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Infantry, were both severely wounded in fell into the hands of the victorious army. the first advance of the 9th Ohio regi- A circular or order of march of General ment, but continued on duty until the re- Crittenden, dated from his headquarters, turn of the brigade to camp at Logan's Birch Grove, Kentucky, January 18th, Cross Roads. Colonel S. S. Fry, 4th shows the force which left the rebel inKentucky regiment, was slightly wound- trenchments that night. To General Zolod wbilst his regiment was gallantly re- licoffer were assigned the 15th, 19th, , sisting the advance of the enemy, during 20th, and 25th Mississippi regiments, which time General Zollicoffer fell from with Captain Rutledge's battery of four a shot from his (Colonel Fry's) pistol, gms, and to General Carroll the 17th, which, no doubt, contributed materially 28th, and 29th Tennessee regiinents, with to the discomfiture of the enemy. *** two guns, the 16th Alabama in reserve, A number of flags were taken on the with battalions of cavalry in the rear. field of battle, and in the intrenchments. The movement was apparently made The enemy's loss, as far as known, is as with the expectation of cutting off a follows: Brigadier-General Zollicoffer, portion of the Union troops before the Lieutenant Bailey Peyton, and 190 offi- rest arrived or the junction of the two cers and non-commissioned officers and cominands of Thomas and Schoepf was privates, killed. Lieutenant-Colonel W. effected. “False intelligence of the eneB. Carter, 20th Tennessee, Lieutenant J. my's force," said the Knoxville (TennesW. Allen, 15th Mississippi, Lieutenant see) Register, accounting for the defeat, Allan Morse, 16th Alabama, and five was brought by one Johnson, known officers of the Medical Staff, and 81 non- familiarly as · hogback Johnson.' Gencommissioned officers and privates taken eral Crittenden ordered an advance, supprisoners. Lieutenant J. E. Patterson, posing the enemy to be only fifteen hun20th Tennessee, and A. J. Knapp, 15th dred strong." Mississippi, and 66 non-commissioned offi- The Report of Acting Brigadier-Gencers and privates, wounded. Making 192 eral McCook, and the several regimental killed, 89 prisoners not wounded and 62 reports, supply many interesting details wounded. A total of killed, wounded, of the valor exhibited on this well-fought and prisoners of 349. Our loss is : field. The Minnesota regiment, in their One commissioned officer and thirty-eight hand-to-hand encounter with the Missismen, killed, and fourteen officers, includ- sippians, were at one time in such close ing Lieutenant Bart, United States In- encounter that "they were poking their fantry, A. D. C., and 194 men, commis- guns through the same fence at each sioned officers and privates, wounded.” other.” The charge of the 9th Ohio

The 10th Indiana lost ten men, killed ; gained that regiment, already well tried three commissioned officers and seventy- in the school of war in Virginia, great two non-commissioned officers and pri- credit for gallantry. “Seeing the supevates, wounded. The 9th Ohio lost six rior numbers of the enemy and their men, killed ; four commissioned officers bravery,” says Colonel McCook in narand twenty-four non-commissioned ofli- rating the incident, “I concluded the cers and privates, wounded. The casu- best mode of settling the contest was to alties of the 2d Minnesota were twelve order the 9th Ohio to charge the enemy's non-commissioned officers and privates, position with the bayonet and turn his killed ; two officers and thirty-one pri- left flank. The order was given the regivates, wounded. Twenty-one pieces of ment to empty their guns and fix bayoartillery, some fifteen hundred horses and nets. This done, it was ordered to charge. mules, the entire camp equipage of the ene- Every man sprang to it with alacrity my, and other stores to a large amount, and vociferous cheering. The enemy

