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“My command had not suffered an oners, and vast medical and army stores. attack and rout, but accomplished a pre- and finally driven the boastful host which meditated march of near sixty miles, in was ravishing our beautiful country, into the face of the enemy, defeating his plans utter rout. The general commanding and giving him battle wherever he was would warmly express to the officers and found. Our loss is stated in detail, with men under his command his joy in their the names of the killed, wounded and achievements, and his thanks for their missing, in the full report of Brigadier- brilliant gallantry in action, and their General A. S. Williams, commanding obedience under the hardships of forced division, to which reference is made. marches, often more painful to the brave The whole number of killed is 38 ; soldier than the dangers of battle. The wounded, 155 ; missing, 711. Total loss, explanation of the severe exertions to 905. It is undoubtedly true that many which the commanding general called of the missing will yet return, and the the army, which were endured by them entire loss may be assumed as not ex- with such cheerful confidence in him, is ceeding 700. It is also probable that now given in the victory of yesterday. the number of killed and wounded may He receives this proof of their confidence be larger than that above stated, but the in the past with pride and gratitude, and aggregate loss will not be changed there- asks only a similar confidence in the by. All our guns were saved. Our future. But his chief duty to-day, and wagon train consisted of nearly five that of the army, is to recognize devoutly hundred wagons. Of this number fifty- the hand of a protecting Providence in five were lost. They were not, with but the brilliant successes of the last three few exceptions, abandoned to the enemy; days, which have given us the result of but were burned upon the road. Nearly a great victory without great losses, and all of our supplies were thus saved.” to make the oblation of our thanks to

Such was the masterly retreat of the God for his mercies to us and our counarmy of General Banks through the val- try in heartfelt acts of religious worship. ley of the Shenandoah before the supe. For this purpose the troops will remain rior forces of the enemy. His simple and in camp to-day, suspending, as far as admirable recital of the facts requires no practicable, all military exercises, and comment. Promptness, energy, and the chaplains of the regiments will hold presence of mind were in all ranks con- divine service in their several charges spicuous throughout these two memorable at four o'clock, P. M. to-day.” days. The terms in which their triumph General Joseph E. Johnston, in comwas celebrated by the Confederates suf- mand of the army before Richmond, also ficiently demonstrate the extraordinary took advantage of the occasion, in an efforts which had been made, and the address issued the next day, to stimulate superiority of their numbers in securing the courage of his troops for the ever the result. General Jackson, from his renewed conflict on the soil of Virginia : headquarters at Winchester, on the 28th “The commanding general has the proud of May, in a general order, marked by satisfaction of announcing to the army that vein of religious enthusiasm which another brilliant success won by the skill invigorated his actions, thus addressed and courage of our generals and troops his troops :

“Within four weeks this in the valley. The combined divisions army has made long and rapid marches, of Major Generals Jackson and Ewell, fought six combats, and two battles, sig- constituting a portion of this army, and nally defeating the enemy in each one, commanded by the former, attacked and capturing several stands of colors and routed the Federal forces under Majorpieces of artillery, with numerous pris- General Banks successively at Front Royal, Middletown, and Winchester, ful country. In making this glorious ancapturing several thousands of prisoners nouncement on the eve of the memorable and an immense quantity of ammunition struggle about to ensue, the commanding and stores of all descriptions. The Fed- general does not deem it necessary to eral army has been dispersed and igno- invoke the troops of this army to emuminously driven from the valley of the late the deeds of their noble comrades in Shenandoah, and those who have freed the valley. He feels already assured of

| the loyal citizens of that district by their their determined purpose to make illuspatriotic valor, have again earned, as trious in history the part they are soon they will receive, the thanks of a grate- I to act in the impending drama.”




The reoccupation of the valley of the in readiness for the transportation of Shenandoah by the Confederate General troops and munitions of war, as may be Jackson, bringing once more the forces ordered by the military authorities, to of the enemy to the line of the Potomac, the exclusion of all other business." was a startling phenomenon which could The loyal governors responded promptnot fail to arouse the attention of the ly to the call. On the first intimation,

, North, and demand vigorous action at previous to the retreat of General Banks the hands of the government. The cry that additional troops would be wanted, was again raised of danger to the capital, Governor Curtin replied: "Pennsylva and this at a time when the news of the nia will furnish any number required.” capture of New Orleans was the topic of The work of enlistment was speedily rethe day, and it was generally supposed sumed in New York under an effective that the great army of the Potomac was system of State organization. Governor on the eve of entering Richmond in tri- Yates, ever ready to aid the governumph! Was it the intention of the Con- ment, called upon the people of Illinois federates, leaving the hosts of McClellan to recruit the regiments which they had at a safe distance in the rear, to break sent to the field. “These," said he, into Maryland, and make a sudden dash “have nobly done their duty, and many upon Baltimore or Washington ? The of them have purchased lasting honor war department, evidently alarmed on with the price of their lives, and it rethe subject, called hastily upon the gov- mains only for us to maintain what they ernors of the Northern States for more have achieved, and therefore I call on the troops, and by a special order of the people of Illinois to raise men in every 25th of May, it was declared that " by precinct of the State.” Governor Anvirtue of the authority vested by an act drew, of Massachusetts, disappointed by of Congress, the President takes military the slow action of the government in repossession of all the railroads in the cognizing the necessity for negro emanUnited States, from and after this date cipation in the war, seemed for the mountil further orders, and directs that the ment to hesitate. On receiving a telerespective railroad companies, their offi- gram on the 19th of May from the war cers and servants, shall hold themselves department, asking how soon he could




