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ART. 30. Toutes les pièces nécessaires pour connoitre la fabrique du navire, quel en est le propriétaire, la qualité des marchandises & la patrie des officiers & matelots, seront représentes par le Capitaine, Maitre ou Patron, sans que celles qui seroient rapportées dans la suite, puissent faire aucune foi.

ART. 31. Les navires Mecklenbourgeois qui seront trouvés dans les rades, ou rencontrés en pleine mer par des vaisseaux de S. M., ou par ceux de ses sujets armés en guerre, abattront le pavillon & amèneront leurs voiles aussitôt qu'ils auront reconnu le pavillon de France & qu'ils en auront été avertis par le semonce d'un coup de canon tiré sans boulet: Le vaisseau François ne pourra s'en approcher alors plus près qu'à la portée du canon, mais le Capitaine pourra seulement y envoyer sa chaloupe avec deux ou trois hommes de guerre outre l'équipage nécessaire, aux quels le Capitaine, Maitre ou Patron du vaisseau Mecklenbourgeois représentera les actes & papiers spécifiés dans les Articles XXVI. XXVIII. & XXIX. ci-dessus, & il y sera ajouté entière foi & créance, pourvû que le contrat de vente soit rédigé dans la forme portée par l'Art. XXVIII. & que les passeports ou lettres de mer & le rôle de l'equipage soient rédigés suivant les formulaires, qui seront annexés à la fin du présent traité.

ART. 32. Les gens de guerre du vaisseau François qui entreront dans le navire Mecklenbourgeois n'y seront aucune violence, ne recevront, ne prendront, & ne souffriront qu'il y soit pris aucune chose sous quelque prétexte & pour quelque cause que ce soit, à peine de restitution du quadruple, & même sous les autres peines portées par les ordonnances, & lui laisseront continuer sa route après qu'ils auront reconnu qu'il n'y a point d'effets, marchandises & denrées de contrebande ni de la qualité spécifiée dans l’Article XIV., ou autres appartenans à une nation actuellement ennemie de la France.

ART. 33. Pour prévenir les insultes & violences qui pourroient être faites aux gens de guerre François qui seront entrés dans le navire Mecklenbourgeios; le Capitaine sera tenu de faire passer dans la chaloupe Françoise pareil nombre des principaux de son équipage qui y resteront jusqu'à ce que les dits gens de guerre soient rembarqués.

ART. 34. Les Capitaines François & ceux de Mecklenbourg armés en guerre ou en course, donneront avant que de partir du port où leur armement aura été fait, une caution de quinze mille Livres pour répondre des malversations qui pourroient être par eux faites contrairement au présent traité.

ART. 35. Les jugemens concernant les prises faites sur les bâtimens de Mecklenbourg par les vaisseaux du Roi ou par ceux des armateurs François, seront rendus avec toute la diligence possible suivant les loix du Royaume, & si les Ministres ou autres de la part du Sérénissme Duc de Mecklenbourg se plaignent des premiers jugemens, Sa Ma. les fera, recevoir en son Conseil pour reconnoitre, si les dispositions du présent traité ont été observées, & ce dans trois mois au plus tard, pendant lequel temps les marchandises ou navires pris ne pourront être vendus ni déchargés que du consentement du Capitaine ou Patron, si ce n'est celles qui sont sujettes au dépérissement, au quel cas le prix en sera déposé entre les mains d'un négociant solvable.

ART. 36. Lorsque l'armateur qui aura fait la prise, se plaindra du premier jugement, soit pour avoir déclaré sa prise non valable, soit pour quelqu'autre cause, le Capitaine, Patron ou Maitre du navire pris aura la main levée sous bonne & suffisante caution qui sera reçue devant les Officiers de l'amirauté tant avec l'armateur qu'avec le receveur des droits de M. l'Amiral: mais si au contraire la prise est déclaree bonne, & que le Capitaine, Maitre ou Patron demande la réformation de jugement, l'Armateur ne pourra faire procéder a la vente du vaisseau & marchandises ni en disposer, même sous caution, si ce n'est du consentement des parties interessées, ou pour éviter le déperissement des dites marchandises: au quel cas le prix de la vente sera remis entre les mains d'un négociant solvable pur être délivré à qui il appartiendra après l'arrêt definitif.

No. 40 RUSSIA AND DENMARK AND NORWAY Maritime Convention, signed at Copenhagen, July 9, 1780; ratifications exchanged at Copenhagen, September 10, 1780.

