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Notwithstanding the prohibition of passage laid down in paragraph 2 above, vessels of war belonging to belligerent Powers, whether they are Black Sea Powers or not, which have become separated from their bases, may return thereto.

Vessels of war belonging to belligerent Powers shall not make any capture, exercise the right of visit and search, or carry out any hostile act in the Straits.

ART. 20. In time of war, Turkey being belligerent, the provisions of articles 10 to 18 shall not be applicable; the passage of warships shall be left entirely to the discretion of the Turkish Government.

No. 140

ITALY AND YUGOSLAVIA Political agreement signed at Rome, January 27, 1924; ratifications exchanged at Rome, February 22, 1924.

Text from 24 League of Nations Treaty Series, page 33. ART. 2. In the event of one of the High Contracting Parties suffering an unprovoked attack from any Power or Powers, the other Party undertakes to remain neutral throughout the conflict. Furthermore, in the event of the safety and the interests of one of the High Contracting Parties being threatened as the result of forcible incursions from without, the other Party undertakes to afford political and diplomatic support in the form of friendly co-operation for the purpose of assisting to remove the external cause of such threat.

No. 141

6

TURKEY AND SOVIET RUSSIA Treaty of Neutrality and Non-Aggression, signed at Paris, December 17, 1925; ratifications exchanged at Constantinople, June 30,1926.

Text from 125 British and Foreign State Papers, page 1001.

ART. 1. En cas d'action militaire contre une des parties contractantes de la part d’une ou de plusieurs tierces Puissances, l'autre partie contractante s'engage à maintenir la neutralité envers la première.

Remarque.-Sous l'expression "action militaire” ne doivent point être comprises des manoeuvres militaires vu qu'elles ne portent point de préjudice à l'autre partie.

EDITOR'S NOTE.-Identical provisions (without the Remarque) are contained in the treaty between Turkey and Persia, April 22, 1926, article 2. ART. 2. Chacune des arties contractantes s'en age à s'abstenir de toute agression envers l'autre; elle s'engage pareillement à ne prendre part à aucune alliance ou accord d'ordre politique avec une ou plusieurs tierces Puissances qui serait dirigé contre l'autre partie contractante ainsi qu'à aucune alliance ou accord avec une ou plusieurs tierces Puissances qui serait dirigé contre la sécurité militaire ou navale de l'autre partie contractante. En outre chacune des deux parties contractantes s'engage à ne participer à aucun acte hostile d'une ou de plusieurs tierces Puissances, dirigé contre l'autre partie contractante.

No. 142

PERSIA AND TURKEY

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Treaty of Friendship and Non-Aggression, signed at Teheran, April 22, 1926; ratifications exchanged at Teheran, July 27, 1930. Text from 106 League of Nations Treaty Series, page 261.1 ART. 2. [Supra, No. 141, Art. 1.]

ART. 3. Each of the two Contracting Parties undertakes not to engage in any aggression against the other and not to be a party to any alliance or political, economic, or financial agreement concluded by one or more third Powers and directed against the other Party or against the military and naval security of that Party's country. 18 Also in 127 British and Foreign State Papers, p. 911.

Each of the two Contracting Parties further undertakes not to participate in any hostile action whatsoever directed by one or more third Powers against the other Party.

Art. 4. Should one or more third Powers proceeding to acts of hostility and military operations against either High Contracting Party violate the neutrality of the other Party, with a view to using his territory for the passage of troops, arms or munitions of war, or for obtaining supplies of provisions, live stock or any other objects capable of being employed for warlike purposes, or for the passage of troops in retreat; or with a view to exciting and stirring up the populations of the neutral territory with the object of using them for their own purposes or with a view to carrying out military reconnaissances in the said territory, that Party shall be bound, in order to safeguard his neutrality, to oppose such actions by force of arms.

No. 143

GERMANY AND SOVIET RUSSIA

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Treaty of Friendship, signed at Berlin, April 24, 1926; ratifications exchanged at Berlin, June 29, 1926.

Text from 53 League of Nations Treaty Series, page 387.19 ART. 2. Should one of the contracting parties, despite its peaceful attitude, be attacked by one or more third Powers, the other contracting party will observe neutrality for the entire duration of the conflict.

EDITOR'S NOTE.—Identical provisions are contained in the following treaties:

Italy and Spain, August 7, 1926, article 13.
Italy and Turkey, May 30, 1928, article 2.
Italy and Greece, September 23, 1928, article 2.
Hungary and Turkey, January 5, 1929, article 2.
Bulgaria and Turkey, March (, 1929, article 2.
France and Turkey, February 3, 1930, article 1.

Greece and Turkey, October 30, 1930, article 2. ART. 3. If, on the occasion of a conflict of the nature mentioned in article 2, or at a time when neither of the contracting parties is involved in warlike complications, a coalition is formed between third Powers for the purpose of imposing upon one of the contracting parties an economic or financial boycott, the other contracting party undertakes not to adhere to such coalition.

