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force, said by persons to amount to fifty- the enemy's cannon,) and for some time two regiments, and every road and pos- the conflict was strong and fierce. But sible avenue of departure were cut off, at length the strong masses of the enewith the certainty that our sources of my's infantry gave way before the steady, supply by the river would soon be cut well-directed, and continued fire of the off by the enemy's batteries placed upon right of my line. They fell back, howthe river above us. At a meeting of the ever, only to give place to another line general officers, called by General Floyd, of fresh troops, who advanced to the it was unanimously determined to give support, and who were also compelled the enemy battle next day at daylight, by the steady, unflinching valor of our so as to cut open a route of exit for our men, to give way. troops to the interior of the country, and In the meantime there were indicathus to save our army."

tions that the enemy were gaining some How this movement was made, and advantage on the right of the whole line. how it was met we may learn from the Reinforcements, consisting of Kentucky brigade report of General W. H. L. and Indiana troops, had been sent forWallace, whose regiments were early ward past my position to support the brought into action to reinforce the right, but notwithstanding this, it became troops of Colonel Oglesby, which bore evident to me from the sounds coming the first brunt of the assault. “At day- from the direction of the enemy's shot, break,” says he, “on the morning of the which began to rake my line from the 15th, the enemy threw a heavy force of rear of my right, that the right of the infantry and cavalry, supported by field line was giving way. My orders being artillery and his batteries within the peremptory to hold that position of the work, out of his intrenchments, and com- line occupied by my brigade, to the last menced a vigorous assault upon the right extremity, I sent one of my aids to Genof the whole line. The attack was com- eral McClernand with information of the menced and continued with great spirit, state of affairs, and to express my fears and gradually drove back our extreme that my right flank would be completely right. About seven o'clock A. M., the turned, unless reinforcements should be 11th and 20th Illinois, on my right, be speedily sent to that quarter. Finding came engaged with a heavy force of the that no reinforcements were within reach, enemy's infantry. They charged up the and General McClernand having left me bill and gained the road in front of my to my discretion if I found my position position, but the moment the rebel flag untenable, and seeing that the enemy appeared above the hill, a storm of shot steadily advanced on my right flank, and from the 11th and 20th drove them back was speedily gaining my rear, many of in confusion. Again a new and fresh the corps having exhausted their ammuline of infantry appeared, and I ordered nition, I gave orders to move the whole the whole line, except the 17th and the brigade to the rear up the road, with a left wing of the 49th, to advance and oc- view of forming a new line of battle. cupy the hill. The 49th advanced boldly Before this order was given, all our and in order to the brow of the hill

, troops on the right of my brigade had where they were exposed, uncovered, not fallen back, except the 31st Illinois, Colonly to the fire of the enemy's infantry, onel John A. Logan, who occupied the but to a raking of the enemy's batteries left of Colonel Oglesby's brigade. Imof artillery across the valley. They op- mediately adjoining the 31st, and on the ened their fire, supported by Taylor's right of my line, was the 11th Illinois, battery and two of McAllister's guns, Lieutenant-Colonel T. E. G. Ransom com(one having been disabled by a shot from manding. When the order to retire was

GENERAL LEWIS WALLACE'S DIVISION.

231

given, it failed to reach Lieutenant-Col- Vista, was struck down by cannon-shot onel Ransom, who, with the 11th regi- from the enemy's battery. Lieutenant.ment, was gallantly supporting the 31st Colonel Thomas H. Smith, 48th Illinois, against a fierce onslaught on their right. bad distinguished himself in the gallant Rapidly as the gaps were opened in the attack on the 13th, he being in command ranks of the enemy, they were as prompt- of his regiment on that occasion, Colonel ly closed to the right, and the shortway Hayne, as senior colonel, being in compoint alone showed the destructiveness of mand of the whole force detached on that that fire. Soon the 31st, their ammuni- service. Early in the engagement of the tion having failed, retired, and the 11th 15th, Lieutenant-Colonel Smith, while took their place, changing front to the leading his men up the hill to meet the rear under a most galling fire with all the enemy, received a mortal wound, of coolness and precision of veterans. In which he died in about one hour. Lieuthe meantime the order to retire was be- tenant-Colonel Ransom, commanding the ing executed in good order by the other | 11th Illinois, was struck in the shoulder regiments of the brigade. The charac- by a Minié ball. Merely calling Major ter of the ground rendered it impossible Nevins to the command, until his wound for me to see the whole line at once. could be temporarily dressed, he resumed When the 11th changed their front, they the command, and remained with his regwere exposed to a fire in front and on iment throughout the day. Lieutenantboth flanks, and the enemy's cavalry Colonel J. A. Maltby, of the 45th regcharging upon their flank, they were iment, while encouraging and animating thrown into some confusion and retired, bis men, was shot through the thigh, and but steadily and in comparatively good severely, though I trust not fatally order. After falling back some half a wounded." mile, I halted the brigade, and as rapidly

