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a particular manner of propagating motion from a horizontal to a vertical wheel.
We were desired to leave the men only two shillings. Mr. Thrale's bill at the inn for dinner was eighteen shillings and tenpence.
At night I went to Mr. Langley's, Mrs. Wood's, Captain Astle, &c.
We left Ashbourn and went to Buxton, thence to Pool's Hole, which is narrow at first, but then rises into a high arch; but is so obstructed with crags, that it is difficult to walk in it. There are two ways to the end, which is, they say, six hundred and fifty yards from the mouth. They take passengers up the higher way, and bring them back the lower. The higher way was so difficult and dangerous, that, having tried it, I desisted. I found no level part.
At night we came to Macclesfield, a very large town in Cheshire, little known. It has a silk mill: it has a handsome church, which, however, is but a chapel, for the town belongs to some parish of another name', as Stourbridge lately did to Old Swinford.
Macclesfield has a town-hall, and is, I suppose, a corporate
We came to Congleton, where there is likewise a silk mill. Then to Middlewich, a mean old town, without any manufacture, but, I think, a Corporation. Thence we proceeded to Namptwich, an old town: from the inn, I saw scarcely any but black timber houses. I tasted the brine water, which contains much more salt than the sea water. By slow evaporation, they make large crystals of salt; by quick boiling, small granulations. It seemed to have no other preparation.
At evening we came to Combermere', so called from a wide lake.
The parish of Prestbury. DUPPA.
At this time the seat of Sir Lynch Salusbury Cotton [Mrs. Thrale's
We went upon the Mere. I pulled a bulrush of about ten feet. I saw no convenient boats upon the Mere.
We visited Lord Kilmorey's house'. It is large and convenient, with many rooms, none of which are magnificently spacious. The furniture was not splendid. The bed-curtains were guarded'. Lord Kilmorey shewed the place with too much exultation. He has no park, and little water'.
We went to a chapel, built by Sir Lynch Cotton for his tenants. It is consecrated, and therefore, I suppose, endowed. It is neat and plain. The Communion plate is handsome. It has iron pales and gates of great elegance, brought from Lleweney, 'for Robert has laid all open'.'
We saw Hawkestone, the seat of Sir Rowland Hill, and were conducted by Miss Hill over a large tract of rocks and woods; a region abounding with striking scenes and terrifick grandeur. We were always on the brink of a precipice, or at the foot of a lofty rock; but the steeps were seldom naked in many places, oaks of uncommon magnitude shot up from the crannies of stone; and where there were not tall trees, there were underwoods and bushes.
relation], now, of Lord Combermere, his grandson, from which place he takes his title. DUPPA.
'Shavington Hall, in Shropshire. DUPPA.
To guard. To adorn with lists, laces or ornamental borders. Obsolete.' Johnson's Dictionary.
' Johnson wrote to Mrs. Thrale on Nov. 13, 1783-You seem to mention Lord Kilmurrey (sic) as a stranger. We were at his house in Cheshire [Shropshire]. . . . Do not you remember how he rejoiced in having no park? He could not disoblige his neighbours by sending them no venison.' Piozzi Letters, ii. 326.
• This remark has reference to family conversation. the eldest son of Sir L. S. Cotton, and lived at Lleweney. Duppa.
Round the rocks is a narrow patch cut upon the stone, which is very frequently hewn into steps; but art has proceeded no further than to make the succession of wonders safely accessible. The whole circuit is somewhat laborious; it is terminated by a grotto cut in a rock to a great extent, with many windings, and supported by pillars, not hewn into regularity, but such as imitate the sports of nature, by asperities and protuberances.
The place is without any dampness, and would afford an habitation not uncomfortable. There were from space to space seats in the rock. Though it wants water, it excels Dovedale by the extent of its prospects, the awfulness of its shades, the horrors of its precipices, the verdure of its hollows, and the loftiness of its rocks: the ideas which it forces upon the mind are, the sublime, the dreadful, and the vast. Above is inaccessible altitude, below is horrible profundity. But it excels the garden of Ilam only in extent.
