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that he wishes them to answer some questions that would connect the two stories in their minds.
Detailed Directive Questions In that the children, however hard they try, will not have read the story thoroughly and will forget even what they have read unless it is impressed on their minds by some means, it is necessary at the recitation period to ask them a number of very detailed questions. These questions should not all demand mere reproduction of the story,-in fact, few questions of that nature should be asked at all, and then only in preparation for others that will lead to better literary appreciation. The other questions will direct and stimulate the feelings of the class, will relate them to the story, preferably by making them get through their imaginations into Theseus' shoes, will develop the connotative meaning of certain words or phrases, particularly of certain situations and deeds,—the other questions and comments will, in short, attempt to reproduce in the children the emotion that this story has stimulated in mankind since the world was young.
For the first recitation on this story of Theseus, the teacher may ask the children to read over to themselves the first paragraph. Then, both by way of testing the thoroughness of their reading and also by way of instruction in appreciation, he may ask some such questions as follows: “Whom is this paragraph about? What kind of a son had she? Don't you think that should have made her happy?
Why, then, was she unhappy? How did she spend her days? What do you suppose she thought about? When Theseus was fifteen years old, where did his mother take him? What kind of a place was it? How do you suppose it made him feel? What did he think and how did he feel when he heard his mother's command? How should you have felt?”
The second paragraph should then be read before the teacher asks: “With what spirit do you suppose Theseus pushed through the undergrowth? How did he probably feel when at first he saw no stone? and then when he found it? How did he try at first to lift it? and then? Why did the tears come? How should you have felt when, having failed, you had to go back to Æthra? What probably made Theseus feel particularly sorry to make such a report to her? What was there to comfort him? What do you suppose he expected his mother to say or do? Do you think Theseus had any determination in his heart? Why do you think so?”
Larger Directive Questions The following suggestive questions are less detailed than those in the preceding paragraphs. Their purpose is to make the pupils think for themselves, put themselves into the situations, and feel as Theseus did. Frequently pupils should be called on to justify their answers by citing something in the story.
“Can you imagine why Æthra was so anxious to have Theseus turn over the stone? How did she feel when he failed? Account for what she did then. What do the repeated attempts show?
“What did his mother's persistence inspire Theseus to do? Do you imagine there were interesting stories about his killing of Phæa and his other adventures? When he was eighteen, how did his mother stir him to his best effort? Imagine his feelings when he succeeded. What do you think caused his mother to weep?
“Imagine the scene in which Æthra shows Attica to Theseus? What makes it so solemn? Describe Attica as you remember it from what you read. What impressed you most? Now read the description aloud. What does it add to the description that you gave?
“What feelings do you suppose came to Theseus as he looked across the sea at Attica and heard what his mother said? How should you feel to be offered the rule of such a land? What do you think of the answer Theseus gave to his mother's questions? What did Æthra think of it? Why did she smile?
“From the instructions that Æthra gives Theseus and from other parts of the story, can you guess who Ægeus is? and why Theseus is to take the sword and sandals to him? Whom should you like him to be? Does Theseus suspect Ægeus to be any more to him than a great king? Why do you suppose Theseus does not question his mother about the meaning of the message and the need for the errand ? What does the question he asks make you think of him ?
“From all that Æthra says in answer, what facts of her life, present and past, can you gather? Do the incidents that she suggests sound interesting? Shall we stop now to read of them? or is there some Pihing else you would rather hear? What of her prophecy would make Theseus hate still more to leave her? What would urge him forward!
“In summary, what does this part of the story make you think of Theseus? Should you like to see him succeed? Are you interested enough in him to read the rest of the story? What kind of adventures are you prepared to expect? Do you think Theseus will take an important part in them? In what ways is he worthy to be a hero?”
In conclusion, one query the teacher should make to himself about each of these questions or any that he may use in teaching a poem: What will this question do toward leading the class to understand and enjoy better this and all future reading?
The principles outlined and illustrated in the previous chapters are all applicable to the work in the grammar grades, but there the teacher is likely to use a greater variety of approaches to the desired end than in any of the earlier grades. By the time the children are twelve to fourteen years old they have acquired very definite interests of their own and are not so easily led to any element whatsoever by their teacher. Consequently he wisely attacks a new piece of literature at a point where the class already see, or can easily be made to see, a contact with their own selves.
Judgment Increasingly Involved In the upper grades the judgment of the children is called for increasingly: what do they think about this or that? What would they have done? How do they judge between these alternatives? Why did the author say this or make the hero do that? The interest of children at this age in æsthetics is not naturally keen, but it is time for them to have their attention turned somewhat to form. In some schools considerable imitative writing is demanded. Where