« PrejšnjaNaprej »
GEORGE LYTTELTON, the son of sir Thomas Lyttelton, of Hagley in Worcestershire, was born in 1709. He was educated at Eton, where he was so much distinguished, that his exercises were recommended as models to his schoolfellows.
From Eton he went to Christ church, where he retained the same reputation of superiority, and displayed his abilities to the public in a poem on Blenheim.
He was a very early writer, both in verse and prose. His Progress of Love, and his “ Persian Letters,” were both written when he was very young ; and indeed the character of a young man is very visible in both. The verses cant of shepherds and flocks, and crooks dressed with flowers ; and the letters have something of that indistinct and headstrong ardour for liberty which a man of genius always catches when he enters the world, and always suffers to cool as he passes forward.
Hestaid not long in Oxford; forin 1728 he began his travels, and saw France and Italy. When he returned, he obtained a seat in parliament, and soon distinguished himself among the most eager opponents of sir Robert Walpole, though his father, who was commissioner of the admiralty, always voted with the court.
For many years the name of George Lyttelton was seen in every account of every debate in the house of commons. He opposed the standing army; he opposed the excise ; he sup ported the motion for petitioning the king to remove Walpole. His zeal was considered by the courtiers not only as violent, but as acrimonious and malignant ; and, when Walpole was at last hunted from his places, every effort was made by his friends, and many friends he had, to exclude Lyttelton from the secret committee.
The prince of Wales, being, 1737, driven from St. James's, kept a separate court, and opened his arms to the opponents of the ministry. Mr. Lyttelton became his secretary, and was supposed to have great influence in the direction of his conduct. He persuaded his master, whose business it was now to be popular, that he would advance his character by patronage. Mallet was made undersecretary, with 2001. and Thomson had a pension of 1001. a year. For Thomson, Lyttelton always retained his kindness, and was able at last to place him at ease.
Moore courted his favour' by an apologetical poem, called “ The Trial of Selim ;" for which he was paid with kind words, which, as is common, raised great hopes, that were at last disappointed.
Lyttelton now stood in the first rank of opposition; and Pope, who was incited, it is not easy to say how, to increase the clam. our against the ministry, commended him among the other pat. riots. This drew upon him the reproaches of Fox, who, in the house, imputed to him as a crime his intimacy with a lampooner so unjust and licentious. Lyttelton supported his friend ; and replied, that he thought it an honour to be received into the familiarity of so great a poet.
While he was thưs conspicuous, he married, 1741, Miss Lucy Fortescue of Devonshire, by whom he had a son, the late lord Lyttelton, and two daughters, and with whom he appears to have lived in the highest degree of connubial felicity; but human pleasures are short ; she died in childbed about five years afterward; and he solaced himself by writing a long poem to her memory.
He did not, however, condemn himself to perpetual solitude and sorrow ; for, after awhile he was content to seek happiness again by a second marriage with the daughter of sir Robert Rich; but the experiment was unsuccessful.
At length, after a long struggle, Walpole gave way, and honour and profit were distributed among his conquerors. Lyttelton was made, 1744, one of the lords of the treasury; and from that time was engaged in supporting the schemes of the ministry.
Politics did not, however, so much engage him as to withhold his thoughts from things of more importance. He had, in the pride of juvenile confidence, with the help of corrupt conversation, entertained doubts of the truth of christianity ; but he thought the time now come when it was no longer fit to doubt or believe by chance, and applied himself seriously to the great question. His studies, being honest, ended in conviction. He found that religion was true ; and what he had learned he endeavoured to teach, 1747, by “ Observations on the Conversion of St. Paul ;” a treatise to which infidelity has never been able to fabricate a specious answer.
This book his father had the happiness of seeing, and expressed his pleasure in a letter which deserves to be inserted.
“ I have read your religious treatise with infinite pleasure and satisfaction. The style is fine and clear, the arguments close, cogent, and irresistible. May the King of kings, whose glorious cause you have so well defended, reward your pious labours, and grant that I may be found worthy, through the merits of Jesus Christ, to be an eye witness of that happiness which I don't doubt he will bountifully bestow upon you. In the mean time, I shall never cease glorifying God, for having endowed you with such useful talents, and giving me so good a son.
“ Your affectionate father,
“ THOMAS LYTTELTON.”
A few years afterward, 1751, by the death of his father he inherited a baronet's title with a large estate, which, though perhaps he did not augment, he was careful to adorn, by a house of great elegance and expense, and by much attention to the decoration of his park.
