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ing the sum of six hundred dollars. In- civilization. It was the act leveled at comes exceeding $10,000, and those of the ordinance of the Mormons or Latter citizens residing abroad, were taxed five Day Saints, of Utah Territory, annulling

all laws in that region "which establish, Three other bills may be mentioned for maintain, protect, or countenance the their.importance in the legislation of this practice of polygamy, evasively called period. An "act to secure homesteads spiritual marriage, however disguised by to actual settlers on the public domain,” legal or ecclesiastical solemnities, sacragave to any person the head of a family, ments, ceremonies,

ments, ceremonies, consecrations, or or of the age of twenty-one, a loyal citi- other contrivances.” Polygamy in the zen of the United States, or one who has Territories was, by this act, made punlegally declared his intentions to become ishable by a fine not exceeding five such, the privilege of entering upon one hundred dollars, and by imprisonment hundred and sixty acres of land, the full for a term not exceeding five years. title to which would be secured by five To adapt the organization of the navy years' residence and cultivation. This to the new requirements of the service, measure looked to a future increase of an act was passed to establish and equalthe emigration which had been so fruitful ize the grade of line officers, by which the a means of developing the wealth of the active list was divided into nine grades, great West, and was now proving an in the following order : Rear admirals, important aid in maintaining the war. commodores, captains, commanders, lieuA second act, providing for aid in the tenant commanders, lieutenant masters, construction of a great railroad and tele- ensigns, midshipmen. The number of graph line from the Missouri river to rear admirals was limited to nine ; of the Pacific ocean, bore a certain rela- commodores to eighteen ; of captains to tion to the last in its sphere of op- thirty-six ; of commanders to seventyeration. A third declared the voice two; and the other grades to one hunof the nation on a scandal to modern dred and forty-four each.



The entire month of July was passed their capital, respected these advantages, by the army under General McClellan and mindful of the disastrous encounter on the banks of the James river, at the at Malvern Hills, made no further serious camp at Harrison's Landing, twenty-five attempt to disturb the army at its new miles distant from Richmond. In a mil- base of operations. Reconnoissances, itary point of view, the troops held an however, in the direction of Richmond, advantageous position ; they were well showed that the onward movement to protected by batteries on the adjacent that city would meet with resistance. heights, while the depth of water in the It was General McClellan's conviction, river afforded every facility to prompt nevertheless, that this was now the true support, if needed, from the gunboats, route to the enemy's capital, and he and a ready communication to the tran- steadily called for reinforcements to carsports. The enemy, in force, around ry his plans into effect. No little solicitude, meanwhile, was felt for the protec- salute of artillery, and the vociferous tion of the national capital, and the line cheers of the men. “Coming into the of the Potomac, which had so lately felt trenches," says a correspondent, “he the hand of the enemy in Jackson's dismounted, and ascending the ramparts vigorous movement against Banks. The of the newest fortifications, briefly ad“Stonewall," indeed, had been forced to dressed the soldiers. He said he had retreat ; but he had managed the move- come to see for himself, and to know, the ment so cleverly as to baffle the combi- situation of affairs, and that he should go nation of the Union commands set in mo- back satisfied. It was said they bad tion against him, and his liberated force been whipped. It was not so, and never had told with crushing effect upon the would be. He knew the men he saw army before Richmond in the Seven around him would prove equal to the Days' Battles. The new "change of task before them, and never give up base” of McClellan had placed the army without going into Richmond. He had of the Potomac farther than ever from been unable to sleep from anxiety, but Washington, and cut off any prospect of after what he had seen and heard, he coöperation with the several detached should go back to Washington satisfied divisions of the Union forces between that it was all right with the army of the the Rappahannock and the capital. Re- Potomac."* President Lincoln left the inforcements, indeed, might be sent to camp the next day, and, on his arrival him by water, but what reinforcements at Washington, more favorable accounts could be spared in sufficient numbers to of the army were diffused through the bring the army on the James to a suffi- country. It was said that he found the cient strength for active operations with losses in the recent battles, in killed, ont so impoverishing the other army on wounded, missing, and prisoners, did not the Potomac as to endanger its safety ? exceed 10,400, and that the army, still The question was anxiously discussed at strong in numbers, was in excellent Washington, and while every effort was heart, and eager for a forward march. made to strengthen the force on the On the 20th of July the official returns James, it was felt that something was due of General McClellan's army, including to the army of General Pope, who, as the corps of General Dix, in command we have stated, had been called from the at Fortress Monroe, showed 101,691 scene of his exploits in Mississippi, at the present for duty ; 17,828 on special end of June, to command the corps of duty, sick, and in arrest; 38,795 abFremont, Banks, and McDowell, now sent—a total of 158,314.† consolidated in the army of Virginia. When General Pope was assigned to Measures, however, were early taken to the command in Virginia he found the strengthen the wasted army of McClel- effective movable force at his disposal lan. General Burnside, with a consider- of infantry and artillery, consisting of able part of his force from North Caro- about 38,000 men, unequally divided belina, early in July, joined the army on tween the corps of Fremont, Banks, and the James. To assure himself of the ac- McDowell. Of these McDowell's was the tual condition of affairs, President Lin- largest, numbering over 18,000 ; Banks coln, on the 8th, visited the camp, by had but 8,000. The cavalry—an arm way of Fortress Monroe. He arrived in of the service, as the country was effecthe afternoon, and after a conference with tually taught, too much neglected in General McClellan, proceeded, in the these operations in Virginia—numbering evening, to a review of the troops. As he rode along the lines of the several * New York Tribune Correspondence. Fortress Monroe,

