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discharge of the public trust in the disposal of these lands must also be taken into the account. The danger, however, lies in the enormous landed monopolies created by these grants and the long time they may probably be held out of the market in order to realize higher prices. Thus they might give rise to speculations in real estate and paralyze for the time being the productive capacity of immense regions of country. The policy of future landed subsidies as a general thing may, therefore, well be questioned. It were far more to the public interest, if aid of this kind be really required as a national necessity, that it be granted in the form of loan subsidies. It was to be expected, however, that, in this opening chapter of our railroad development, erroneous views of necessity would be entertained and that serious evils would inevitably result from our ignorance of the true conditions of the problems to be solved. These, however, are by no means appalling. The vital force of free civilization is ample to control any evils yet developed by our wonderful progress. The withdrawal of Government aid will throw the financial public back upon its ulterior resources. Railway building will lose its character as a mere speculation and settle down to a calm and close calculation of resources and actual expenses, engineering science will be prompted to achieve still higher triumphs over the obstacles of nature, and the art of road building and equipment settled upon legiti. mate principles. The experience of the past five years has shown the necessity of a multiplication of through lines across the continent. We have seen that the local traffic of the line already completed is amply sufficient for its support, and that this, with the growth of the country, will still further expand. The multiplication of these lines at proper dis- . tances is found not at all to interfere with their material prosperity. The Pennsylvania Central Railroad, though directly connected with only a portion of the Ohio Valley, and though competing with four jowerful rival lines of transportation, the New York and Erie Canal, the New York Central and Erie Roads, and the Baitimore and Ohio, las found it necessary not only to double but also to triple its track and rolling stock. To meet the demands of our rising settlements in the West we will find it necessary to enlarge our railway accommodations over the public domain west of the Mississippi. The single line now subsisting might become a mere monopoly, if no competition be aroused to dispute its sway. The power which Congress has reserved, of regulating the charges and of protecting the public against imposition, is oue very delicate in its nature and difficult of execution. It is not easy for the legislative power, with its general processes, to interfere with recognized interests without producing some other derangement. If the end in view can be otherwise secured it will be iniinitely better. The establishment of competitive lines of route will obviate all necessity for such an interference and secure the points desired without any sacrifices of admitted interests.

The necessity of further lines of through traffic is also sufficiently evident from the fact that the present existing line is a compromise. Its location was not secured solely by considerations of the greatest advantage to the enterprise itself, but to a considerable extent by conflicting interests of rival sections which were to be benefited by its construction. On this central line it was found impossible to pass the Rocky or the Sierra Nevada Mountains at an altitude less that 8,262 feet in the former and 7,042 feet in the latter. These lofty elevations during the winter expose the workings of this line to very serious interruptions. Both north and south of this line are found localities in which this passage may be made over three natural ravines at far less cost of capital and labor. The Northern Pacific Railroad claims especial advantages as a through route across our continent. Its low summit levels present comparatively small engineering difficulties. It proposes to cross the Cascade Mountains in Washington Territory; the northward extension of the Sierra Nevada at the Snoqualmie Pass, 3,000 feet above sea-level; and the Rocky Mountains at Cadotte's Pass, the altitude of which, 6,167 feet, may be reduced to 5,337 feet by a tunnel, in length 25 miles. The points on the map at which the Northern Pacific and Union Pacific lines cross the Rocky Mountains, as shown by Blodgett's isothermal charts, are on the same winter isothermal line of 200 F. The winter temperature of the adjacent plains is very nearly the same, while the height of Evans's Pass is at least 3,000 feet greater than Cadotte's Pass.

This route claims to be the shortest and most central between the navigable tributaries of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. Its main line, from Lake Superior to Puget Sound, is 1,775 miles in length, being 70 miles shorter than the Union Pacific, and reaching 200 miles further eastward. It claims also a shorter distance from its western terminus, at Seattle, to Japan, China, and Russian America, than San Francisco, the difference in its favor being 500 miles. It further claims a more eligible country through which to pass, avoiding the snowy obstructions on the one hand, and the alkali regions on the other. It passes through a region of excellent agricultural and mineral resources, abounding in materials for cheap and effective construction. It is even proposed to manufacture the iron rails for its track from its splendid deposits of iron ore and coal. The estimated cost of construction and equipment of the main line is $140,377,500, to which adding 810,480,000 for the construction of the Oregon Branch to Portland, and we have, for tlie entire estimated cost of the road and its equipments, $156,857,500.

