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LICK ASTRONOMICAL DEPARTMENT.
OFFICERS OF THE OBSERVATORY.
MARTIN KELLOGG, President of the University.
EDWARD E. BARNARD, Astronomer.
ALLEN L. COLTON, Assistant Astronomer.
C. D. PERRINE, Secretary.
SIDNEY D. TOWNLEY, Hearst Fellow in Astronomy.
HISTORY OF THE LICK OBSERVATORY.
The Observatory was founded by JAMES LICK, by his deed of trust dated September 21, 1875. This deed devotes the sum of $700,000 to "the purpose of purchasing land, and constructing and putting up on such land
a powerful telescope, superior to and more powerful than any telescope yet made; * * and, also, a suitable observatory connected therewith." The deed further provides that "if, after the construction of said telescope and observatory, there shall remain of said $700,000 any surplus," the surplus shall be invested, and that "the income thereof shall be devoted to the maintenance of said telescope and the observatory connected therewith, and shall be made useful in promoting science; and the said telescope and observatory are to be known as the Lick Astronomical Department of the University of California." The gift of Mr. LICK was accepted by the Board of Regents December 7, 1875.
Mr. LICK had already, in August, 1875, selected Mt. Hamilton, in Santa Clara County, as a site for the Observatory. Land for the site (1,350 acres) was granted by Act of Congress, June 7, 1876. One hundred and forty-nine acres additional were purchased by Mr. LICK, and a tract of forty acres was added by gift of R. F. MORROW, Esq., in 1886. The north half of section sixteen of the township was granted to the University for the use of the Observatory by the Legislature of California in 1888. This land (320 acres) is continuous with the grant from the United States. Congress also granted in 1892 an additional tract of 680 acres, making the total area of the Reservation about 2,581 acres.
The Observatory consists of a Main Building containing computing rooms, library (of 3,000 books and of 3,300 pamphlets), and the domes of the 36-inch equatorial and the 12-inch equatorial; and Detached Buildings to shelter the
Meridian Circle, the Transit, the Horizontal Photo-Heliograph, the portable Equatorial, and the CROCKER Photographic Telescope. On the grounds are dwelling houses for the astronomers, students, and employés, and shops for the workmen. The Observatory is fully provided with instruments, some of which are enumerated below:
36-inch Equatorial; objective by ALVAN CLARK and Sons, mounted by WARNER and SWASEY. This instrument has also a photographic corrector of 33 inches, figured by Mr. ALVAN G. CLARK.
12-inch Equatorial; by ALVAN CLARK and Sons.
6-inch Equatorial; objective by ALVAN CLARK and Sons, mounting by WARNER and SWASEY.
61⁄2-inch Meridian Circle; objective by ALVAN CLARK and Sons, mounting by REPSOLD.
4-inch Transit; objective by ALVAN CLARK and Sons, mounting by FAUTH & Co.
4-inch Comet seeker; by ALVAN CLARK and Sons.
5-inch Horizontal Photo-Heliograph; by ALVAN CLARK and Sons. CROCKER Photographic Telescope; objective by WILLARD, refigured by J. A. BRASHEAR, who provided the mounting also. There are, besides, many minor pieces of astronomical, physical, meteorological, and photographic apparatus, including spectroscopes, photometers, seismometers, micrometers, clocks, chronographs, etc.
REGULATIONS REGARDING STUDENTS AT THE OBSERVATORY.
The Regents of the University have established the following regulations: "The regular course of undergraduate work in astronomy in the University will be given in part in the Colleges of Science at Berkeley, and the remainder at the Lick Observatory. Students who are graduates of the University of California, or of a university or college of like standing, will also be received at the Lick Observatory to pursue a higher course of instruction in astronomy, provided that, after examination, they show themselves competent. Such students may become candidates for the higher degrees of the University in the ordinary manner, or they may be received as special students merely. Quarters at Mt. Hamilton may be assigned to them during that portion of the year occupied in their work with the instruments, and in return for such quarters they will be required to execute such computations as are assigned to them." [Order of the Board of Regents, March 13, 1888.]
"So many graduate students as can be furnished accommodations at Mt. Hamilton without expense to the University, may pursue astronomical studies with the Director at the Lick Observatory. Such graduate students must be either candidates for the higher degrees of the University, in the ordinary manner, or special students admitted with the consent of the President of the University and the Director of the Observatory. Such candidates for higher degrees shall spend at least one year in their studies at Berkeley." [Orders of the Board of Regents, January 8, 1889, and May 12, 1892.]
At present, all undergraduate instruction in astronomy is given at Berkeley, and the courses there are so arranged as to lead directly to graduate
courses at Mt. Hamilton. Application for admission to graduate courses at the Observatory may be made at any time to the Recorder of the University at Berkeley; and students will be admitted on the recommendation of the Director, approved by the President of the University. Admission is ordinarily granted to graduates of the University of California, and also to graduates of other colleges and scientific schools of good standing who present satisfactory evidence of character and qualifications. Other persons of suitable age and attainments may also be admitted.
