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No. 64

FRANCE AND BRAZIL

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Treaty of Friendship, Navigation and Commerce, signed at Rio de Janeiro, January 8, 1826; ratified by France at Paris, March 19, 1826, and by Brazil at Rio de Janeiro, June 6, 1826.80

Text from 13 British and Foreign State Papers, page 805.01

ART. 21. S'il arrive que l'une des Hautes Parties Contractantes soit en guerre avec quelque Puissance, Nation, ou Etat, les Sujets de l'autre pourront continuer leur Commerce et Navigation avec ces mêmes Etats, excepté avec les Villes ou Ports qui seraient bloqués ou assiégés par terre ou par mer.

Mais dans aucun cas ne sera permis le Commerce des articles réputés contrebande de guerre, qui sont les suivans; canons, mortiers, fusils, pistolets, grenades, saucisses, affûts, baudriers, poudre, saltpêtre, casques, balles, piques, épées, hallebardes, selles, harnais, et autres instrumens quelconques fabriqués à l'usage de la guerre.

EDITOR'S NOTE.—Identical provisions are contained in the treaty between Denmark and Brazil, April 26, 1828, article 10, second and third paragraphs.

Substantially the same provisions are contained in the treaty between France and Peru, March 9, 1861, article 22.

An additional article to the above treaty was signed at Rio de Janeiro, August 21, 1828 (ratifications'exchanged at Rio de Janeiro March 11, 1829), which reads as follows (text from 15 British and Foreign State Papers, p. 1238):

“Aucun bâtiment de commerce appartenant aux Sujets de l'une des Hautes Parties Contractantes qui sera expédié pour un Port lequel se trouvera bloqué par l'autre, ne pourra être saisi, capturé ou condamné, si préalablement il ne lui a été faite une notification ou signification de l'existence ou continuation de Blocus, par les Forces bloquantes ou par quelque bâtiment faisant partie du l’Escadre ou division du Blocus; et, pour qu'on ne puisse alléguer une prétendue ignorance du Blocus, et que le Navire qui aura reçu cette intimation soit dans le cas d'être capturé, s'il vient ensuite à se représenter devant le Port bloqué pendant le temps que durera le Blocus, le Commandant du Bâtiment de Guerre qui fera la notification, devra apposer son visa sur les Papiers du Navire visité, en indiquant le jour, le lieu au la hauteur où sera faite la signification de l'existence du Blocus, et le Capitaine du Navire visité lui donnera un reçu de cette signification contenant les mêmes déclarations exigées pour le visa.

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No. 65

PRUSSIA AND BRAZIL

Treaty of Amity, Navigation and Commerce, signed at Rio de Janeiro, July 9, 1827; ratifications exchanged at Rio de Janeiro, April 21, 1828.

Text from 16 British and Foreign State Papers, page 1201.02

Art. 11. S'il arrive que l'une des Hautes Puissances Contractantes soit en guerre avec quelque Puissance, Nation ou Etat, les Sujets de l'autre pourront continuer leur commerce et navigation avec ces mêmes Etats, excepté avec les Villes ou Ports qui seroient bloqués ou assiégés par terre ou par mer.

Mais dans aucun cas ne sera permis le commerce des articles réputés Contrebande de Guerre, tels que canons, mortiers, fusils, pistolets, grenades, saucisses, affats, baudriers, poudre, salpêtre, casques, et autres instrumens quelconques fabriqués à l'usage de la guerre. 80 Date of the exchange of ratifications has not been found. 61 Also in 6 Martens, Nouveau recueil des traités, p. 868. 67 Also in 7 Martens, Nouveau recueil des traités, p. 470.

No. 66

GREAT BRITAIN AND BRAZIL

Treaty of Amity and Commerce, signed at Rio de Janeiro, August 17, 1827; ratifications exchanged at London, November 10, 1827.

Text from 14 British and Foreign State Papers, page 1008.63

ART. 15. In order to regulate what is in future to be deemed contraband of war, it is agreed, that under the said denomination, shall be comprised all arms and implements serving for the purposes of War, by land or by sea, such as cannon, muskets, pistols, mortars, petards, bombs, grenadoes, carcasses, saucisses, carriages for cannon, musket-rests, bandoliers, gunpowder, match, salt-petre, ball, pikes, swords, head-pieces, cuirasses, halberts, lances, javelins, horse-furniture, holsters, belts, and generally, all other implements of war; as also timber for shipbuilding, tar, or resin, copper in sheets, sails, hemp, and cordage, and generally, whatsoever may serve directly to the equipment of Vessels of War, unwrought iron and fir planks excepted; and all the above articles are hereby declared to be just objects of confiscation, whenever they are attempted to be carried to an enemy.