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seemingly prepared to resist it, but be- knowing neither his person nor his rank.*
fore the regiment reached him the lines The rebel General wore a white rubber
commenced to give way—but few of coat over his uniform, and, it is said, had
tliem stood, perhaps ten or twelve. This his beard shaved off the evening pre-
broke the enemy's flank, and the whole vious to the battle, to be less readily
line gave way in great confusion, and distinguished.
the whole turned into a perfect rout." Lieutenant Bailey Peyton was the son
The Report of Lieutenant-Colonel W. C. of an ex-member of Congress of Tenn-
Kise, commanding the 10th Indiana, was essee. He had been educated abroad at
equally honorable to that regiment, which Heidelburg, and was engaged in the pro-
was the first to meet the enemy in the fession of the law in his native State.
morning, and,“ powder-besmeared, tired He was about twenty-seven years old at
and hungry, having had nothing to eat the time he fell, and, it is said,
since the previous night,” the foremost in staunch Union man until public opin.
pursuit of his shattered forces at eve. ion placed him into the army. He ex-
They, too, executed a bayonet charge pressed regret as to the nature of the
with great spirit, “ driving the enemy war between the sections only the day

from the woods into an open field two before he was killed. He was shot
hundred yards.” Colonel McCook was twenty steps in advance of his company
severely wounded in the leg below the by a Minié ball.” The bodies of both
knee, but remained in the field, pursu- officers were taken charge of and carried
ing the enemy at the head of his brigade by a flag of truce from Munfordsville to
a distance of twelve miles, of which he the enemy's line, a funeral salute being
was compelled to make three miles on fired from the Union camp as the escort
foot in an ankle-deep morass. His horse passed over the pontoon bridge at Green
received three wounds from shots. One river.
ball passed through the collar of his General Thomas, the commander of
overcoat and the fifth struck him in the the Union forces in this battle, was a na-
leg. *

tive of Virginia, a graduate of West In respect to the death of General Point of 1840, when he was appointed to Zollicoffer, it was at first related that the 3d Artillery. He had since been Colonel Fry recognized him as he came actively engaged in his professional duap, and shot him on the instant with his ties in the army ; in the Florida war; in

; revolver ; but this was not so, as ap- Mexico, at Monterey, and at Buena Vispears by his own subsequent statement, ta ; in all which services he was brevetas it was reported in the Louisville Jour- ted for his gallantry. He was afterward nal. Colonel Fry, it seems, was in the instructor of artillery and cavalry at act of leading his regiment, the 4th Ken- West Point, and at the breaking out of tucky, in a charge upon the Mississip- the Rebellion held the rank of Major of pians, when General Žollicoffer, evident- the 2d Cavalry. In the rapid promotion ly mistaking him for an officer on his which followed he rose first to a Colown side, rode up to him with an aid onelcy, then to the rank of Brigadierand said, “ You are not going to fight General, serving, previously to his apyour friends, are you? These,” point- pointment to Kentucky, with General ing to the Mississippians, " are all your Patterson's division on the Shenandoah. friends." The aid then fired, wounding The news of the battle of Mill Spring the horse of Colonel Fry, when the lat

* Report of a letter from Colonel S. S. Fry to his wife, ter turned and fired, killing Zollicoffer, narrating the manner in which he killed General Zollicoffer,

published in the Louisville Journal. * Letter from Colonel R. L. McCook to Gustavus Tafel, + Munfordsville Correspondence of the New York TriCamp Hamilton, Kentucky, January 21, 1862.

brine, January 30, 1862.



was received with enthusiasm through- Order from the War Department: "The out the North for the evidence that it President, Commander-in-Chief of the afforded of the courage and perseverance Army and Navy, bas received informaof the Union troops in an open encoun- tion of the brilliant victory achieved by ter. The enemy had come forth from the United States forces over a large his entrenchments, and though with su- body of armed traitors and rebels at perior numbers and the expectation of Mill Spring in the State of Kentucky. engaging the advance of General Thom- He returns thanks to the gallant officers as's force at an advantage, yet the contest and soldiers who won that victory, and bad been an open one. The dreaded when the official reports shall be reMississippians had been met hand-to-ceived, the military skill and personal hand, and the victory was with the men valor displayed in battle will be acof the West. It had been said that the knowledged and rewarded in a fitting prowess of the contending parties would manner. The courage that encountered not be fully tested till they left skirmish- and vanquished the greatly superior ing at long range and came to the deadly numbers of the rebel force, pursued and and decisive thrust of the bayonet. That attacked them in their intrenchments, experiment had now been tried, and the and paused not until the enemy was example was not thrown away upon the completely routed, merits and receives Northern ranks.