Text from Scott, The Armed Neutralities of 1780 and 1800, page

299.40

EDITOR'S NOTE.—This treaty is the first in a series of international treaties concluded in pursuance of the policy of armed neutrality announced by the

Empress of Russia in a communication addressed to the principal belligerent 40 Also in 2 Martens, Recueil des traités, p. 103.

their respec

powers on February 28, 1780. Similar treaties were entered into between Russia and Sweden (signed at St. Petersburg, Aug. 1, 1780)41; between Russia and Prussia (signed at St. Petersburg, May 8, 1781)4; between Russia and Portugal (signed at St. Petersburg, July 13, 1782; ratifications exchanged Jan. 21, 1783). The Netherlands acceded to these treaties by an act of accession (signed at St. Petersburg, Dec. 24, 1780; ratifications exchanged at St. Petersburg, Feb. 22, 1781). Austria acceded by an act signed at Vienna, Oct. 9, 1781, which was accepted by Russia by an act signed at St. Petersburg Oct. 19, 1781. Sicily acceded by treaty (signed at St. Petersburg, Feb. 10, 1783; ratifications exchanged at St. Petersburg, July 1, 1783). For the documents and diplomatic correspondence relating to the armed neutrality see: The Armed Neutralities of 1780 and 1800. Edited by James

Brown Scott (Carnegie Endowment for International Peace) (1918). ART. 1. Their aforesaid Majesties are sincerely determined to maintain, constantly, the most perfect friendship and harmony with the different Powers at present engaged in war, and to observe the most scrupulous neutrality; and in consequence thereof they declare, that adhering to this determination, the prohibition of all contraband trade with the Powers at present at war, or with those who may hereafter be engaged therein, shall be strictly observed tive subjects.

EDITOR'S NOTE.-—Identical provisions are contained in the following treaties:

Russia and Sweden, Aug. 1, 1780, article 1.
Russia and Prussia, May 8, 1781, article 1.
Russia and Sicily, February 10, 1783, article 2.
Russia and Sweden, December 16, 1800, article 1.
Russia and Denmark and Norway, December 16, 1800, article 1.

Russia and Prussia, December 18, 1800, article 1. Substantially the same provisions are contained in the treaty between Russia and Portugal of July 13, 1782, article 3. ART. 2. To avoid all errors and misunderstandings with regard to commodities which shall be deemed contraband, Her Majesty the Empress of Russia, and His Majesty the King of Denmark and Norway, do hereby declare, that they shall only acknowledge such articles to be contraband commodities as are included and mentioned in the treaties now subsisting between their respective Courts and the one or the other of the belligerent Powers.

Her Majesty the Empress of Russia conforms herself entirely in this respect to the Articles 10 and 11 of her treaty of commerce with the Court of Great Britain, and extends likewise the engagements of this treaty, which are founded upon the natural rights of nations, to the Courts of France and Spain; which said Courts, until the date of this present convention, have no treaty of commerce with her empire.

His Majesty the King of Denmark and Norway, on his part, conforms himself chiefly to Article 3 of his treaty of commerce with the Court of Great Britain, and to Articles 26 and 27 of his treaty of commerce with France, and extends also the engagements of this last-mentioned treaty to the Court of Spain, as His said Majesty has no treaty with the last-mentioned Power, which determines any conditions relative to this subject.

EDITOR'S NOTE.—Substantially the same provisions are contained in the following treaties:

Russia and Sweden, August 1, 1780, article 2.
Russia and Prussia, May 8, 1781, article 2.

Russia and Sicily, February 10, 1783, article 3. ART. 3. As by these means all contraband goods and commodities are determined and ascertained conformable to the treaties and express stipulations subsisting between the high contracting Parties and the belligerent Powers, and chiefly in the treaty between Russia and Great Britain of June 20, 1766, as well as in that between Denmark and Great Britain, dated July 11, 1670, and by that concluded between Denmark and France, on August 23, 1742; the will and intention of Her Majesty the Empress of Russia, and of His Majesty the King of Denmark and Norway are, that all other commerce shall be and remain free.

Their said Majesties having already invoked in their declaration to the belligerent Powers, the general principles of natural law whence the liberty of commerce and navigation, and the rights of neutral nations derive, are resolved not to allow these rights to depend any longer upon an arbitrary interpretation, 41 The date of the exchange of ratifications has not been found.

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dictated by partial advantages and momentary interests; with this view, Their said Majesties have agreed:

(1) That all vessels may navigate freely from port to port and along the coasts of the nations at war.

(2) That the effects belonging to subjects of the said Powers at war shall be free on board neutral vessels, with the exception of contraband merchandise.

(3) That to determine what constitutes a blockaded port, this designation shall apply only to a port where the attacking Power has stationed its vessels sufficiently near and in such a way as to render access thereto clearly dangerous.