General Lewis Wallace, who thus opas possible procured a supply of ammu- | portunely came to the aid of the exnition, and formed a second line of bat-1 hausted troops on the extreme right, in tle. At this point Colonel Ross, of the the military dispositions of the day, held 19th Illinois, arrived on the field and the centre with his 3d division, wbich took command of the 17th and 49th reg- had been brought up with the fleet. It iments, and we were reinforced by some was composed of two brigades. The 1st troops of General Lewis Wallace's divis- commanded by Colonel Charles Cruft, ion, and with their aid, and with the as- consisted of the 31st Indiana, Lieutensistance of Taylor's battery and some ant-Colonel Osborn commanding ; 17th pieces of Dresser's and Willard's bat- Kentucky, Colonel John H. McHenry; teries, the advance of the enemy was 44th Indiana, Colonel Hugh B. Reed, checked, and he was driven within his and the 25th Kentucky, Colonel James intrenchments, leaving a large number M. Shackelford. The 1st Nebraska, Lieuof his dead and wounded on the field." tenant-Colonel McCord ; the 76th Ohio, The casualties in the six regiments Colonel Woods; the 58th Ohio. Colonel

; and the two batteries of General Wal- Steadman, constituted the Ohio brigade, lace's command were 123 killed, 461 commanded by Colonel John M. Thayer. wounded, and 103 missing. In his re- Three additional regiments, Colonel Dacord of the heroism of the day, General vis's 46th, Colonel Baldwin's 47th, and Wallace thus mentions the losses of offi- | Colonel Lynch's 58th Illinois, intended cers : “ Lieutenant-Colonel William Er- for a a third brigade, came up on Saturwin, of the 20th regiment, while nobly day during the action, and were attached animating his men, and adding new lau- to Colonel Thayer's command. The direls to those he so nobly won at Buena / vision, early aroused by the firing on the right, was formed in line when General for more ammunition, want of which was McClernand, about eight o'clock, called the cause of their misfortune. Colonel for its assistance. The message was sent Wallace, whose coolness under the cirto headquarters; but as General Grant cumstances was astonishing, informed was at that time on board one of the me that the enemy were following, and gunboats, arranging, as was understood, would shortly attack. The crisis was an attack from the river side ; and as the come; there was no time to await ordemand was followed up by a second ders ; my 3d brigade had to be thrust call, General Wallace promptly ordered between our retiring forces and the adColonel Cruft to move his brigade to the vancing foe. Accordingly I conducted right and report to General McClernand. Colonel Thayer's command up the road The fortunes of the brigade, and the fur- where the ridge dips towards the rether important movements of the divis- bel works ; directed the Colonel to form ion are thus narrated in tlie official re- a new line of battle at a right angle port of General Wallace: “Imperfect- with the old one ; sent for company A, ly directed by a guide, the Colonel's com- Chicago light artillery, and despatched mand was carried to the extreme right a messenger to inform General Smith of the engaged lines, where it was at- of the state of affairs, and ask him for tacked by a largely superior force, and, assistance. The head of Colonel Thayer's after the retreat or retirement of the di- column filed right, double-quick. Lieuvision he was sent to support, for a time tenant Wood, commanding the artillery bore the brunt of the battle. After a company sent for, galloped up with a varied struggle, charging and receiving portion of his battery, and posted his charges, the enemy quit him, when he pieces so as to sweep approach by the fell back in position nearer to support, road in front; a line of reserve was also his ranks in good order and unbroken, formed at convenient distance in the rear except where soldiers of other regiments of the first line, consisting of the 76th plunged through them in hurried retreat. Ohio, and 46th and 57th Illinois. The In this way, a portion of Colonel Shack- new front thus formed covered the reelford's regiment, (25th Kentucky,) and tiring regiments, helpless from lack of about twenty of the 31st Indiana, with ammunition, but which coolly halted not their commanding officers, became sepa- far off, some of them actually within rated from their colors.

reach of the enemy's musketry, to refill “Soon fugitives from the battle came their cartridge-boxes. And, as formed, crowding up the hill, in rear of my own my new front consisted of Wood's batline, bringing unmistakable signs of dis- tery across the road; on the right of the aster. Captain Rawlins was conversing battery, the 1st Nebraska and 58th Illiwith me at the time, when a mounted nois ; left of the battery, a detached comofficer galloped down the road, shouting : pany of the 320 Illinois

, Captain Davison, We are cut to pieces!' The effect was and the 58th Ohio, its left obliquely revery perceptible. To prevent a panic tired. Scarcely had this formation been among the regiments of my 3d brigade, made when the enemy attacked, coming I ordered Colonel Thayer to move on by up the road, and through the shrubs and the right flank. He promptly obeyed. trees on both sides of it

, and making the Going in advance of the movements my- battery and the 1st Nebraska the princiself, I met portions of regiments of Gen- pal points of attack. They met this eral McClerňand's division coming back storm, no man flinching, and their fire in excellent order, conducted by their was terrible. To say they did well, is brigade commanders, Colonels Wallace, not enough-their conduct was splendid, , ,

—. Oglesby, and McArther, and all calling They alone repelled the charge. "Colonel

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