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machine shop, large additions are being made in accurate scientific and commercial apparatus. Dynamos and motors, of different capacities, of the continuous-current type and of the single and polyphase alternating-current type, will be installed for experimentation and investigation. In connection with the photometric and other experiments requiring an unvarying potential, a storage battery of large capacity may be used. The rooms are all supplied with solid masonry piers for the mounting of sensitive instruments.
For experiments in thermodynamics, the steam-engines and gas-engines of the department are available, and an experimental engine of fifty horsepower, with its accessories.
For the experiments in hydraulics there are available the water tanks, gauges, and meters, and various types of motors and turbines. There are also appliances for efficiency tests and determination of the resistance to rotating disks and cylinders in water.
The Testing-Room contains machines for tension, compression, and torsion of different capacities, and a wire-testing machine for experiments on cables and ropes.
The Students' Observatory. The equipment of the observatory consists of the following instruments: A six-inch refractor equatorially mounted, with a complete outfit of eye-pieces, filar micrometer, driving-clock, etc.; a spectroscope capable of being attached to the equatorial, a Davidson combination transit-and-zenith telescope of three inches aperture, an electro-chronograph, a Harkness spherometer, a level-trier, sextants, two sidereal chronometers, a Howard clock, and all the necessary electric connections for recording time and the determination of longitude by the telegraphic method.
The astronomical problems of Geodesy are extensively practiced at the observatory, enabling civil engineering students to acquire facility in the determination of time, longitude, and latitude, etc., as required in extended surveys, navigation, and practical astronomy. By special arrangement with Professor George Davidson of the U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey, students in the Course in Astronomy and Geodesy will annually carry out a longitude campaign between Berkeley and San Francisco.
A new and prominent feature of the observatory is the computing-room, where the reductions of all observations of the observatory are carried out by the students themselves.
The instruction at the observatory is so arranged as to furnish ample experience in observing, computing, etc., to those having chosen astronomy or geodesy as a profession.
The equatorial and the spectroscope furnish the means for prosecuting studies in solar physics and similar fields of investigation. One room in the observatory is provided with a set of meteorological instruments, and observations are regularly taken, recorded, and forwarded to the United States Signal Service office in Washington, D. C.
In a separate building, mounted on a masonry pier, are two seismographs having both time and electric connections, one of the Ewing and one of the Gray type, and two duplex seismographs.
Visitors (not more than twelve) are received at the Students' Observatory on the first and third Mondays of every month from 7 to 10 o'clock P. M. Tickets of admission for such visits should be procured in advance, from the Recorder of the Faculties. These are good only for the night for which they are issued, but new ones may be procured as often as may be desired.
The Lick Observatory. (See pages 149-152.)
Mining and Metallurgical Laboratories: I. The Assaying Laboratory is equipped to give instruction by the most approved methods in the fire assays of gold, silver, lead, antimony, tin, iron, nickel, cobalt, and quicksilver ores, and furnace products. It occupies a suite of six rooms on the lower floor of the Mining Building.
The crushing and sampling room contains a Taylor sample-crusher, large iron mortars and rubbers; a panning sink, with a full assortment of miners' pans, horns, bateas, and other devices for making vanning tests of ores; a complete assortment of sieves, and a large sampling table. In this room the small-scale sampling is done, and the sample is prepared for assaying. From here the sample goes to the fluxing-room. This is provided with Becker pulp scales, and desks containing all the necessary fluxes; it also contains a Fairbanks platform scale graduated in kilogrammes, as well as pounds, for convenience in large-scale tests. The sample after Auxing goes to the furnace rooms. These contain four crucible furnaces and three muffle furnaces, built after an improved design, and arranged to burn either coke or charcoal; also, two large crucible and mutlle furnaces for burning soft coal, like those used in Freiberg, Przibram, and Colorado. All these furnaces have been carefully designed, built in the walls, and iron clad in a substantial manner. Besides these, examples of other furnaces commonly used are also provided to familiarize students with their use. From the furnace-room the ore buttons go to the parting hood and to the balance-room, which is provided with Becker assay balances. A convenient store-room completes the assaying laboratory.
