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pomattox in 1865. He was promoted brevet ceived in the crop season. The heaviest snow-' brigadier-general and later brevet lieutenant- fall is in the region of Traverse City and in colonel of volunteers in 1865, and was promoted the "Copper Country) on Lake Superior. . In captain in the regular army. He was appointed relative humidity, Michigan is similar to the first assistant in the department of engineering Atlantic seaboard States, but has a larger numand chemistry at West Point in 1867, and ber of sunny days in summer. The annual hu-' from 1871 until his death he was professor of midity is about 75 per cent. In general, Michinatural and experimental philosophy there. He gan weather is extremely variable, being in the served on the board of overseers of the Thayer' track of the largest number of low pressure School of Civil Engineering at Dartmouth from areas, but the constant westerly winds and the 1871. He was a member of a government com- Great Lakes tend to modify extremes. mission to Europe in June-November 1870 Geology and Physiography.— The oldest studying fortifications. Author of Wave Mo- part of Michigan is the western half of the tion, relating to Sound and Light! (1882); upper peninsula, where are found outcrops of Life and Letters of Emery Upton (1885); Archean rocks granites, gneisses and schists' Analytical Mechanics (1886); Hydrome- -as old as any on the continent of North chanics (1887),
America and similar in age to the highlands of MICHIGAN, a State in the United States, Scotland and Norway. The highest point in lies in the region of the Great Lakes between the State, in the Porcupine Mountains near lat. 41° 44' and 47° 30' N. and long. 82° 25' and Lake Superior, is an outcrop of these rocks, 90° 31' W. It is composed of two peninsulas,
about 1,400 feet above the level of the lake. a northern and a southern, between which pass
The whole of this part of the peninsula is the Straits of Mackinac, connecting Lakes
broken and rocky, though the drift in the valHuron and Michigan. The State has an area
leys affords a good soil for agriculture. The of 57,480 square miles, ranking 18th in the region is noted chiefly for its minerals. From Union. It is the largest except Georgia, east
Keweenaw Point southwestward, across the of the Mississippi. Of this area, 40,789 square peninsula, lie copper deposits of exceeding richmiles are in the lower peninsula, and 16,691 in ness, second to none in the world. To the south the upper; the upper peninsula being less than and east of the copper deposits lie four rich one-third the area of the State, is thus larger
belts of iron ore. Other economic minerals are than any New England State, except Maine. slate, building stone, graphite, mineral paints, The State's peninsular character is reflected in mica, asbestos, oil stone, gypsum, lead and the legend on its seal: Si Quaris Peninsulam manganese. East of the longitude of MarAmanam, Circumspice (If you seek a beautiful quette, the peninsula is markedly different, being peninsula, look about you).
a rolling, drift-covered hill country, rising Michigan's position has closely associated its scarcely 400 feet above lake level and forming development with Ohio, Indiana and Illinois, on the agricultural section. Along the northern the south; with Wisconsin, on the west; and shore of this portion of the peninsula, the Camwith Canada, on the north and east. It deter- brian sandstone, formed in the ancient seas that mined that its population should come largely covered the Michigan basin, has been cut by from New York, New England and Canada, wave action into fantastic shapes, known as the and from Europe. Practically surrounded by «Pictured Rocks) of Lake Superior. lakes and rivers, it was naturally equipped to
In the lower peninsula the arrangement of engage extensively in lake commerce and ship- the bed rocks is simple, being like a nest of building. It has water communication with basins, one within the other. At the centre the seven other States and with the province of coal basin covers about one-fifth of the area. Ontario in Canada, embracing together popu- The minerals of the other basins are various lation of about 30,000,000 people. Its chief port and widely distributed, among which are salt, is Detroit, whose position, in line with natural clay, sand and gravels, limestone and gypsum. transportation facilities to the Atlantic sea- At several points are found mineral springs, board through the Saint Lawrence Basin and where popular resorts have grown up to profit the Mohawk Valley of New York, gives it rank, by the medicinal value of the waters; chief in relation to immigration and commerce, with among these is Mount Clemens, near Detroit. Pittsburgh and Saint Louis.