July 9, 1862. divisions, he was greeted at each by a + Report of Committee on the Conduct of the War,

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about 5,000, was mostly badly mounted sition of General Pope's army when the and armed, and in poor condition for Seven Days' Battles were fought, and service.* The forces were widely seat- General McClellan retreated to James tered, and a portion of them, including, river. The question then arose, how, particularly, the new troops of Fremont's, under this altered condition of affairs, the now General Sigel's division, in a condi- two armies should render each other any tion far from effective. The corps of assistance. To solve this, and other Banks and Fremont were located in the problems, General Halleck was called valley of the Shenandoah at Winchester, from the Army of the West to assume the and mostly above at Middletown. Mc- duties of General-in-chief, previously Dowell's command was divided between discharged by Scott and McClellan. He Manassas Junction on the Orange and arrived at the capital, and entered upon Alexandria railway, and the left bank of the duties of this important office, on the the Rappahannock, opposite Fredericks- 23d of July. burg. It was the wish of the govern- General Pope, in the interim, had sigment, as General Pope tells us, “that he nalized his command by the issue of sev

" should cover the city of Washington eral important orders, which were much from any attack from the direction of commented on. On the 14th, he thus Richmond, make such dispositions as addressed the officers and soldiers of the were necessary to assure the safety of army of Virginia : “By special assignthe valley of the Shenandoah, and at the ment of the President of the United same time to so operate upon the enemy's States, I have assumed command of this lines of communication in the direction army. I have spent two weeks in learnof Gordonsville and Charlottesville as to ing your whereabouts, your condition, draw off, if possible, a considerable force and your wants ; in preparing you for of the enemy from Richmond, and thus active operations, and in placing you in relieve the operations against that city positions from which you can act promptof the army of the Potomac.” The en- ly and to the purpose. I have come to emy being now out of the way hastening you from the West, where we have to the defence of Richmond, General always seen the backs of our enemies-Pope was at liberty to station the troops from an army whose business it has been at his disposal as he might think best for to seek the adversary, and to beat him the next campaign. Concentration was when found—whose policy has been athis first object, and he chose for this pur-tack, and not defence. În but one inpose the central position east of the Blue stance has the enemy been able to place Ridge, and south of the Bull Run moun- our western armies in a defensive attitains, whence, if the enemy again de- tude. I presume that I have been called

. scended the valley of the Shenandoah, he here to pursue the same system, and to could readily move to interpose be- lead you against the enemy. It is my tween their advance and main army, and purpose to do so, and that speedily. I cut off the retreat. He accordingly am sure you long for an opportunity to brought the corps of Sigel and Banks to win the distinction you are capable of the east of the Blue Ridge, to Sperry- achieving. That opportunity I shall enville and its vicinity, while Ricketts' deavor to give you. Meantime, I desire division, of McDowell's corps, was or- you to dismiss from your minds certain dered within easy coöperating distance, phrases which I am sorry to find much in to Waterloo Bridge, on the north fork of vogue amongst you. I hear constantly the Rappahannock. Such was the dispo- of taking strong positions and holding * , * Official report of General Pope, of his campaign. Jan: them--of lines of retreat, and of bases of strongest position a soldier should desire Another order was directed against to occupy is one from which he can most the irregular guerrilla warfare, which, easily advance against the enemy. Let throughout the war, as the Union army us study the probable lines of retreat of advanced, had been so annoying to its our opponents, and leave our own to take progress. The people of the valley of care of themselves. Let us look before, the Shenandoah, and throughout the reand not behind. Success and glory are gion of operations of the army, living in the advance. Disaster and shame along the lines of railroad and telegraph, lurk in the rear. Let us act on this un- and along the routes of travel in the rear derstanding ; and it is safe to predict of the United States forces, were notified that your banners shall be inscribed that they would be held responsible for with many a glorious deed, and that your any injury done the track, line or road, names will be dear to your countrymen or for any attacks upon trains of stragforever.” Several orders, dated July 18, gling soldiers by bands of guerrillas in indicated the practice, he would pursue their neighborhood. If such injuries toward the enemy in the conduct of the were committed, it was ordered that the war. "Hereafter, as far as practicable," citizens living within five miles of the it was directed, “the troops of this com- spot, should be turned out en masse, to mand will subsist upon the country in repair the damage, and be, moreover, rewhich their operations are carried on. quired to pay to the United States, in In all cases supplies for this purpose will money or in property, to be levied by be taken by the officers to whose depart- military force, the full amount of the pay ment they properly belong, under the and subsistence of the whole force necesorders of the commanding officers of the sary to coerce the performance of the troops for whose use they are intended. work during the time occupied-in comVouchers will be given to the owners, pleting it.” If a soldier, or legitimate stating on their face that they will be follower of the army, were fired upon payable at the conclusion of the war up- from any house, the house was to be on sufficient testimony being furnished razed to the ground, and the inhabitants that such owners have been loyal citizens sent prisoners to the headquarters of the of the United States since the date of the army. If such an outrage occurred at vouchers. Whenever it is known that any place distant from settlements the supplies can be furnished in any district people within five miles round were to of the country where the troops are to be held accountable, and pay a sufficient operate, the use of trains for carrying indemnity. Any person detected in such