As he continued his activity in parliament, he was gradually advancing his claim to profit and preferment; and accordingly was made in time, 1754, cofferer and privy counsellor ; this place he exchanged next year for the great office of chancellor of the exchequer ; an office, however, that required some qualifications which he soon perceived himself to want.
The year after, his curiosity led him into Wales; of which he has given an account, perhaps rather with too much affectation of delight, to Archibald Bower, a man of whom he had conceived an opinion more favourable than he seems to have deserved, and whom, having once espoused his interest and fame, he was never persuaded to disown. Bower, whatever was his moral character, did not want abilities ; attacked as he was by an
universal outcry, and that outcry, as it seems, the echo of truth, he kept his ground ; at last, when his defences began to fail him, he sallied out upon his adversaries, and his adversaries retreated.
About this time Lyttelton published his “ Dialogues of the Dead,” which were very eagerly read, though the production rather, as it seems, of leisure than of study; rather effusions than compositions. The names of his persons too often enable the reader to anticipate their conversation ; and, when they have met, they too often part without any conclusion. He has copied Fenelon more than Fontenelle.
When they were first published, they were kindly commended by the “ critical reviewers ;” and poor Lyttelton, with humble gratitude, returned, in a note which I have read, acknowledgments which can never be proper, since they must be paid either for flattery or for justice.
When, in the latter part of the last reign, the inauspicious commencement of the war made the dissolution of the ministry unavoidable, sir George Lyttelton, losing with the rest his employment, was recompensed with a peerage ; and rested from political turbulence in the house of lords.
His last literary production was his “ History of Henry the Second," elaborated by the searches and deliberations of twenty years, and published with such anxiety as only vanity can dictate.
The story of this publication is remarkable. The whole work was printed twice over, a great part of it three times, and many sheets four or five times. The bookseller's paid for the first impression ; but the charges and repeated operations of the press were at the expense of the author, whose ambitious accuracy is known to have cost him at least a thousand pounds. He began to print in 1755. Three volumes appeared in 1764, a second edition of them in 1767, a third edition in 1768, and the conclusion in 1771.
Andrew Reid, a man not without considerable abilities, and not unacquainted with letters or with life, undertook to persuade Lyttelton, as he had persuaded himself, that he was master of the secret of punctuation ; and, as fear begets credulity, he was employed, I know not at what price, to point the pages of “ Henry the Second.” The book was at last pointed and printed, and sent into the world. Lyttelton took money for his copy, of
which, when he had paid the pointer, he probably gave the rest away; for he was very liberal to the indigent.
When time brought the history to a third edition, Reid was either dead or discarded ; and the superintendence of typography and punctuation was committed to a man originally a combmaker, but then known by the style of doctor. Something un. common was probably expected, and something uncommon was at last done ; for to the doctor's edition is appended, what the world had hardly seen before, a list of errors in nineteen pages.
But to politics and literature there must be an end. Lord Lyttelton had never the appearance of a strong or of a healthy man ; he had a slender uncompacted frame, and a meagre face ; he lasted however sixty years, and was then seized with his last ill
Of his death a very affecting and instructive account has been given by his physician, which will spare me the task of his moral character.
“On Sunday evening the symptoms of his lordship's disorder, which for a week past had alarmed us, put on a fatal appearances and his lordship believed himself to be a dying man. From this time he suffered by restlessness rather than pain ; though his nerves were apparently much futtered, his mental faculties never seemed stronger, when he was thoroughly awake.
“ His lordship's bilious and hepatic complaints seemed alone not equal to the expected mournful event; his long want of sleep, whether the consequence of the irritation in the bowels, or, which is more probable, of causes of a different kind, accounts for his loss of strength, and for his death very sufficiently.
Though his lordship wished his approaching dissolution not to be lingering, he waited for it with resignation. He said, “ It is a folly, a keeping me in misery, now to attempt to prolong life ;' yet he was easily persuaded, for the satisfaction of others, to do or take any thing thought proper for him. On Saturday he had been remarkably better, and we were not without some hopes of his recovery.
“ On Sunday, about eleven in the forenoon, his lordship sent for and said he felt a great hurry, and wished to have a little conversation with me in order to divert it. He then proceeded to open the fountain of that heart, from whence goodness had so long flowed, as from a copious spring. "Doctor,' said he, you shall be my confessor ; when I first set out in the world I had