commendation. The purpose of this war After a long period of comparative is to pursue and destroy a rebellious inactivity, as it seemed, though the ne-enemy, and to deliver the country from cessary work of preparation was all the danger. Menaced by traitors, alacrity, while going on, checked by various re- daring, courageous spirit and patriotic verses, Mill Spring, breaking the line of zeal on all occasions, and under every the enemy in Kentucky, opened the circumstance, are expected from the South to our arms. It was hailed as the army of the United States. In the sure promise of success in the future. prompt and spirited movements and By no one were its omens more joyfully daring at the battle of Mill Spring, the accepted than by the President and the nation will realize its hopes, and the new Secretary of War, Mr. Stanton, who people of the United States will reonly a few days before had entered on joice to honor every soldier and officer the duties of his office. Immediately on who proves his courage by charging receipt of General Thomas's first an- with the bayonets and storming innouncement of the victory, he issued, trenchments, or in the blaze of the eneby order of the President, this General my's fire.”




SIMULTANEOUSLY with the first move- rebel stronghold at Bowling Green, Gen. ments of Colonel Garfield in Eastern Halleck was busy in his department of Kentucky, the advance of General Tho- Missouri setting on foot the necessary mas toward the position of General Zol- preparations for a most important series licoffer, and the concentration of Gen- of operations against the left of the eneeral Buell's great army in front of the my's line on the Mississippi and the northern state boundary of Tennessee. the Mississippi. . Such was the outline of The outermost Confederate defences of General Johnston the Confederate Comthe great central region of the South lay mander's line of defence in his Departin an irregular line between the Allegha- ment of the Mississippi. It was chosen nies and the Mississippi. Kentucky being with great skill, and had it been reguchosen for the battleground to the west larly completed by the possession of Paof the mountains, as Virginia had been ducah and Smithtown, the entrances of on the east. As Charleston, South Caro- the Tennessee and the C'umberland, its lina, was to be defended on the Potomac, security, so far as advantages of position so New Orleans sought its protection by were concerned, would have been perfect. carrying the war towards the Ohio. In- The mountain passes, the river courses, deed, reversing the points of the compass the railway centres and arteries, would from east to west, we may trace a curi- all have been in the enemy's hands. ous parallelism in the two states. If One thing, however, was wanting to Washington was threatened in the one make the possession complete-an adequarter, Louisville was the object of at-quate force to hold the intervals between tack on the other. As Fortress Monroe the different points. Following the irwas a great basis of operations at one regular outline, there were some four extremity, furnishing men and arms, so hundred miles in all to guard, and the was Cairo on the west ; and as the one defence was concentrated at the different had a menacing neighbor in Norfolk, so positions. Between Bowling Green and had the other in ('olumbus. What the Mill Spring there were a hundred miles line of the Kanawba was to northern which might be crossed by the Union Virginia, penetrating the mountainous forces, flanking either of those positions ; region, the Big Sandy, with its tributa- consequently the latter fell without aid ries emptying also in the Ohio, was to from its distant neighbor ; and when one the defiles of Eastern Kentucky. What was taken the other became untenable. Manassas or Richmond was, in one quar- A most important advantage was lost ter, to the foe, Bowling Green, a great to the enemy when, as we have seen, railway centre, was to the other. As General Polk was anticipated by GenVirginia was pierced on the east by the eral Grant in his designs upon Paducah. James and the Rappahannock and the The activity of a few hours in the moveYork, so was Kentucky on the west by ment of the transports from Cairo dethe Cumberland and Tennessee ; and as cided the fortunes of a campaign, and the Unionists held Newport News, a consequently affected the interests of the point of great strategic importance, at nation to an extent which it would be the mouth of one of these streams, so vain to attempt to calculate. were they in possession of Paducah, a During the autumn and early part of place of equal or greater advantage, at the winter, much had been heard of the the entrance to another.