No. 67

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BRAZIL AND HANSA TOWNS Treaty of Friendship, Commerce, and Navigation, signed at Rio de Janeiro, November 17, 1827; ratifications exchanged at London, March 18, 1828.

French text in 14 British and Foreign State Papers, page 715.64

ART. 10. In case that one of the Contracting Parties should find itself in a state of war, whilst the other remains neutral, it is agreed, that all which the Belligerent Party may have stipulated with the other Powers for the advantage of the Neutral Flag, shall serve as a rule between Mexico and the Hans Towns.

In order that there may be no misunderstanding as to what should be considered contraband military articles it is agreed (without prejudice, however, to the general principle above mentioned), to limit the definition to the following articles: Cannons, mortars, guns, pistols, grenades, saucisses, gun-carriages, belts, powder, saltpetre, helmets, balls, pikes, swords, halberds, saddles, harness, and other articles manufactured for the use of war.

EDITOR'S NOTE.—Identical provisions are contained in the treaty between
Mexico and the Hansa Towns, April 7, 1832, article 11.

The above English text is a translation of article 11 of the Mexico-Hansa Towns Treaty of 1832 (printed in 23 British and Foreign State Papers, p. 1016), and is therefore printed here in lieu of the available French text of the instant treaty.

No. 68

RUSSIA AND PERSIA

Treaty of Commerce, signed at Tourkmantchai, February 10 [22], 1828.65

Text from 45 British and Foreign State Papers, page 865.

ART. 4. Si la Russie ou la Perse se trouvait en guerre avec une autre Puissance, il ne sera pas défendu au sujets respectifs de traverser avec leurs marchandises le territoire des Hautes Parties Contractantes pour se rendre dans les Etats de ladite Puissance.

63 Also in 7 Martens, Nouveau recueil des traités, p. 479. Of Also in 7 Martens, Nouveau recueil des traités, p. 340. 08 There is no provision in this treaty for ratification.

No. 69

NETHERLANDS AND COLOMBIA Treaty of Amity, Navigation, and Commerce, signed at London, May 1, 1829; ratifications exchanged at London, February 15, 1830.

Text in 17 British and Foreign State Papers, page 906.86

ART. 17. Should one of the Contracting Parties be at war, it shall be allowed to the subjects or citizens of the other to prosecute their commerce and navigation, with the exception only of contraband goods, and from such places as are actually under siege, or are blockaded, by belligerent Powers with a force adequate to prevent the neutral from entering.

ART. 18. By contraband shall be understood-guns, mortars, fire-arms, pistols, bomb-shells, grenades, shots, muskets, flints, matches, powder, shields, pikes, swords, accoutrements, pouches, saddles, bridles, etc., except such quantities of these articles as are necessary for the defence of the vessel and the crew.

ART. 19. In cases where a merchant-ship of one of the Contracting Parties may be searched by a ship of war of the other, it is agreed that the search shall only be made by a boat manned with at most 6 men; that the master of the merchant-vessel shall not be obliged to quit his ship, and that the papers shall not be taken from on board.

If the merchant-vessel is under convoy of a ship of war no search shall take place, and the assurance of the Commandant of the convoy, on his word and honour, that the merchant has no contraband on board, shall be held sufficient.

ART. 20. In the ports of the neutral Party, the vessel of war of the other, and the prizes which she carries in there, shall meet with all that aid and protection which are compatible with the law of nations.

EDITOR'S NOTE.—Provisions identical to those of articles 17, 18, 19, and 20 are contained in the treaty between the Netherlands and Texas, September 18, 1840, articles 16, 17, 18, and 19, respectively.

The above English texts are translations of the identical articles 16, 17, 18, and 19 of the Netherlands and Texas Treaty of 1840 (printed in 29 British and Foreign State Papers, p. 1164), and are therefore used here in lieu of the available French texts of the instant treaty.