EDITOR'S NOTE.-Identical provisions are contained in the treaty between Lithuania and Soviet Russia, September 28, 1926, article 4.

No. 144

BELGIUM AND SIAM

20

Treaty of Friendship, Commerce, and Navigation, signed at Bangkok, July 23, 1926; ratifications exchanged at Bangkok, March 25. 1927.

Text from 62 League of Nations Treaty Series, page 289.?

ART. 14. Except as otherwise provided by the principles of international law applicable in time of war, a ship of war or merchant vessel of one of the High Contracting Parties which may be compelled, by stress of weather or by reason of any other distress, to take shelter in a port of the other, shall be at liberty to refit therein, to procure all necessary supplies, and to put to sea again, without paying any dues other than such as would be payable by national vessels. *

ART. 15. Except where otherwise provided by the principles of international law applicable in time of war, the vessels of war of each of the High Contracting Parties may enter, remain and make repairs in those ports and places of the other to which vessels of war of other nations are accorded access. They shall there submit to the same regulations and enjoy the same honours, advantages, privileges and exemptions as are now or may hereafter be conceded to the vessels of war of any other nation.

10 Also in 125 British and Foreign State Papers, p. 738. 20 Also in 124 British and Foreign State Papers, p. 228.

* *

No. 145

AFGHANISTAN AND SOVIET RUSSIA

Treaty of Neutrality and Non-Aggression, signed at Paghman, August 31, 1926; ratifications exchanged at Kabul, April 10, 1927.

Text from 125 British and Foreign State Papers, page 3.

ART. 1. In the case of war or military action between one of the contracting parties and a third or several other Powers, the other contracting party binds itself to observe neutrality with respect to the first.

ART. 2. Each of the two contracting parties binds itself to abstain from all attack upon the other, and not to take such steps on its own territory as might inflict upon the other contracting party political or military injury. In particular, each contracting party binds itself not to take part in any form of union or agreement of a military or political character with a third or more States which might be aimed against the other contracting party, or in any boycott or policy of encirclement, of a financial or economic nature, which might be directed against the other contracting party. Moreover, in case the attitude of a third Power or of third Powers with respect to one of the two contracting parties should be hostile to its endeavours, the other contracting party binds itself not only to refrain from supporting such a line of conduct, but to oppose on its own territory the contemplated procedure as well as the hostile actions and designs.

ART. 3. The high contracting parties mutually recognise their sovereignty and the integrity of their possessions, and bind themselves to abstain from all armed or unarmed interference in the internal affairs of the other contracting party. They will in no manner participate or co-operate in any action by a third or several Powers which might take steps or intervene against the other contracting party. The two contracting parties will not permit, and will forbid to operate on their territory, the organisation and activity of groups, and likewise the activities of individuals, which would be prejudicial to the other contracting party or which would aim at the overthrow of the State system of the latter, undertake acts against the integrity of its territory, or carry out the assembling or raising of armed forces against the other party. In like manner the two parties will not allow, nor will they grant permission for, the passage through their territory of all armed forces, arms, firearms and ammunition and every sort of supplies of military materials which might be directed against the other contracting party.

No. 146

LITHUANIA AND SOVIET RUSSIA

Treaty of Friendship, and Non-Aggression, signed at Moscow, September 28, 1926; ratifications exchanged at Kovno, November 9, 1926.

Text from 60 League of Nations Treaty Series, page 145.21
ART. 3: *

In the event of one of the contracting parties, notwithstanding its peaceable conduct, being subjected to an attack on the part of one or several third Powers, the other contracting party undertakes not to afford support to the said third Power or Powers against the contracting party attacked.

ART. 4. [Supra, No. 143, Art. 3.]

*

*

No. 147

PERSIA AND SOVIET RUSSIA

*

*

Treaty of Guarantee and Neutrality, signed at Moscow, October 1, 1927; ratifications exchanged at Téhéran, January 31, 1928.

Text from 112 League of Nations Treaty Series, page 292.22
ART. 2. *

Should either of the Contracting Parties become the victim of aggression on the part of one or more third Powers, the other Contracting Party agrees to observe neutrality throughout the duration of the conflict, while the Party which is the victim of the aggression shall not violate that 'neutrality,

21 Also in 125 British and Foreign State Papers, p. 890. 32 Also in 126 British and Foreign State Papers, p. 943.

.

notwithstanding any strategical, tactical or political considerations or any advantages it might thereby obtain.

EDITOR'S NOTE.- Identical provisions are contained in the treaty between Afghanistan and Persia, November 27, 1927, article 2. ART. 3. Each of the Contracting Parties agrees to take no part, whether de facto or de jure, in political alliances or agreements directed against the safety of the territory or territorial waters of the other Contracting Party or against its integrity, independence or sovereignty.

Each of the Contracting Parties likewise agrees to take no part in any economic boycotts or blockades organised by third Powers against one of the Contracting Parties.

EDITOR'S NOTE.—Identical provisions are contained in the following treaties:

Afghanistan and Persia, November 27, 1927, article 3.
Afghanistan and Turkey, May 25, 1928, article 3.
Latvia and Soviet Russia, February 5, 1932, article 2.