Ilam has grandeur, tempered with softness; the walker congratulates his own arrival at the place, and is grieved to think that he must ever leave it. As he looks up to the rocks, his thoughts are elevated; as he turns his eyes on the vallies, he is composed and soothed.
He that mounts the precipices at Hawkestone, wonders how he came thither, and doubts how he shall return. His walk is an adventure, and his departure an escape. He has not the tranquillity, but the horror, of solitude; a kind of turbulent pleasure, between fright and admiration.
Ilam is the fit abode of pastoral virtue, and might properly diffuse its shades over Nymphs and Swains. Hawkestone can have no fitter inhabitants than giants of mighty bone and bold emprise'; men of lawless courage and heroic violence. Hawkestone should be described by Milton, and Ilam by Parnel.
Miss Hill shewed the whole succession of wonders with great civility. The house was magnificent, compared with the rank of the owner.
1 Paradise Lost, book xi. v. 642. DUPPA.
We left Combermere, where we have been treated with great civility. Sir L. is gross, the lady weak and ignorant. The house is spacious, but not magnificent; built at different times, with different materials; part is of timber, part of stone or brick, plastered and painted to look like timber. It is the best house that I ever saw of that kind.
The Mere, or Lake, is large, with a small island, on which there is a summer-house, shaded with great trees; some were hollow, and have seats in their trunks.
In the afternoon we came to West-Chester; (my father went to the fair, when I had the small-pox). We walked round the walls, which are compleat, and contain one mile three quarters, and one hundred and one yards; within them are many gardens: they are very high, and two may walk very commodiously side by side. On the inside is a rail. There are towers from space to space, not very frequent, and, I think, not all compleat'.
We staid at Chester and saw the Cathedral, which is not of the first rank. The Castle. In one of the rooms the Assizes are held, and the refectory of the Old Abbey, of which part is a grammar school. The master seemed glad to see me. The cloister is very solemn; over it are chambers in which the singing men live.
In one part of the street was a subterranean arch, very strongly built; in another, what they called, I believe rightly, a Roman hypocaust.
Chester has many curiosities.
We entered Wales, dined at Mold, and came to Lleweney'.
1 See Mrs. Piozzi's Synonymy, i. 323, for an anecdote of this walk. 'Lleweney Hall was the residence of Robert Cotton, Esq., Mrs. Thrale's cousin german. Here Mr. and Mrs. Thrale and Dr. Johnson staid three weeks. DUPPA. Mrs. Piozzi wrote in 1817:- Poor old
Bâch y Graig.
We were at Lleweney.
In the lawn at Lleweney is a spring of fine water, which rises above the surface into a stone basin, from which it runs to waste, in a continual stream, through a pipe.
There are very large trees.
The Hall at Lleweney is forty feet long, and twenty-eight broad. The gallery one hundred and twenty feet long, (all paved.) The Library forty-two feet long, and twenty-eight broad. The Dining-parlours thirty-six feet long, and twentysix broad.
It is partly sashed, and partly has casements.
We went to Bâch y Graig, where we found an old house, built 1567, in an uncommon and incommodious form. My Mistress' chattered about tiring, but I prevailed on her to go to the top. The floors have been stolen: the windows are stopped.
The house was less than I seemed to expect; the river Clwyd is a brook with a bridge of one arch, about one third of a mile.
The woods' have many trees, generally young; but some which seem to decay. They have been lopped. The house never had a garden. The addition of another story would make an useful house, but it cannot be great. Some buildings which Clough, the founder, intended for warehouses, would make store-chambers and servants' rooms3. The ground seems to be good. I wish it well.
Lleweney Hall! pulled down after standing 1000 years in possession of the Salusburys.' Hayward's Piozzi, ii. 206.
'Johnson's name for Mrs. Thrale. Ante, i. 572.
Johnson wrote to Mrs. Thrale on Sept. 13, 1777:-' Boswell wants to see Wales; but except the woods of Bachycraigh, what is there in Wales? What that can fill the hunger of ignorance, or quench the thirst of curiosity?' Piozzi Letters, i. 367. Ante, iii. 152, note 1.
› Pennant gives a description of this house, in a tour he made into JULY 31.