II. Research Laboratory. This laboratory occupies a suite of four rooms on the floor above, and covering the same ground area as the assaying laboratory. The largest of these contains two iron-clad crucible furnaces, with an air blast, in which cast-iron can be easily melted; two iron-clad muffle fur. naces; a one horse-power Krom sample crusher; a set of automatic sizing sieves; an amalgamator for small-scale tests; a Taylor shaking-frame; a Johnson filter-press; a set of switch-boards, volt and ammeters, connected with dynamos and storage battery for all kinds of electrolytic determinations in electro-metallurgy, both in the wet way and by fusion; an apparatus specially designed for demonstrating with exactness all the essential points in chlorination and leaching tests. This room is also fitted with horizontal and vertical shafting, so that power can be used in every part of it, and a ten horse-power transmitting dynamometer is provided for such tests as require it. A second room is fitted up for the humid, or mint, assay of silver bullion and general volumetric work; and is so arranged that it can be lighted with either white, yellow, or red light, and can be utilized as a photographic darkroom in preparing lantern slides to illustrate the lecture courses. A third room is fitted up for analytical and special research work, and contains a gasheated distilled water and drying apparatus, a water-blast blowpipe, gas mutfle and crucible furnaces, and a small Pelton water-motor, besides the appliances usual in an analytical laboratory. The fourth room contains eight of the finest Oertling and Becker analytical balances and a small reference library.
This laboratory is provided with a complete equipment for measuring high temperatures, such as an air thermometer, a Fischer calorimeter-pyrometer, a Siemens' electric pyrometer; also the Orsat, Bunte, and Fischer apparatus for the analysis of furnace gases, and a Thomson calorimeter for determining the heating effect of fuels.
III. Gold and Silver Mill. This is contained in a separate building specially designed for the purpose. The lower floor is of concrete and the upper floor is double and arranged to serve as a sampling floor. This laboratory is designed to illustrate, on a working scale, the methods in successful use in crushing, sampling, concentrating, and working gold and silver ores in the wet way.
It contains a fifteen horse-power Westinghouse steam engine, an Eickemeyer shunt wound dynamo capable of delivering a current of two hundred am peres at fifty volts at any point in the laboratories. At one extremity of the laboratory is the dry-crushing and sampling plant. A platform elevator lifts the ore by the carload to the upper floor, where it is fed to a Dodge jawcrusher, which also selects an automatic sample of the ore crushed; this remains on the upper floor, to be quartered down for assaying. The main lot of crushed ore passes through the floor by chutes, at will, either to a pair of sixteen-inch Krom steel-rolls specially designed for this laboratory, or else to a six-inch Sturtevant mill. After being crushed in either of these machines the ore is elevated by a bucket elevator and delivered to a Krom revolving trommel, where it is classified into three sizes and the coarse particles are returned to the machine for further reduction. The whole plant is connected with an exhaust fan and a set of dust chambers, so that the operation is conducted without inconvenience or loss from dusting.
The wet-crushing plant consists of a stamp battery with three five hundred pound stamps; the mortar is specially designed for either single or double discharge, so that it can be used if necessary for either wet or dry crushing of silver ores or as a deep mortar for gold ores.
For gold ores a high discharge is used in the mortar, and the pulp passes first over a set of amalgamated copper plates and then over a Frue concentrator, specially designed for either side or end motion. An automatic sampler, also of special design, takes at intervals of three minutes samples of the pulp simultaneously as it leaves the mortar, the plates, and the concentrator. The frequency of the sample-taking is also adjustable. An exact knowledge of the entire operation at each step is thus made possible. The tailings are all impounded in a concrete settling tank and are finally sampled by quartering as a check. Owing to a scarcity of water and to avoid a loss in slimes, the clear water is returned by a centrifugal pump to the battery.
For silver ores, the ore may be crushed either dry or wet, and the pulp, either raw or roasted, may be treated either by amalgamation or by leaching. For this purpose four amalgamating pans and two arrastras, and numerous leaching and precipitating boxes, are provided.
The concentration of coarsely disseminated ores is provided for by the drycrushing and sizing plant, and two Harz ore-jigs; while finely disseminated ores are crushed wet, sorted in spitzkasten and spitzlutten, and either jigged on an ore-bed or treated on vanners, according to fineness.
Students are afforded every opportunity to acquire practical familiarity with each detail of the best methods now in use. For this purpose, parcels of ore varying in amount from five hundred pounds to several tons are assigned to each member of the class. He is expected to take charge of the work, and, with the assistance of his fellow students, to weigh, crush, sample, and assay his lot of ore; to determine the best mode of treatment, and then to carry this plan into execution, determining the amount and nature of the losses at each step, and the best method of reducing them to a minimum. Thus, each student, in turn, acts as workman and foreman in charge of work, and all acquire experience covering quite a wide range of methods.