raise and organize three or four more in- at eleven o'clock, this Sunday evening, fantry regiments, and have them ready May 25, A. D., 1862. Men of Massato be forwarded to Washington to be chusetts : The wily and barbarous horde armed and equipped,” he answered on of traitors to the people, to the governthe instant: "A call so sudden and un- ment, to our country, and to liberty, expected finds me without materials for menace again the national capital. They an intelligent reply. Our young men have attacked and routed Major-General are all preoccupied with other views. Banks, are advancing on Harper's Ferry, Still, if a real call for three regiments is and are marching on Washington. The made, I believe we can raise them in President calls on Massachusetts to rise forty days. The arms and equipments once more for its rescue and defence. would need to be furnished here. Our The whole active militia will be summonpeople have never marched without them. ed by a general order issued from the They go into camp while forming into office of the adjutant-general, to report regiments, and are drilled and practiced on Boston Common to-morrow. They with arms and muskets as soldiers. To will march to relieve and avenge their attempt the other course would dampen brethren and friends, to oppose with fiery enthusiasm, and make men feel that they zeal and courageous patriotism the prowere not soldiers, but a mob. Again : gress of the foe. May God encourage if our people feel that they are going into their hearts and strengthen their arms, the South to help fight rebels who will and may He inspire the government and kill and destroy them by all means all the people." "The Secretary of War, known to savages as well as civilized indeed, by his Sunday telegram, bad men ; will deceive them by fraudulent effectually stirred up the country. The flags of truce, and lying pretences, as scenes of the previous year were renewthey did the Massachusetts boys at Wil- ed as the old 6th Massachusetts regiliamsburg ; will use their negro slaves ment, the New York 7th, and others, against them both as laborers and as hastened to revisit the scenes of their fighting men, while they themselves must previous duties, “through Baltimore,' never fire at the enemy's magazine, I and on the Potomac. think they will feel the draft is heavy on It was not by new recruits, however, their patriotism. But if the President that the threatened invasion of the rebel will sustain General Hunter, and recog-chiefs at this time were prepared for nize all men, even black men, as legally such a movement-was to be driven capable of that loyalty the blacks are backward. That depended upon new willing to manifest; and let them fight, combinations of troops already in the with God and human nature on their field ; upon the central column of Banks, side, the roads will swarm, if need be, and the supporting forces on his right with multitudes whom New England and left, of General Fremont and Genwould pour out to obey your call. Al- eral McDowell. Both were called upon ways ready to do my utmost, I remain, to take part in the movement, and once most faithfully, your obedient servant, more drive the redoubtable "Stonewall” John A. Andrew.” A week later, when Jackson from the valley of the ShenanGeneral Banks had crossed the Potomac, doah. A new military department, called and the protection of the capital was in the Mountain Department, it will be revolved, Governor Andrew, throwing all membered, had been created by Presidoubts and scruples to the winds, and dent Lincoln's war order of March 11th, now satisfied that the call was "real,” for General Fremont. Lying between issued the following vigorous proclama- the department of the Potomac on the tion, dated “At headquarters, in Boston, east, and the new department of General

Halleck on the west, it included the en- ings, your marchings, and your combats. tire range of western Virginia, and the Under God, to your bravery and good Alleghany district of Tennessee, cast of conduct it is due that not a single reverse Knoxville. The latter region, especially, has attended our arms in all these vast presented an inviting sphere of military regions. Wherever I go I shall bear operations. The opponents of Fremont with me the remembrance of men who, laughed at the airy mountain command leaving home and its endearments, against of the pathfinder of the Rocky Moun- the force of all former tastes and habits, tains, and pronounced the appointment have undertaken to inure themselves to an ingenious device of the government to the toils, privations, hardships and danshelve a general who was too important gers of military life, and have succeeded. to be overlooked, and whom it was not But, comrades, proud as I am of the thought expedient to put too prominently manly energy you have thus displayed, I forward. The command assigned him, am prouder still to bear testimony to the however, was not an unimportant one. pure and lofty patriotism which has It was identified with the interests of called it forth. No mean and sectional freedom. A hardy race, naturally foes spirit, no low truckling to reckless leadto slavery, inhabited the mountains, and crship, no blind and ignorant fanaticism, is the enemy were to be outflanked in has animated you. By your intelligence, southern Virginia, cutting off the Rich- your magnanimity and forbearance tomond communications, or if eastern Ten- wards those whom the rebellion bas misnessee were to be occupied, the enemy led, you have shown that you entered would be greatly straitened, and one of into the conflict with a conviction that the most difficult problems of the war the interests of free government, and would be solved. It was the expecta- even of human freedom itself, opposed tion of his friends, and the intention of by arbitrary and despotic will by rebelFremont himself, that his division, start- lion in favor of despotism, lay in the ing from the north, would gain strength issue, and that you 'fought for the liberas it proceeded, and earn its brightest ties of all, both north and south. Such laurels in the South. The raid of the men deserve to be, and will be, free rebel General Jackson diverted his ener- themselves; or, dying, will bequeath libgies to another quarter, and his new erty and a glorious name to their poshopes of renown were brought to an end terity. That it may be your happy lot, in that field of central Virginia so fatal in the Union and the constitution and to military prospects at various periods the laws, to be free and happy yourof the war.

