McClellan as the successor of Gen. Scott, it used for insurrectionary purposes, apwas said, “It is a fortunate circumstance proved August 6, 1861, the legal claims that neither in council nor country was of certain persons to the labor and serthere, so far as I know, any difference of vice of certain other persons have become opinion as to the proper person to be se- forfeited, and numbers of the latter thus lected. The retiring chief repeatedly ex- liberated are already dependent on the pressed his judgment in favor of General United States and must be provided for McClellan for the position, and in this the in some way. Besides this, it is not imnation seemed to give a unanimous con- possible that some of the States will pass currence. The designation of General similar enactments for their own benefits McClellan is, therefore, in a considerable respectively, and by the operation of degree the selection of the country as which persons of the same class will be well as of the executive, and hence there thrown upon them for disposal. In such is better reason to hope there will be giv- case I recommend that Congress provide en him the confidence and cordial sup- for accepting such persons from such port thus by fair implication promised, States, according to some mode of valuaand without which he cannot with so tion in lieu pro tanto of direct taxes, or full efficiency serve the country. It has upon some other plan to be agreed on been said that one bad General is bet- with such States respectively, that such ter than two good ones ; and the say- persons on such acceptance by the Gening is true, if taken to mean no more eral Government be at once deemed free, than that an army is better directed by and that in any event steps be taken for a single mind, though inferior, than by colonizing both classes, or the one first two superior ones at variance and cross mentioned if the other shall not be purposes with each other.

And the brought into existence, at some place or same is true in all joint operations places in a climate congenial to them. It wherein those engaged can have but a might be well to consider, too, whether common end in view, and can differ only the free colored people already in the as to the choice of means. In a storm United States could not, so far as indiat sea, no one on board can wish the viduals may desire, be included in such ship to sink ; and yet, not unfrequent colonization. To carry out the plan of ly, all go down together, because too colonization may involve the acquiring of many will direct, and no single mind territory, and also the appropriation of can be allowed to control.”

money beyond that to be expended in the

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