The Northern Pacific Company was incorporated by the act of July 2, 1864, with a landed endowment of 25,000 acres per mile, amounting to 47,000,000, according to the best estimates that can be inade in the ab. sence of surveys along the entire line. By joint resolution of May 31, 1870, this aggregate was enlarged by an estimated addition of 11,000,000 acres, making 58,000,000 acres, as probably accruing under the grant. What the actual present money value of this grant really is, it would now be very difficult to estimate. It will advance in value, however, with each year of advancing settlement and civilization in those regions. No report of actual operations under the grant, beyond the preliminary survey of the route, has been accessible in the preparation of this report. This route promises to establish very important eastern connections. For freight to Europe without transshipment it brings together the produce of a large territory west of the head of Lake Superior. Its rail. way connections will be not less important. A grand scheme of a continuous railway line from Portland, Oregon, to Portland, in Maine, and thence to Halifax, has been devised by far-seeing capitalists, which only needs the completion of the Northern Pacific Road fully to establish. The local traffic on this road promises to be immensely valuable. The adjacent country is capable of almost continuous agricultural settlement, while the rich mineral deposits and admirable facilities for manufacturing enterprise, so profusely distributed, will give scope to a varied industry and a symmetrical civilization. The undevelped resources of this part of the country have already attracted a large immigration in anticipation of the speedy completion of this road, while labor and capital find it an inviting field. Governor Stevens was of opinion that not more than one-fifth of the land between Red River and Puget Sound was absolutely inarable, and that this portion was covered with heavy timber. The great wheat-growing regions on the left bank of the Upper Missouri promise a rapid settlement upon the opening of a line of travel and transportation to the eastern markets. Each section of the road will, immediately upon its opening, from local traffic alone, present excellent returns for its investinent.

The eastern portion of this route will be temporarily superseded by the Saint Paul and Pacific Road, now in rapid process of construction. It embraces a main line to Breckenridge, on Red River, with anthority to continue down the Red River Valley to the international frontier, and, also, from Big Stone Lake to a point on the Missouri River north of the forty-fifth parallel. It likewise has a branch line from St. Paul to Watob, 80 miles long, which is finished. Of the main line, a section of 96 miles to Willmar is complete and open to the public. These lines are endowed with a land grant of 20 sections per mile, under the acts of March 7, 1857, and March 3, 1865. The entire distance to Breckenridge will be open for business at an early day, a distance of 206 miles. The operations of the last calendar year embrace the transportation of 148,723 passengers and 76,793 tons. The gross earnings amounted to $373,448, and the operating expenses to $235,037. The total land subsidy accruing under the grants of 1857 and 1865 are estimated to cover 2,635,000 acres. The road and its equipment with the lands in the grant are mortgaged to discharge indebtedness already incurred for construction. Land sufficient, of choice quality, still remains at the disposal of the Government for the completion of the line, and propably to leave a surplus. The State has granted to the company the privilege of town building along its line, from which it will derive a very considerable emolument. It is thought that this will secure an enhancement of the landed endowment of the company, amounting to $1,000,000. This road has already demonstrated its importance and value by attracting a large Scandinavian population to the fertile valley of Red River. It taps the important and unique overland trade of the Red River country, now carried on by half-breeds in large caravans of ox and dog carts, sometimes numbering 1,500 in a single train. At St. Paul the eastern connections of this line are already extensive, and will still further increase, bringing it in close relations with the railroad system of the Mississippi Valley and of the Atlantic slope.

The opening of a southern transcontinental route within a few years seems to have been fixed upon in the public mind as a requirement of the times. Several enterprises now aspire to meet this public expectation, The Kansas Pacific company, originally, authorized as a branch of the Union Pacific, having transferred its franchises west of Denver to the Denver Pacific Company, now aspires to the dignity of an independent through line. Preliminary reconnoissances have been made along the thirty-second and thirty-fifth parallels, following in the track of the initial explorations along these lines made by the Topographical Corps of our Army under the act of 1853. Either of these routes would present special advantages for construction and would accommodate large industrial and commercial interests. The preference now seems to be inclining to the thirty-fifth parallel. The company, however, is awaiting the aid of land and loan subsidies to assist in this work, about which it may be suggested there is no certainty in the present state of public opinion; and with the newly acknowledged jealousy of landed monopolies, the people seem convinced that by this time further Pacitic Railroad building is an enterprise possessing within itself elements of profit sufficient to secure its execution without Government aid.

The Atlantic and Pacific Company also proposes to occupy the zone bordering the thirty-fifth parallel. This company was incorporated by act of July 27, 1800, with authority to construct a line of road and tele. graph from the west line of Missouri and Arkansas, passing by Albuquerque, Agua Frio Pass, and the headwaters of the Colorado Chiquito River to the Pacific Ocean. This road is endowed with 40 odd-numbered sections per mile in the Territories, and with 20 sections in the States. About 200 miles of its line lie within the lands of Texas, being endowed from the Texas State lands. A consolidation has been effected with the South Pacific Road of Missouri. It has already completed 291 miles, extending from St. Louis to Pierce City, and is pushing the work as fast as the financial means are provided. The company has issued bonds to the amount of $25,000 per mile. Its gross earnings during the last year amounted to $348,217, and the operating expenses to $144,745,17, leaving a net profit of $203,472, or nearly 60 per cent. of the entire receipts.