Students at the Lick Observatory may either be: (a) Candidates for one of the higher degrees of the University, or (b) Special students. The higher degrees offered are Master of Arts, Master of Science, and Doctor of Philosophy. The conditions upon which they are granted are given in this Register, pages 106 and 107, except that a residence at Mt. Hamilton* is required of all candidates for a Master's degree of at least four months, and of all candidates for a Doctor's degree of at least eight months. It is expected that students will choose their periods of residence at the Observatory in the months June to November. In certain cases the requirement of Latin of candidates for the Doctor's degree may be remitted by the proper authority. In all cases a good reading knowledge of French and German will be required of such candidates. Particular attention is called to the fact that the higher degrees of the University are not given for mere faithfulness in the performance of allotted tasks, but that "power to do original work" (as shown in a thesis to be submitted before final examination, and in other ways) will be required of all candidates.
QUARTERS FOR STUDENTS.
Comfortable quarters (unfurnished) are allotted to all students at the Observatory. A kitchen and dining-room (partly furnished) are also provided for the common use of students, who must make their own arrangements for board and service. The cost per month to each student need not exceed $30. No charges or fees of any sort for instruction are required from students in the University. All injuries to instruments or apparatus must be made good at the student's expense, and students are expected to provide the larger part of the chemicals used in their practice of photography. Each student should bring with him the furniture of his bed, etc., and should also provide himself with text-books which are constantly wanted, as YOUNG'S General Astronomy, CAMPBELL'S Practical Astronomy, BRUENNOW's Lehrbuch der Sphaerischen Astronomie or CHAUVENET's Spherical and Practical Astronomy, OPPOLZER'S Bahnbestimmung or WATSON's Theoretical Astronomy, HUSSEY'S Logarithmic Tables (or any other good five-place tables), CRELLE'S Rechentafeln, etc.
Intending students will do well to communicate with the Director of the Observatory before making their formal applications for admission to the Recorder. The Post Office address is Mt. Hamilton, Santa Clara County, California.
*Residence at Mt. Hamilton is residence at the University."
Special students are received (usually during the favorable observing weather, June to November), and every facility, consistent with the scientific work of the establishment, will be given to them. They will be required to follow out some line of work, to the satisfaction of the Director, and they will usually be assigned as assistants to some one of the Astronomers.
HEARST FELLOWSHIPS IN ASTRONOMY.
Mrs. PHEBE HEARST has provided a fund to be used in aid of scientific work at the Lick Observatory. A portion of this fund may be set aside for the purpose of defraying a part of the expenses of such advanced students as may be appointed to be Hearst Fellows in Astronomy by the Board of Regents on the recommendation of the President of the University and of the Director of the Observatory. Such recommendations will not be made except of students who have already made decided progress in their work, and candidates for the higher degrees of the University will be preferred in general.
ADMISSION OF VISITORS TO THE OBSERVATORY.
The Observatory buildings will be open to visitors during office hours every day in the year. For the present, visitors will be permitted to look through the great telescope every Saturday night, between the hours of 7 and 10, and at that time only. Whenever the work of the Observatory will admit of it, other telescopes will also be put at the disposition of visitors on Saturdays, between the same hours. The Astronomical Society of the Pacific holds its summer meetings in the library of the Lick Observatory.
For Students in the Lick Observatory, see Catalogue of Students, and Summary of Students.
With a view to the extension of the advantages of the University to teachers* and other persons whose engagements will not permit them to go to Berkeley, courses of instruction will be offered during the year 1892-93 in San Francisco and in other places.
Persons who offer to do systematic work in the Extension Courses, and to take examinations in them, will be enrolled as Attendants upon Extension Courses. Attendants who pass satisfactory examinations will be entitled to receive, from the University, Certificates of Record of the work done, which may be accredited to them, upon their scholarship records, if they subsequently become students of the University.
Visitors may be admitted to Extension Courses at the discretion of the professors in charge.
Persons desiring to enroll themselves for these courses are requested to communicate either with the professors in charge, or with the Recorder. During 1892-93, Extension Courses are offered as follows:
English. Course in the Ancient Classical and the Medieval Dramas. Hall of the Academy of Sciences, San Francisco, Thursday evenings, at 8 o'clock. Mr. ARMES.
Paradise Lost. The class, under the direction of Assistant Professor LANGE, will begin work about February 1st, in Oakland, at an hour and place to be announced.
Mathematics. Course in the Differential and Integral Calculus. Boys' High School, San Francisco, Saturday mornings, at 10:30 o'clock. Professor STRINGHAM.
Pedagogy. Course in the Herbartian Pedagogy. Commercial School Building, Powell Street, San Francisco, Tuesday afternoons, at 3:45 o'clock. Associate Professor BROWN.
Astronomy. Course in General Astronomy. Chabot Observatory, corner Eleventh and Jefferson Streets, Oakland, Friday evenings, at 8 o'clock. Mr. LEUSCHNER.
Geology. Ice as a geological agent, with a particular consideration of the Ice Age in California. A course of six lectures, by Professor JOSEPH LE CONTE. The Course begins Monday evening, January 2d, at the Unitarian Church, corner of Third and Hill Streets, Los Angeles.
*See also Pedagogics, and Courses designed for teachers, under Philosophy, History and Political Science, Greek, Latin, English, Mathematics.