No. 70

AUSTRIA AND MOROCCO Treaty of Peace and Commerce, signed at Gibraltar, March 19, 1830; ratified by Austria May 15, 1830.67

Text from 98 British and Foreign State Papers, page 980.

ART. 10. Should a war break out between other Christian and Mahommedan countries it shall not be allowed on any account to disturb the peace at present subsisting between Austria and Morocco, nor produce any other innovation, but the friendship and the peace shall continue between them. Should, however, war break out between one of the Contracting Parties and another country, no one belonging to either of the two Courts shall hinder those belonging to the other from navigating on the sea with their persons and property as in time of peace. The subjects of both Parties shall be at liberty to place on board any vessel whatever all that they wish to convey whether passengers or merchandise.

No. 71

FRANCE AND TUNIS Treaty of Navigation and Commerce, signed at Barclo August 8, 1830.68

Text from 19 British and Foreign State Papers, page 1050.99

ART. 1. Le Bey de Tunis renonce entièrement et à jamais, pour lui et pour ses successeurs, au droit de faire, ou d'autoriser la course en tems de Guerre, contre les Bâtimens des Puissances qui jugeront convenable de renoncer à l'exercise du même droit envers les Bâtimens du commerce Tunisien.

66 Also in 9 Martens, Nouveau recueil des traites, p. 576. 67 Date of the exchange of ratifications has not been found. 68 There is no provision in this treaty for ratification. 0! Also in 10 Martens, Nouveau recueil des traités, p. 48.

Quand la Régence sera en Guerre avec une Puissance qui lui aura fait connaître que telle est son intention, les Bâtimens de commerce des 2 Nations Pourront naviguer librement sans être inquiétés par les Bâtimens de Guerre Ennemis, à moins qu'ils ne veuillent pénétrer dans un Port bloqué, ou qu'ils ne portent des Soldats ou des objets de contrebande de Guerre: dans ces 2 cas ils seraient saisis, mais leur confiscation ne pourrait être prononcée que par un Jugement légal. Tout Bâtiment Tunisien qui, hors ces cas exceptionnels, arrêterait un Bâtiment de commerce, devant être censé par ce fait seul, se soustraire aux ordres et à l'autorité du Bey, pourra étre traité comme Pirate par toute autre Puissance quelconque, sans que la bonne intelligence en soit troublé entre cette Puissance et le Régence de Tunis.

EDITOR'S NOTE.-Identical provisions are contained in the treaty between France and Tripoli, August 11, 1830, article 2, paragraph 1.

Substantially the same provisions are contained in the treaty between Sardinia and Tunis, February 22, 1832, article 1.

No. 72

PRUSSIA AND MEXICO

Treaty of Amity, Navigation, and Commerce, signed at London, February 18, 1831; ratifications exchanged at London, December 6, 1834.

Text in 12 Martens, Nouveau recueil des traités, page 534.

ART. 12. If it were to happen that one of the Contracting Parties should be at war with any Power, nation, or State, the subjects of the other shall be at liberty to continue their trade and navigation with those same States, excepting the towns and ports which may be blockaded or besieged either by sea or by land.

Nevertheless, considering the great distance of the respective countries of the two Contracting Parties, and the uncertainty resulting therefrom in regard to the various wants which may occur, it is agreed that if a merchant-vessel belonging to one of them should be bound for a port which is supposed to be blockaded at the time of the departure of the said vessel, it shall not, nevertheless, be captured or condemned for having at first endeavoured to enter the said port, unless it can be proved that the said vessel could and ought to have known during its voyage that the state of blockade of the place in question still continued; but vessels which after having been once refused may endeavour a second time, during the same voyage, to enter the blockaded port, shall be liable to be detained and condemned. It is understood that in no case shall the trade in articles reputed contraband of war be lawful, such as cannon, mortars, guns, pistols, grenades, saucisses, gun-carriages, belts, gunpowder, saltpetre, helmets, and other instruments of any kind made for warlike purposes.

EDITOR'S NOTE.—Identical provisions are contained in the following treaties:

Austria and Mexico, July 30, 1842, article 13.

Prussia and Mexico, July 10, 1855, article 13. Substantially the same provisions are contained in the treaty between Mexico and Sardinia, August 1, 1855, article 9; the contraband list does not enumerate the following commodities listed in the present text: Saucisses, gun-carriages, belts.