No. 148

AFGHANISTAN AND PERSIA

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Treaty of Friendship and Guarantee, signed at Teheran, November 27, 1927; ratifications exchanged at Kabul, September 14, 1928.

Text from 107 League of Nations Treaty Series, page 445.23
ART. 2. [Supra, No. 147, Art. 2.)
ART. 3. (Supra, No. 147, Art. 3.]

ART. 4. In the event of one or more third Powers at war with one of the two contracting parties violating the neutrality of the other party, or causing troops, arms or war material to pass through the latter's territory, or seeking to procure recruits, supplies, beasts of burden or necessaries of war in general on such territory, or causing their armies in retreat to pass through such territory, or for their own military purposes encouraging or inciting the population of the neutral party to rebel, the neutral party shall be under obligation to prevent such operations by armed force and to safeguard his neutrality.

No. 149

GREECE AND TURKEY

Treaty of Neutrality, Conciliation, and Arbitration, signed at Angora, October 30, 1930; ratifications exchanged at Athens, October 5, 1931.

Text from 125 League of Nations Treaty Series, page 9.24

ART. 1. Each of the High Contracting Parties undertakes not to enter into any political or economic agreement or any alliance directed against the other Party. ART. 2. (Supra, No. 143, Art. 2.)

No. 150

POLAND AND SOVIET RUSSIA Treaty of Non-Aggression, signed at Moscow, July 25, 1932; ratifications exchanged at Warsaw, December 23, 1932.

Text from 136 League of Nations Treaty Series, page 49.

ART. 2. Should one of the Contracting Parties be attacked by a third State or by a group of other States, the other Contracting Party undertakes not to give aid or assistance, either directly or indirectly, to the aggressor State during the whole period of the conflict.

Should one of the Contracting Parties commit an act of aggression against a third State, the other Contracting Party shall have the right to denounce the present Pact without notice.

EDITOR'S NOTE.-Identical provisions are contained in the treaty between Italy and Soviet Russia, September 2, 1933, article 2. 23 Also in 130 British and Foreign State Papers, p. 364. 24 Also in 132 British and Foreign State Papers, p. 814.

CHRONOLOGICAL LIST AND INDEX OF TREATIES
EDITOR'S NOTE. - -This list contains all treaties, concluded between February 6, 1778, and December 31, 1936, which were found to
contain provisions relating to neutrality. These treaties are listed in chronological order. Treaties from which texts have been reproduced
(see table of contents) are indicated by the number which the treaty has in the table of contents and throughout the volume. For page
reference to texts of articles reprinted see table of contents. Page references in this table are to editorial notes in which other articles are
cited but not reproduced in full.

Table of Abbreviations Used in This List
BFStP—British and Foreign State Papers.
Chalmers-A Collection of treaties between Great Britain and other powers. By George Chalmers. 2 volumes. 1790.
Malloy—Treaties, Conventions, International Acts, Protocols, and Agreements between the United States and Other Powers, 1776-1909,

in two volumes. Compiled by William M. Malloy. Senate Document no. 357, 61st Cong., 2d session, Washington, Govt. Printing

Office, 1910. Vol. 3, 1910–1923, Doc. 348. 67th Cong., 2d session.
Miller-Treaties and other international acts of the United States of America. Edited by Hunter Miller. 1931-1934. Vols. 2–4.
Martens, RT—Recueil des Principaux Traités conclus par les Puissances de l'Europe. Compiled by G. F. de Martens. 7 volumes.

1761-1801.
Martens, RT Supp.-Supplément au Recueil des Principaux Traités conclus par les Puissances de l'Europe. 4 volumes. 1701-1815.
Martens, NRT-Nouveau Recueil de Traités des Puissances de l'Europe. 16 volumes. 1808–1839.
Martens, NRGT-Nouveau Recueil Général de Traités de Puissances et Etats. 20 volumes. 1840-1874.
LNTS- League of Nations Treaty Series.
USTS—United States Treaty Series.
Scott-Scott, The Armed Neutralities of 1780 and 1800 (1918).
Br. TS—British Treaty Series

Chron

Treaty
ological

number
number

Date

Parties

Type of Treaty

Source

Article

Editor's
note on
page

1

1

1778, Feb. 6..

United States and France.

685.

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Amity and Commerce.

2 Miller, p. 3; 1 Martens, RT, p. 14-17, 19,

23–27, 29-30
Friendship, Guarantee, and Com- 1 Martens, RT, p. 709.

4
merce.
Commerce
2 Martens, RT, p. 33.

11-36
Maritime Convention (Armed Scott, p. 279; 2 Martens, RT, p. 103. 1-11

Neutrality).
Maritime Convention (Armed Scott, p. 311; 2 Martens, RT, P.
Neutrality).

110.

1779, Sept. 18.
1780, June 28 (July 9)-
1780, July 21 (Aug. 1).

4

40

5

Russia and Sweden.

57
57
58
58
58

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