supplies. Let us discard such ideas. The

bary 27, 1863.

. subsistence will be dispensed with as far outrages, either during the act, or at any as possible.” This order, as General time afterwards, it was ordered, shall be Pope tells us, was construed greatly to shot without waiting civil process. These his discredit, as authorizing indiscrimi- orders appeared stringent, but when we nate robbery and plunder. It admitted, reflect upon the crime against which they however, he urges, no such interpreta- were leveled, simply murder within our tion.

It was specific, carefully guarded, lines, they could not be considered unnein concurrence with the usages of war; cessarily severe. They were, indeed, a while its policy was unquestionable. In- guaranty for the safety of non-combatdeed, he adds, “ the long delay and em- ants, whose welfare lay in submission, barrassment of the army under Gen. Lee, and the consequent protection of the arin its subsequent movements towards my in possession. Washington, occasioned, largely, by the In addition to the order just recited, wantofsupplies taken from the countryun- General Pope, on the 23d, ordered comder this order, fully justified its wisdom.” | manders of army corps, divisions, bri




gades, and detached commands, to pro- an intention on the part of some of the ceed immediately to arrest all disloyal military authorities of the United States, male citizens within their lines, or within “not content with the unjust and aggrestheir reach, in rear of their respective sive warfare hitherto waged with savage stations. Such as were willing to take cruelty against an unoffending people, the oath of allegiance to the United and exasperated by the failure of their States, and would furnish sufficient secu- efforts to subjugate them, to violate all rity for its observance, were to be per- the rules and usages of war, and to conmitted to remain at their homes, and vert the hostilities hitherto waged against pursue, in good faith, their accustomed armed forces, into a campaign of robbery avocations. Those who refused were to and murder against innocent citizens and be conducted South, beyond the extreme peaceful tillers of the soil.” It was therepickets of the army, and notified, that if fore declared that Major-General Pope, found anywhere again within our lines, Brigadier-General Steinwehr, and all or at any point in rear, they would be commissioned officers serving under considered spies, and subjected to the them, were not to be considered as solextreme rigor of military law. Any per- diers, and should be denied the benefit son who, having taken the oath of all of the cartel for the general exchange of giance, was found to violate it, was to be prisoners, which had recently, on the shot, and his property seized and applied 22d of July, been signed by General to the public use. These orders of Gen-Dix on the part of the United States, and eral Pope present pretty clearly the con- General D. H. Hill on the part of the tinued elements of disloyalty in the Confederacy. In the event of their capnorthern and eastern portions of Vir- ture, tliey were to be held in close conginia, already once and again occupied finement as long as the obnoxious orders by the Union armies, and under Federal continued in force, or unrepealed, and authority. As a matter of course, they " that in the event of the murder of any awakened the bitter resentment of the unarmed citizen or inhabitant of this eneiny. A correspondence on the sub-Confederacy, by virtue, or under the ject of the alleged arrest of persons pretext of any of the orders, whether claimed to be Confederate citizens, and with or without trial, whether under the other grievances of General Pope's or- pretence of such citizen being a spy or a ders, coupled with complaints of General hostage, or any other pretence, it shall Butler, General Phelps, and others, be the duty of the commanding general was opened by General Lee with of the forces of this Confederacy, to cause General Halleck, and retaliatory mea- immediately to be hung, out of the comsures were threatened. In a Confederate missioned officers thus imprisoned, a numgeneral order, dated August 1st, General ber equal to the number of our own Pope's order of the 23d of July was re- citizens thus murdered by the enemy." cited, together with a previous one issued This order was communicated by Genby Brigadier-General Steinwehr, of his eral Lee to General Halleck, who briefly army, ordering the arrest of five promi- replied: "As these papers are couched nent citizens of Page county, “ to be held in language exceedingly insulting to the as hostages, and to suffer death, in the government of the United States, I must event of any of the soldiers of said Stein- respectfully decline to receive them.” wehr being shot by bushwhackers, by Captured officers were, meanwhile, subwhich term are meant the citizens of this jected to more rigorous imprisonment. Confederacy who have taken up arms to Immediately on entering upon his defend their lives and families." These new command, General Halleck visited orders were pronounced evidence of the army of General McClellan at Har

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