selves, and to bequeath freedom, happiThe new appointinent of General Fre- ness, and a glorious name to your chilmont absorbed the old department of dren, is my cherished wish and hope.” western Virginia, long and honorably Two months were passed by General held by General Rosecrans. The latter Fremont in necessary preparations for officer, on the 29th of March, on the ar- the organization of his corps, under uurival of Fremont at Wheeling, the head- usual difficulties, from the insufficient quarters of the mountain department, re- provision made for the new department. signed his command in an eloquent gen- Early in May, when he was suddenly eral order: “Companions in arms,” said called to take the field, his command was he, “in this vast department of moun- composed of troops in part originally tains and forests, in the rains of summer, under the command of General Rosethe cold and storms of winter, for nine crans, and in part of the division of months, I have witnessed your uncom- Brigadier-General Blenker, from the plaining zeal and activity, your watch-army of the Potomac. This officer, a



native of Hesse Darmstadt, after serving ward the camp of General Milroy, in the in his youth with the Bavarian legion, adjoining county, when he received inwhich accompanied the newly elected telligence from the latter officer of a King Otho to Greece, and subsequently threatened attack by the enemy. There taking part in the revolutionary proceed- had been considerable skirmishing beings of 1848, in his own country, emi- tween the rival forces in the region, and grated to the United States on the unsuc- on the 8th of May a serious encounter cessful termination of the latter struggle. between them took place near McDowell, A resident of New York city, at the some twelve miles beyond Monterey. outbreak of the rebellion, he became im- General Milroy, discovering the enemy mediately engaged in raising a German in position on the adjacent Bull Mountregiment of volunteers, the 8th, which ain, sent a Virginia and four Ohio regileft for Washington in May, 1861, and ments to attack them.

The troops stationed in the reserve at Bull Run, did gallantly ascended the mountain, and for effective service on that day, in covering five hours, from three in the afternoon the retreat of the Union forces. For his till eight in the evening, contested the good conduct on that occasion, Colonel position, when they retired. General Blenker was made a Brigadier General Schenck, who, after a forced march of of Volunteers. The staff of General thirty-four miles in twenty-four hours, Fremont included several of the officers had joined General Milroy before the who had been with him in Missouri. battle, then brought off the inferior Among others, it embraced Colonels Union force in safety to Franklin, in a Aberts and Fiala, Colonel D'Utassy, march of three days, the enemy followformerly of the New York Garibaldi ing at a distance, with a loss of 28 Guard, and Major Zagonyi, the cavalry killed, 60 severely, and 145 slightly chieftain of the brilliant charge before wounded.* The prompt arrival of GenSpringfield.

eral Fremont, from Petersburg, with The first movement in General Fre- the Blenker division, so strengthenmont's department was in Highland ed the command that no further advance County, where, on the 13th of April, the was made by the enemy in this direcpickets of General Milroy's camp, at tion. The want of supplies, from the Monterey, were attacked and driven in difficulty of communication with the by a body of about a thousand rebels, Potomac, prevented their being pursued. with cavalry and two pieces of artillery. Shortly after this affair, on the 20th of Reinforcements were sent out by Gen- May, Colonel Crook commanding the eral Milroy, and after a brisk skirmish brigade, at Lewisburg, in Greenbrier the assailants were put to flight with con- County, made a successful dash through siderable loss.* The enemy, however, Covington, to the Virginia Central Raildid not quit the region, but established road, burning the bridge at Jackson themselves in a fortified position on the river. This was followed by an attack eastern slope of the Shenandoah mount-on Colonel Crook's brigade, at Lewisburg, ains. A few days later, on the 23d, a on the 23d, by the rebel General Heath, party, sent out by General Schenek, with 3,000 men, when, after a lively enfrom Romney, had a sharp encounter gagement, the enemy were routed, and with a body of guerrillas. A fortnight fled in confusion. Colonel Crook cap

a later he had advanced with his brigade tured four cannon, two hundred stand to Franklin, the capital of Pendleton of arms, and one hundred prisoners. The County, whence he was proceeding to Union loss was ten killed and forty

Major General Fremont to Secretary Stanton, Wheel- Correspondence New York Tribune. Franklin, Va., ing, Va., April 13, 1862.

May 14, 1862.

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