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SAN FRANCISCO, July 22, 1893. To the State Board of Examiners:

GENTLEMEN: In accordance with your instructions of March 18, 1893, I have edited the manuscript of the Biennial Report of the State Mineralogist under the provisions of the Act approved March 11, 1893.

It will be remembered that when this manuscript was originally submitted, the Board of Examiners declined to publish it entire, and printed only the brief report of the Trustees of the State Mining Bureau and the introduction to the report by the State Mineralogist. This report also called forth from the Governor the following expression, printed in his message to the Legislature:

I have carefully read the biennial reports of the various State officers and public institutions, with the exception of those of the State Mineralogist as originally prepared, the State Agricultural Society, the Railroad Commissioners, the Bureau of Labor Statistics, the State Board of Horticulture, and possibly one or two others, which are so voluminous that none but the unemployed and those directly interested and expecting to derive personal benefit from them can have time to read. While it is the duty of those who prepare these reports to inform the public fully in regard to the conduct of their institations, very often too little time is devoted by their authors to condensing their statements.' Intelligent people do not require arguments, but simply facts, from which they draw their own conclusions. The enormous cost of printing some of these volumes seems to have escaped attention in many cases; notably in that of the State Mineralogist, the cost of printing which, as presented, would have been over $10,000. I have no doubt that this is a valuable contribution, but I believe that $2,000 worth of intelligent editorial work bestowed upon the manuscript would have saved four times that amount in the cost of printing, and the volume would have been of greater value to those interested. People will not read long, tedious rej ts, and if it were not for the condensed statements given out through the press the people of the State generally would have very little information in regard to our public institutions.


The Legislature then passed an Act, which was approved March 11, 1893, making an appropriation for editing the manuscript of the report of the State Mineralogist for the two years ending September 15, 1892. This Act is as follows:


THE STATE MINERALOGIST FOR THE TWO YEARS ENDING SEPTEMBER 15, 1892. The People of the State of California, represented in Senate and Assembly, do enact as follows: SECTION

1. There is hereby appropriated out of any moneys in the State Treasury not otherwise appropriated, the sum of five hundred dollars, or so much thereof as may be necessary, the same to be expended under the supervision of the State Board of Examiners, to pay for editing the manuscript of the biennial report of the State Mineralogist, for the two years ending September fifteenth, eighteen hundred and ninety-two, said manuscript having been filed with the Governor on said date. SEC. 2. This Act shall take effect immediately.

There were in all 2,307 pages of this manuscript, largely type-written. I have condensed all that relates to the counties of the State very materially, as in some instances I found much duplication of former reports. By comparing the reports previously published, with the man.



script, the duplicated matter was eliminated. In other cases, where Pliocene fossils, surface of island, bluffs, ethnology of aboriginal poputhere was no duplication, there was still room for condensation, by leav- lation, shell heaps or kitchen middens, ancient stone implements, stone ing out the less important matter, in order to reduce the volume of the disks, zoology, flora, etc. report. In editing this manuscript I have endeavored to retain only Both of these papers of Mr. Voy show research and would be useful what will be of use to the practical miners of this state, so as to confine for a geographical or ethnological society. the report within reasonable dimensions, as suggested by the Governor The lithographs for these papers mentioned have been made and in his message to the Legislature.

printed. Several of the special articles prepared for this report can well be An article by the late Henry De Groot on “Hydraulic Mining" covomitted altogether, since they do not relate directly to the mining in- ers 90 pages of manuscript and has numerous engravings. It covers terests of California, though they may be of scientific value. These, so practically the same ground as the article by John Hays Hammond on far as I am able to judge, have been carefully prepared, and are doubt- the “Auriferous Gravels of California,” published in the report of the less valuable for publication through other channels. I do not recom- State Mineralogist for 1889. mend their omission because they may be unworthy of publication, One of the chapters written by Mr. Fairbanks, entitled “Notes on the but simply because, in my opinion, they are out of place in the report Geology of Los Angeles, Ventura, Santa Barbara, San Luis Obispo, and of the State Mineralogist, as not being of practical utility to the mining Monterey Counties," covering 54 pages of type-written manuscript, I public. Among these are the following:

have omitted. The work done there was purely scientific in its nature, “Catalogue of California Fossils. Part II, Bibliography and Refer- and no attempt had been made to connect it with the mining resources ences; Part III, Additions to the Tertiary and Quaternary Fossils; Part of the region. As the field would have to be again visited, in order to IV, Remarks on Fossils collected in Orange County by Dr. S. Bowers; bring out the economic and industrial relations of the geology, the presPart V, Descriptions and Figures of New Cretaceous and Cret. B (or ent State Mineralogist retains this manuscript and Mr. Fairbanks was Eocene) Fossils of California, with Notes and Figures of Tertiary Spe- put in the same field to complete his investigations. cies.” By J. G. Cooper. This is partly a continuation of an article in An article to which your attention is directed is the excellent one by the Mining Bureau report of 1888, and was omitted from the report of Mr. A. H. Ricketts, entitled "A Dissertation upon the Origin, Develop1890, though prepared for that. There are 116 pages of manuscript. ment, and Establishment of American Mining Law." This covers 110 There are also six full-page plates, figuring sixty-seven species of Cre- type-written foolscap pages. It is a first-class article, and of practical taceous and Tertiary fossil shells.

use to miners everywhere. It does not, however, relate exclusively to Aboriginal Pipes of California," by Dr. Lorenzo Yates. Of this California, but from the nature of the subject, is of application all over manuscript there are 35 pages, with five plates containing fifty-two en- the United States. Should the appropriation for public printing gravings. This article is mainly interesting to the student of American warrant, this article should be published. history and ethnology. It gives the forms, uses, and history of the As to the condensation of the work of the Assistants in the Field, more tobacco pipe among the native American races. It refers to and de

or less has been done on most of the chapters. Much of the information scribes the pipes made by the aborigines of South and Central Califor- gathered had already appeared in the reports of the Bureau. From the nia; and there are many quotations from other authors describing the two chapters on Nevada and Sierra Counties, 311 pages of manuscript pipes of other Indian tribes. The ceremonial uses of pipes are also were taken out. described; as also the methods of manufacture.

In Sierra County some of the same field had been covered by Mr. "Aboriginal Shell Money of California," by Lorenzo G. Yates. In Preston and Mr. Wiltsee. In some other instances the Assistants had this manuscript there are 57 pages and seven full-page plates, with gone over the same ground; that is, two had visited the same region at seventy-nine cuts in all. The paper covers a description of the ancient different times and some of the work was duplicated, each having media of exchange among the sea-coast tribes; different kinds of shells

worked independently. used; scientific names of shells used by the aborigines of this State; also To give you an idea of the rest of the condensation, it may be stated beads; quotations from reports of Bureau of Ethnology; wampum, etc. that from Mr. Fairbanks' chapter on “Geology and Mineralogy of Shasta

All three of these papers would be better adapted for publication by County," 24 pages were eliminated from the 90 pages, a reduction of an academy of sciences or an ethnological society.

about 5,600 words. From his chapter on “Geology and Mineralogy of “Santa Rosa Island,” by C. D. Voy; 48 pages of manuscript and five Tehama, Lake, Colusa, and Napa Counties," from 73 pages 19 were taken full-page plates. There is nothing in this which relates to mines or out, a reduction of about 1,900 words. From his chapter on “Geology minerals. It refers to the discovery of the island, shape, climate, con- and Mineralogy of San Diego and Orange Counties,” 13 pages were taken tour, points, anchorage (no harbor), volcanic material, bluffs and ridges, from 108. As previously stated, his chapter on Los Angeles, Ventura, sand drifts, mountains, fossils, mammoth remains, topography, ethnol- etc., amounting to 56 pages, has been entirely left out, that more comogy, zoology, and flora.

plete work may be done upon it. All this manuscript of Mr. Fairbanks San Miguel Island," by C. D. Voy; 34 pages and eleven full-page was type-written and had been carefully prepared. plates. There is nothing in this chapter about minerals or mines. It Mr. Watts did work in twenty-six counties, and from the total of 100,gives a history of discovery, geographical location and dimensions, har- 000 words 73,440 words were left, a reduction of about 26,560 words. bors, shape of island, soil, shells, volcanic material, Quaternary fossils, In the work in three counties by Mr. Storms, the manuscript was

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