(4) That neutral vessels may be detained only for just cause and when the facts are perfectly evident; that they shall be adjudged without delay; that the procedure shall always be uniform, prompt, and legal; and that, in addition to the compensation granted to vessels which have suffered loss without having been at fault, complete satisfaction shall in each case be rendered for the insult to Their Majesties' flag.

EDITOR'S NOTE.—Identical provisions are contained in the following treaties:

Russia and Sweden, August 1, 1780, article 3.

Russia and Prussia, May 8, 1781, article 3. The four principles contained in this article have been verbally incorporated in the following treaties:

Russia and Denmark and Norway, October 8 (19), 1782, article 17.
Russia and France, December 31, 1786 [January 11, 1787], article 27.

Russia and Sicily, January 6 [17], 1787, article 18. ART. 4. In order to obtain this end, and to protect the general commerce of their subjects, founded upon the principles laid down above, Her Majesty the Empress of Russia, and His Majesty the King of Denmark and Norway have resolved to fit out, separately, a proportionate number of ships of the line and frigates; and the squadrons of these respective Powers shall repair to such latitudes, and shall serve as convoys to the trading ships of their respective subjects, wherever the commerce and navigation of each nation shall require it.

EDITOR'S NOTE.--Identical provisions are contained in the following treaties:

Russia and Sweden, August 1, 1780, article 4.
Russia and Sweden, December 16, 1800, article 4.

Russia and Denmark and Norway, December 16, 1800, article 4. ART. 5. In case any merchant ships belonging to subjects of one of the high contracting Powers should happen to be in a sea or latitude where no ships of war of their sovereign are stationed, and consequently should be unable to obtain any protection from the forces of their own nation, the commander of the ships of war of the other Power, upon being duly requested, shall immediately afford them all necessary assistance; and in this case, it is hereby stipulated, that the ships and frigates of the one Power shall always grant the necessary protection and assistance to the trading ships of the other Power; provided always, that those who shall claim such assistance or protection, shall not carry on any illicit trade which may be contrary to the laws of neutrality.

EDITOR'S NOTE.-Identical provisions are contained in the treaty between
Russia and Sweden, August 1, 1780, article 5.
Substantially the same provisions are contained in the following treaties:

Russia and Sweden, December 16, 1800, article 6.

Russia and Denmark and Norway, December 16, 1800, article 6. Art. 6. The present convention shall not be retroactive, and consequently neither of the high contracting Powers shall take cognizance of any differences that may have arisen before its conclusion, unless the matter in litigation relates to acts of violence which are still continuing, and which may tend to oppress all neutral nations in Europe.

EDITOR'S NOTE.-Identical provisions are contained in the following treaties:

Russia and Sweden, August 1, 1780, article 6.
Russia and Prussia, May 8, 1781, article 7.
Russia and Sweden, December 16, 1800, article 7.
Russia and Denmark and Norway, December 16, 1800, article 7.
Russia and Prussia, December 18, 1800, article 5.

ART. 7. If, notwithstanding the vigilant and amicable care of the two high contracting Powers, and the most exact observation of neutrality on their part, any Russian or Danish merchant ships should happen to be insulted, pillaged, or taken by the ships of war or privateers of one or the other of the belligerent Powers, the Minister of the offended party at the Court whose ships of war or privateers have been guilty of the said act shall make proper representations; he shall demand restitution of the seized merchant ship and shall insist upon a reasonable compensation for the damages, as well as upon a complete satisfaction for the insult offered to the flag of his sovereign. The Minister of the other high contracting Party shall second and support these representations in the most serious and efficacious manner, and thus they shall continue jointly and unanimously until their request is granted. But in case of a refusal, or any unreasonable delay from time to time to redress these grievances, Their aforesaid Majesties do hereby declare, that they will make use of reprisals towards that Power that refuses to do them justice, and will immediately unite, in the most efficacious means, to execute these just reprisals.

EDITOR'S NOTE.-Identical provisions are contained in the following treaties:

Russia and Sweden, August 1, 1780, article 7.
Russia and Prussia, May 8, 1781, article 5.
Russia and Sweden, December 16, 1800, article 8.
Russia and Denmark and Norway, December 16, 1800, article 8.

Russia and Prussia, December 18, 1800, article 6.
Substantially the same provisions are contained in the following treaties:

Russia and Portugal, July 13, 1782, article 4.

Russia and Sicily, February 10, 1783, article 4. ART. 8. In case one or the other of the two Powers, or both together should be disturbed, molested, or attacked, in consequence or in contempt of this convention, or for any cause whatever relative thereto, it is hereby stipulated and agreed, that the two Powers shall immediately act in concert for their mutual and reciprocal defense, and shall employ and unite all their forces to obtain a proper satisfaction, as well for the insult offered to their flag, as for the losses sustained by their respective subjects.