The Memphis, El Paso and Pacific Company, incorporated under the laws of Texas, and endowed with 10 sections of State land for an extent of 800 miles, proposes to build a line westwardly, traversing the zone bordering the thirty-second parallel. It asks of Congress only the right of way through the public lands, proposing to cross the Territories of New Mexico and Arizona, connecting with the proposed line of the San Diego, Gila and Southern Pacitic Company of California, the franchises of which it has purchased. Some time ago it placed under construction some 65 miles of its eastern portion, and was preparing to construct the western section in California. It thus appears that responsible parties are ready to complete the lines of transcontinental road along the thirty-fifth and thirty-second parallels. We may look for the early completion of these lines. To one of thein, the Atlantic and Pacific, an ample landed subsidy has been granted, and a promising commencement has been made. The offer of the Memphis and El Paso Company to construct their line, with the sole franchise of the right of way through the public domain, indicates that this enterprise is becoming sufficiently strong to secure it an accomplishment. Within the next decade, and most probably prior to the celebration of the first centennial anniversary of American independence, on the 4th of July, 1876, there will be at least four transcontinental lines of railway crossing our pub. lic domain west of the Mississippi. But east and west lines will be a necessity only until a homogeneous civilization has been established round the entire world. The full development of home production in each latitude of the earth's surface will diminish the necessity of exchange of products of similar isothermal zones. The climatic differences of successive zones of the earth, however, will give scope to a large extension of north and south lines. Our great thoroughfares of the future, instead of following parallels of latitude, will most probably follow the meridians of longitude. The necessity for the construction of lines running in such directions is becoming more apparent, and already quite a number of north and south lines have been projected, especially in the public domain.

From Junction City, on the Kansas Pacific Road, the Missouri, Kansas and Texas Company is constructing a line of railway and telegraph down the Neosho Valley to Fort Smith, in Arkansas, where it will make close connections with the railroad system of the Gulf States. This company—late the Southern Branch of the Union Pacific Companyholds a land grant of ten sections per mile within the limits of Kansas, the entire length of the line being 325 miles, of which 1.8 miles, from

Junction City to Chetopa, are opened and in operation. Its bonds, to the amount of $12,000,000, were issued November 14, 1869-of which amount there were outstanding on the 1st of May last, $4,221,000. In its northern projection this line will ascend the valley of the Republican Fork of the Kansas River, cross the Union Pacific at Fort Kearny, and form a junction with the Northern Pacific at some point in Montana.

The Leavenworth, Lawrence and Galveston Road, by act of March 3, 1863, was endowed with a landed subsidy of 20 acres per mile. It passes the Osage River at Ohio City, and runs southward to meet the Houston and Texas Central Road at Preston, or at some other point on the Red River. It has been completed to Garnett, 52 iniles from Lawrence. By act of July 25, 1866, a land grant of 20 sections per mile was made to the State of Kansas in behalf of a projected line of railway and telegraph from the eastern terminus of the Kansas Pacific Road, southward through the eastern tier of counties of Kansas, to meet a road under construction from Galveston, Texas, to Preston, on Red River. This line, now designated as the Missouri River, Fort Scott and Gulf Railroad, has been completed to the south line of the State of Kansas, 160 miles. Dur. ing the past year 36,426 tons were carried, realizing a gross receipt for freight traffic of $137,052; the mail, express, and miscellaneous receipts were $5,965; and the passenger receipts, $119,515; making a grand total of $262,562. The 'total expenses were $116,626, leaving a net profit of $149,936, or 57 per cent. of the entire receipts. The earnings per mile were $5,413 66. This company has issued $5,000,000 of first mortgage bonds.' Of the $2,000,000 second mortgage bonds, $1,100,000 have been issued. The company owns 650,000 acres of Cherokee lands, and 125,000 acres donated by the State of Kansas.

By act of March 3, 1863, a similar grant was made to the 'Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fé Railroad. Of this line 28 miles have been completed, froin Topeka to Burlingame, with a further portion under contract for immediate construction. First inortgage bonds, at the rate of 7 per cent. interest, due July 1, 1899, amounting to $15,000 per mile, have been issued.

By act of July 23, 1866, the same grant was made to the St. Joseph and Denver City Road. This company has completed 41.67 miles, with 69.41 in progress. Its first mortgage bonds on 111.08 miles, for $1,500,000, or $13,503 per mile, have been issued for 30 years.

From the statistics collected in Poor's excellent Railroad Manual, it appears that all portions of our country increased their railway mileage during the year 1869. The New England States increased from 4,019 to 4,301 miles; the Middle States increased from 9,765 to 10,752 miles; the Western States and Territories east of the Sierra Nevada from 16,889 to 19,765; the Southern States from 10,693 to 11,272; the Pacific States from 889 to 1,164; the whole Union from 42,255 to 47,254. Railroads have been constructed in all the States, and in the Territories of Wyoming and Utah. Railways have been projected in all the other Territories except Arizona and Alaska. The railway mileage of the United States now exceeds 50,000 miles. The past and present years have presented a remarkable activity in this grand movement, nor is there any reason to suppose that this activity will receive any considerable check, at least, until all parts of the country have been put in easy communication. The New England States have one mile of completed road for each 15.12 square miles.

When the whole country shall have arrived at that density, the entire railway mileage will be over a quarter million. The ratio of the Middle States will give over 300,000 miles. At the ratio of Ohio, the aggregate will be over 350,000 miles. The attainment of these results is simply a question of time. From the completion of the circle

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