preparation by the Navy Department of Commencing with Cumberland Gap, the gunboats and mortar fleet at St. the key of Eastern Tennessee, the rebel Louis and Cincinnati, and its gathering defences swept along the southern border at Cairo for an onward movement down of Kentucky by the waters of the upper the Mississippi. The iron-covered gunCumberland at Mill Spring, thence west- boats were specially constructed for the ward to Bowling Green, dipping to the service. They were broad in proportion Cumberland in its lower course at Clarks- to their length, so as to sit firmly on the ville and Fort Donelson in Tennessee, water and support with steadiness the the adjoining Fort Henry on the Tennes- heavy batteries for which they were insee river and ascending to Columbus on tended. The largest were of the pro



portion of about one hundred and sev- formed many arduous professional duties enty-five feet to fifty, drawing five feet in the discharge of which he had become when loaded. They were firmly built noted for his earnestness and efficiency. of oak with extra strength at the bows Deeply imbued with a religious spirit, he and bulwarks, and were sheathed with had turned his voyages to account in the wrought iron plates two and a half inches service of philanthropy ; defending the in thickness. To ward off the shots of cause of the missionaries at the Sandthe enemy, the sides of the boats both wich Islands, organizing temperance soabove and below the knee were made to cieties among the sailors, and improving incline at an angle of forty-five degrees, their condition on shore ; and earnestly so that they could be struck at right an- pursuing the suppression of the slave gles only by a plunging fire. The arma- trade in his command of the Perry ment consisted of guns of the heaviest on the coast of Africa. On his return calibre. 84-pound rifled cannon were he published a record of bis laborsma placed at the bows and 8-inch colum- volume entitled “ Africa and the Ameri

8 biads at the sides. The mortar-boats can Flag." Eager for action, when acwere about sixty feet long and twenty- tion was demanded, he had with great five wide, and were surrounded on all spirit signally avenged an attack upon sides by iron-plate bulwarks six or seven bis men in his successful assault upon feet high. The huge mortar which they the Barrier forts in China, in his last carried, bored to admit a 13-inch shell, cruise in 1858. At the commencement with seventeen inches of thickness from of the Rebellion he was in command of the edge of the bore to the outer rim, the Navy Yard at Brooklyn, whence in weighed over seventeen thousand pounds; the autumn of 1861 he was transferred while the bed or carriage on which it was to the Ohio, as the successor of Complaced weighed four thousand five hun- mander Rogers, to superintend the predred pounds. From this formidable en- paration and take command of the westgine shells might be thrown a distance of ern gunboat flotilla. A sound patriot, from two and a half to three and a half eminently a stickler for the honor of the miles. The vessels thus equipped were flag in the face of all enemiès, foreign manned by seamen enlisted for the ser- and domestic, his heart was in the work, vice, by western boatmen and volunteers and he quickly proved, as was expected, from the eastern army, who being famil- his uncommon resolution and energy. iar with navigation appeared suited for There were various preliminary movethis amphibious warfare. They were ments, both by land and water, preparacommanded by officers of the United tory to the decisive expedition up the States Navy, flag-officer Andrew H. Tennessee, which resulted in the capture Foote being placed in charge of the en- of Fort Henry. Early in January sevtire flotilla. This veteran officer, a na- eral important reconnoissances were made tive and resident of New Haven, Con- to Fort Jefferson and elsewhere on both necticut, was the son of the distinguished sides of the Mississippi, towards ColumSenator from that State, Samuel A. Foote, bus, of which exaggerated rumors were whose resolutions in the Senate occasioned spread abroad, representing them as the the famous debate between Webster and beginning of a grand advance intended Hayne, in which the relative position of for an immediale attack upon the enemy, the North and the South was so eloqueut- and much needless indignation was exly brought into discussion. Having en- pended by newspaper letter-writers who tered the navy in 1822, he was now in professed themselves disappointed in the his fortieth year of service. He had seen loss of an opportunity to describe some much of the world in that time, and per- great battle, for which they had laid up

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