EDITOR'S NOTE.-Identical provisions are contained in the following treaties:

Russia and Sweden, August 1, 1780, article 8.
Russia and Prussia, May 8, 1781, article 6.
Russia and Portugal, July 13, 1782, article 5.
Russia and Sicily, February 10, 1783, article 5.
Russia and Sweden, December 16, 1800, article 9.
Russia and Denmark and Norway, December 16, 1800, article 9.

Russia and Prussia, December 18, 1800, article 7. ART. 9. This convention shall be in full force as long as this present war shall last; and the engagements contained therein shall serve as the basis for all future engagements and treaties that circumstances may cause to be concluded on the outbreak of fresh maritime wars which may hereafter unfortunately disturb the tranquillity of Europe. As to the rest, all that has been stipulated and agreed upon, shall be considered as permanent and shall constitute the law to be applied in matters pertaining to commerce and navigation, as well as in cases involving the rights of neutral nations. EDITOR'S NOTE.

:--Identical provisions are contained in the treaty between Russia and Sweden, August 1, 1780, article 9. Substantially the same provisions are contained in the following treaties:

Russia and Prussia, May 8, 1781, article 8.
Russia and Portugal, July 13, 1782, article 6.
Russia and Sicily, February 10, 1783, article 6.
Russia and Sweden, December 16, 1800, article 10.
Russia and Denmark and Norway, December 16, 1800, article 10.

Russia and Prussia, December 18, 1800, article 8. ART. 10. As the aim and chief object of this convention is to secure general liberty of commerce and navigation, Their Majesties the Empress of Russia and the King of Denmark and Norway do hereby consent, and engage themselves reciprocally, to permit other neutral Powers to accede thereto; and by adopting the principles thereof these Powers so acceding shall share in the obligations as well as the advantages of the said convention.

EDITOR'S NOTE.—Identical provisions are contained in the following treaties:

Russia and Sweden, August 1, 1780, article 10.
Russia and Prussia, May 8, 1781, article 9.
Russia and Sweden, December 16, 1800, article 11.
Russia and Denmark and Norway, December 16, 1800, article 11.

Russia and Prussia, December 18, 1800, article 9. ART. 11. And in order that the belligerent Powers may have no pretext for pretending to be unacquainted with these engagements between Their said Majesties, the high contracting Parties do hereby promise, that they will separately acquaint the belligerent Powers with the measures they have taken, which are the less hostile as they are in no way detrimental to any other Power, but have only for object the security of the commerce and navigation of their respective subjects.

Editor's NOTE.--Identical provisions are contained in the following treaties:

Russia and Sweden, August 1, 1780, article 11.
Russia and Prussia, May 8, 1781, article 10.
Russia and Sweden, December 16, 1800, article 12.
Russia and Denmark and Norway, December 16, 1800, article 12.

Russia and Prussia, December 18, 1800, article 10.
Substantially the same provisions are contained in the following treaties:

Russia and Portugal, July 13, 1782, article 7.
Russia and Sicily, February 10, 1783, article 7.

No. 41

RUSSIA AND PRUSSIA

Maritime Convention for the Maintenance of the Freedom of Trade and Navigation of Neutral Nations, signed at St. Petersburg, May 8,

1781.418

Text from Scott, The Armed Neutralities of 1780 and 1800, page 397.42

ART. 1. (Supra, No. 40, Art. 1.1 ART. 2. (Supra, No. 40, Art. 2.1 ART. 3. (Supra, No. 40, Art. 3.1 ART. 4. In return for this accession Her Majesty the Empress of all the Russias will continue to protect the commerce and navigation of the Prussians with her fleets, as she has already agreed to do at the request of His Majesty the King of Prussia, having had orders sent to all the commanding officers of her squadrons to protect and defend against all insults and molestation the merchant ships of Prussia, which happen to be in their course, as being vessels of a friendly and allied Power that strictly observes neutrality, it being understood, however, that the aforesaid vessels shall not be used for any illicit commerce, or for any purpose that is contrary to the rules of the strictest and most scrupulous neutrality.

EDITOR'S NOTE.–Substantially the same provisions are contained in the treaty between Russia and Prussia, December 18, 1800, article 4. ART. 5. (Supra, No. 40, Art. 7.] ART. 6. [Supra, No. 40, Art. 8.] ART. 7. (Supra, No. 40, Art. 6.) ART. 8. (Supra, No. 40, Art. 9.] ART. 9. ISupra, No. 40, Art. 10.) ART. 10. [Supra, No. 40, Art. 11.) 41a Although the treaty has been ratified, the date of ratification has not been found. 1 Also in 2 Martens, Řecueil des traités, p. 130.

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