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greater than any probable number which the hostile Indians could bring against him, as the whole number of their warriours did not exceed 550, and to these were joined about 250 tories, the whole headed by Johnston, Butler and Brandt: yet Sullivan still demanded, and waited for more men. On the 21st of August, he was joined by General Clinton with 1600 men, who had passed by the way of the Mohawk, without meeting opposition. It seemed to be the infatuated determination of General Sullivan to do every thing in this expedition, which could blast the laurels he had bitherto won. He lived, during the march, in every species of extravagance, was constantly complaining to Congress that he was not half supplied, and daily amused himself in unwar. rantable remarks to his young officers respecting the imbecility of Congress and the board of war.

The hostile Indians and tories before mentioned, to the number of about 800, were posted at Newtown, where they had constructed works of considerable strength, and where they had been long expecting the approach of Sullivan. At length, on the 29th of August, the General arrived. He had with him six light field pieces and two bowitzers, and as if determined that his march should be no secret, a morning and evening gun were regularly fired during his whole route. He seemed to consider the enemy as already in his power, and made the most absurd

, boast of his intentions with regard to them. The assault was commenced by firing his light field pieces against their works, while a detachment under General Poor were ordered to march a mile and a half around the mountain, in full view of the enemy, for the purpose of attacking them on their left flank.

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Thus put on their guard, they waited the approach of General Poor, and would probably have given him battle; but his firing being the signal of other movements by Sullivan, they suddenly abandoned their works, and took to flight. Nothing could have been more mortifying to General Sullivan than this escape of what he had deemed a certain prize, He remained in the fort until the 31st, and then marched for Catherine's Town on the Seneca Lake, His road lay through the most dangerous defiles, and a swamp of considerable extent, through which a deep creek flowed in so meandering a course, that it was necessary to ford it seven or eight times. He arrived at the entrance of this swamp late in the af. ternoon, and was strongly advised not to venture into it until the next morning; but he persisted, and a miracle only prevented his obstinacy from bringing destruction upon his men. Some of the defiles through which he had to pass, were so narrow and dangerous that a score or two of Indians might have successful. ly disputed the passage against any number of men. The night was exceedingly dark, the men wearied, scattered and broken, and ready to die rather than move on; but the Indian scouts who had been sent to watch them, having retired as soon as it was dark, under the full persuasion that no General in his senses would attempt such a road by night, the defiles were fortunately unguarded, and the General arrived with his wearied army about midnight at the town. Clinton had halted at the entrance of the swamp, and pursued his march the next day.

Sullivan continued for more than a month in the Indian country, laying waste and destroying every thing, after the manner of his savage enemy, and

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completing the destruction of his fame. He arrived about the middle of October at Easton, in Pennsylvania, having in the course of his expedition killed eleven Indians and destroyed eighteen or twenty towns! Of the 1400 horses which he had taken with him, 300 only were brought back. His childish and absurd complaints had disgusted the commander in chief as well as the board of war, and the ridiculous vanity displayed in his official account of the expedition, rendered him the jest of the whole army. He was not long able to bear this downfall of bis pride and consequence, and on the 9th of November, he solicited permission to resign, which Congress readily accorded.

While Sullivan was idly wasting his time on the march from Newtown, Brandt at the head of about 90 Indians and Tories, fell into the Minisink settlements and burned upwards of twenty houses and mills. They killed several, carried off a number of persons, and a considerable quantity of plunder. They were pursued by about 150 militia, collected from Goshen and the neighborhood, who from a want of caution, suffered themselves to be surprised and completely defeated.

Five days after, Captain M Donald at the head of 250 British and Indians, entered Frelands fort, on the west branch of the Susquehannah and captured it, together with 30 men. Contrary to their usual custom, they set the women and children, to the number of 50, at liberty.

A few successful expeditions were, about the same time, carried on against them, of which the most considerable was that of General Williams, who with Colonel Pickens, entered the Indian country towards

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the latter end of August, and burnt and destroyed up wards of fifty thousand bushels of corn. over compelled the Indians to remove into the settled towns of the Creeks, thereby preventing the plundering system which they had been for some time carrying on against the unprotected inhabitants.

While these things were going on, the Spanish governour of Louisiana, received intelligence that his Catholic master had declared war against England. The Governour, Don Bernardo de Galvez, lost no time in making known this pleasing intelligence ; and having collected the whole force of his province at New Orleans, he made a publick recognition of the independence of the United States on the 19th of Au. gust. His next step was to march against the British settlements on the Mississippi, for the protection of which Lieutenant Colonel Dickson had raised a small fort, which was garrisoned by about 500 men. The Spanish Governour laid seige to this little fort on the 2d of September, and obtained possession of it by surrender on the 11th. The conditions were highly honourable to the garrison ; and the treatment which the prisoners and inhabitants received from their conquerour, was such as to call forth their most lively expres. sions of gratitude for his humanity and kindness.

CHAPTER XII.

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Events of 1779 continued-Proceedings of Congress.-Ultimatum

of Negotiations for Peace.--Instructions to the Ministers at foreign Courts. Mr. Jay appointed Minister to Spain. Mr. Adams to negociate a peace with Great Britain. Further emission of Bills of Credit.-Lieutenant Colonel Talbot made a Captain in the Navy-Gold Medal presented to Major Lee.Mr. Huntington elected President.--Convention Troops ordered to be fed with Indian CornoChevalier de la Luzerne presents his Credentials to Congress, and is received as Minister from France.

-Regulation of prices.Loans from Spain and Holland-Communication from the French Minister.-Cruize of Captain Paul Jones.-Action between the Bon Homme Richard, and Serapis.--The Countess of Scarborough surrenders to the Pallas.-Jones enters the Texel--Remonstrance of the British Ambassadour, and reply of their High Mightinesses, the States General.

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BEFORE we proceed to relate the further operations of the two armies, it will be proper to look at the measures pursued by Congress, in consequence of the late conference held with Monsieur Gerard. Having agreed upon the demands which should be made in their negotiation for peace, Congress on the 14th of August, wrote to their Minister Plenipotentiary at the Court of France, in the following terms. “ Having determined, that we would not insist on a direct acknowledgment by Great Britain of our rights in the fisheries, this important matter is liable to an incertitude, which may be dangerous to the political and commercial interests of the United States, we have therefore agreed and resolved, that the common right of fishing shall in no case be given up ; and that if

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VOL. II.

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