The above English text is a translation of the identical article 13 of the Prussia and Mexico Treaty of 1855 (printed in 48 British and Foreign State Papers, p. 1267), and is therefore used here in lieu of the available French text of the instant treaty.

No. 73

TUSCANY AND TURKEY
Treaty of Peace, Friendship, and Commerce, signed at Constan-
tinople, February 12, 1833; ratifications exchanged at Constantinople,
February 17, 1834.

Text from 20 British and Foreign State Papers, page 81."
ART. 8.

Il ne sera pas permis aux ennemis de l'un des 2 Etats d'armer des Bâtimens de guerre dans les Ports et Echelles de l'autre, et si un tel Bâtiment 70 Also in 13 Martens, Nouveau recueil des traités, page 66.

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ennemi serait déjà armé ou se trouverait dans un de ces Ports, il ne lui sera pas permis de mettre à la voile que 24 heures après le départ des Bâtimens de l'autre Etat. Les Navires des 2 Parties seront réciproquement en toute sûreté sous le canon et dans les Ports de l'autre partie.

No. 74

FRANCE AND BOLIVIA

r Treaty of Amity, Commerce, and Navigation, signed at Chuquisaca, December 9, 1834; ratifications exchanged at Paris, April 7, 1836.

Text from 23 British and Foreign State Papers, page 165.71

Art. 17. If it shall happen that one of the 2 Contracting Parties is at war with a third Power, the other Party shall in no case authorize its subjects to take or accept commissions or letters of marque to act hostilely against the former, or molest the commerce or property of its citizens.

EDITOR'S NOTE.—Identical provisions are contained in the following treaties:

France and Texas, September 25, 1839, article 3.
France and Venezuela, March 25, 1843, article 16.
France and Ecuador, June 6, 1843, article 15.
France and New Granada, October 28, 1844, article 19.
France and Chile, September 15, 1846, article 15.
France and Guatemala, March 8, 1848, article 15.72
France and Dominican Republic, May 8, 1852, article 17.
Sardinia and Dominican Republic, January 11, 1855, article 15.
Spain and Dominican Republic, February 18, 1855, article 21.
Argentina and Chile, August 30, 1855, article 19.
Spain and Sicily, March 26, 1856, article 18.
Sardinia and Chile, June 28, 1856, article 14.
Belgium and Sicily, March 23, 1857, article 26.
France and New Granada, September 14, 1857, article 19.
France and Honduras, October 17, 1857, article 15.
Sardinia and Belgium, December 10, 1857, article 27.
France and Salvador, January 2, 1858, article 18.
Belgium and Venezuela, February 8, 1858, article 27.
Belgium and Salvador, February 15, 1858, article 29.
Belgium and Honduras, March 27, 1858, article 29.
Belgium and Nicaragua, May 18, 1858, article 29.
Belgium and Costa Rica, August 31, 1858, article 29.
Belgium and Chile, August 31, 1858, article 20.
Belgium and Peru, February 25, 1860, article 29.
Belgium and Argentina, March 3, 1860, article 29.
Belgium and Bolivia, August 17, 1860, article 30.
Italy and Salvador, October 27, 1860, article 18.
Belgium and Mexico, July 20, 1861, article 27.
Prussia and Salvador, June 13, 1870, article 19.
Belgium and Peru, August 14, 1874, article 22.
Germany and Costa Rica, May 18, 1875, article 22.

Belgium and Venezuela, March 1, 1884, article 32.
Substantially the same provisions are contained in the treaty between
France and Nicaragua, April 11, 1859, article 15, which imposes the additional
obligation on the parties to enjoin their nationals “from enlisting in the troops

of the enemy." ART. 18. The 2 Contracting Parties, in their mutual relations with each other, adopt the principle that the Flag covers the property. If 1 of them remain neutral whilst the other may be engaged in war with any other Power, the property covered by the neutral Flag shall likewise be reputed neutral, although it may belong to the enemies of the other Contracting Party.

It is equally agreed, that the protection of the Flag secures likewise that of persons, and that the individuals belonging to an Enemy Power, who happen to be on board of a neutral vessel, shall not be made prisoners, unless they are military, and are actually employed in the service of the enemy. 71 Also in 24 British and Foreign State Papers, p. 485 (French text only).

72 Costa Rica acceded to this treaty by virtue of the convention with France, concluded on March 12, 1848; 37 British and Foreign State Papers, p. 1375.

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