IV. Power, Repair Shops, and Battery-Room. Power is provided for all large work by a twenty horse-power Babcock and Wilcox water-tube boiler, and steam is conveyed in covered steam pipes to any point where it may be needed. For light work a two horse-power steam engine is used. There are three shops for repairs and the construction of appliances constantly designed for experimental work. One is a forge-room for working iron and steel; another is equipped for wood working, and for water, gas, and steam-fitters' work; another contains a screw-cutting lathe, shaper, drill press, a full line of machinists' tools, and two dynamos of two horse-power each. One of the dynamos is arranged to give a current of 15 amperes and 100 volts, the other 15 volts and 100 amperes, and both are so arranged that any tension and quantity within these limits can be readily produced and maintained. Adjoining this room is the battery-room, containing twenty-six Sorlet storage-battery cells of 150 ampere hour capacity. This battery is used to run a ThomsonHouston electric lantern in the lecture-room. Other storage cells and a number of gravity cells furnish current for electrolytic work in the research laboratory adjoining.
V. Mining Laboratory. This is supplied with a set of single and double hand drills, hammers and sledges, an Ingersoll Eclipse and a Rand rock drill, a supply of drill steel, a forge with all the appliances for sharpening, hardening, and tempering hand and machine drills, a supply of quarry blocks of sandstone and of Rocklin granite. Among the latter are the ones used at the drilling contest on Miners' Day at the Midwinter Fair. These are preserved as a record. Blasting and the effect of explosives are illustrated in term time by the work of the numerous rock quarries and water tunnels near Berkeley, and in the vacations by work in the mines.
VI. Lecture-Rooms and Museums. These are contained on the third and fourth floors of the Mining Building, and are designed to give a complete illustration of the lectures by maps, drawings, and plans, and by collections of models and products. The arrangement of the lecture-room is such that whenever needed in a lecture, lantern-slide illustrations may be projected upon the screen by simply turning a switch. The collection of lantern-slide illustrations, already large, and growing, is designed to illustrate the mining art as practiced in all parts of the world.
The Civil Engineering Laboratory has recently been established and fitted with apparatus of the best make, particularly designed for experimental tests and original investigations, especially as related to the materials used in civil engineering construction.
A latest improved Olsen automatic and autographic testing machine of 200,000 pounds capacity, and a Riehlé cement-testing machine of 2,000 pounds capacity are among the recent additions to this set of apparatus. The timbers, building-stones, cements, and bitumens of the Pacific Coast receive especial attention in this laboratory; and practical questions connected with water for domestic use, tests of macadam rock and of sanitary mechanism are considered.
The Agricultural, Viticultural, and Entomological Laboratories and lecture-rooms are located in the Experiment-Station Building. This building contains also the laboratory and office of the Professor of Agriculture, who is at the same time Director of the Experiment Stations.
The Agricultural Laboratory is devoted primarily to the prosecution of chemical and physical researches in relation to general agriculture; such as the mechanical and chemical examination of soils, waters, agricultural products, natural and commercial fertilizers, etc., and the determination of technical questions relating to agricultural processes or manufactures. The results of this work are reported to the persons interested; so far as they are of general interest, they are published, currently in the form of bulletins, ultimately in the form of annual reports. These publications are mailed free to all persons making application for them.
In order to supply the demand for special instruction in the analysis and investigation of agricultural materials and products, desk room in the laboratories for ten advanced and special students has been provided.
The Viticultural Laboratory (the only one of its kind in the United States) is intended not only for the analysis of musts and wines, but also for the experimental production of wines on a small scale. The outfit for the latter purpose occupies the basement and three cellar-rooms of the ExperimentStation Building. Wines are here made experimentally, for the purpose of testing the peculiarities of different grape varieties, or differences caused by the various soils and localities, so as to place the mutual adaptation of vines, soils, and localities upon a definite basis as quickly as possible. The various methods of fermenting and treating wines are also tested. Under the State law originally creating this laboratory, samples of wines are received for analysis or such other examination as may be necessary. Students desiring to become familiar with such work, or with the theory and art of wine-making, are admitted to laboratory and cellar practice.
For olive testing, by actual manufacture of oil from different varieties, an outfit of the most approved machinery has been provided. The manufacture is supplemented by close laboratory treatment of the product, to determine accurately its characteristics. In the manufacture and subsequent investigations students are expected to participate.
For the Entomological Laboratory and Museum a partial equipment has been provided, which includes cabinets, desks, dissecting apparatus, microscopes, reagents, etc.
The Experiment Stations of the College of Agriculture make provision for systematic experimentation in the culture of the various products of the farm in California. The investigations include the introduction and testing of new varieties, the study of diseases of plants and animals, the repression of vege