The waters of four mineral springs are marClimate.- The position of the State in the keted. The surface of the lower peninsula midst of the Great Lakes gives it a climate suf- lends itself easily to agriculture, grazing, lumficiently unique to invite comparisons. The bering and manufacture. In general, it is mean annual temperature has a range of about slightly undulating and but little raised above 10o – from 39° in the north to 49° in the south; lake level. The peninsula is divided into two July temperature, from 65° to 72°; that of portions, which have a few topographical difJanuary, from 190 to 25°; extreme of lowest ferences; the dividing line is the Grand-Mapletemperatures in different parts of the State, Saginaw Valley, which, extending across it difrom 490 to 15° below zero; extreme of high- agonally from the head of Saginaw Bay to Lake est temperatures, from 96° to 108°. For the Michigan, is nowhere above 100 feet high. year, in the State as a whole, the mean range of North of this central plain rises a plateau, betemperature is 50° and the extreme range 120°. tween 700 and 800 feet above the lakes, formThe longest growing season, 170 days, is in the ing the watershed between Lakes Michigan and vicinity of Lake Erie; while the shortest grow- Huron. At a point near Otsego Lake, this plaing season, 100 days, is in the west end of the teau reaches a height of 1,100 feet. On the upper peninsula.
north and northeast, outcrops of bed rock give The amount of rainfall varies from 29 inches the coast an abrupt and somewhat forbidding in the northwest to 40 inches in the southeast; appearance. The portion of the peninsula south about 60 per cent of the annual rainfall is re- of the central plain rises rarely above 200 feet, broken by low conical hills, whose fertile in- the many rivers for transportation of logs to tervening dales form the courses of small mill. Aside from the strait-like Saint Mary's, streams. At the east, a morainal elevation, Saint Clair and Detroit rivers, Michigan forming two watersheds, rises in Hillsdale streams are not navigable, except for the smallCounty, 600 feet above the lakes, the highest est of river craft. Worthy of mention, besides point in this part of the State. The southeast- the rivers named, are, in the lower peninsula. ern shore is low and comparatively level. the Clinton, the Raisin, the Rouge, the Black Along a large part of the entire western shore and the Manistee; in the upper peninsula, the of the peninsula, wind-blown sand dunes reach, Taquamenon, the Carp, the Sturgeon, the Main places, a height of 200 and 300 feet.
nistique, the Rapid, the Whitefish, Falls River Off the shores of the two peninsulas lie some and Dead River. The waters of these rivers 200 islands within the State boundaries, the are received by numerous bays and inlets largest of which is Isle Royale, in Lake Supe- which indent the shores; of these, the largest rior. Others of the largest islands are: In
along the upper peninsula are Keweenaw, Lake Superior - Grand Isle; in Lake Michi- White Fish and the Big and Little Noquette gan - Beaver, Fox and Manitou; and in Lake bays; along the lower peninsula, the Grand Huron — Sugar Island, Encampment Island, and Little Traverse, the Thunder and Saginaw Drummond Island, Bois Blanc and Mackinac.
bays. The coolness of the summer climate of the up
Agriculture. The chief industry of the per Great Lakes has made of that region a delightful watering place, particularly in the vicin
State is farming, which engages about a third ity of the Straits of Mackinac. Of the island
of the population. The value of farm propresorts the most widely known is the picturesque about one-half of the total assessed valuation
erty is double the capital in manufacturing and Mackinac Island.
of all property in the State. About one-half Soil. The three principal soil types of the two peninsulas are determined by the relative
of the lands are in farms, of which about twoamount of sand, clay and lime. In the south
thirds are improved. Of the half not in farms,
about one-half would make good farm land. ern peninsula, the soils vary from the light
Less than one-fifth of the upper peninsula is in sandy loam of the north central plateau to heavy blue clay, on the Huron shore, and to
farms, with about 12 per cent of the total farmthe dark clay loam of southern Michigan. The
ing population of the State In the lower penwide distribution of sand gives warmth to the
insula, nine-tenths of the farms and 70 per soil, and its porosity prevents the drowning of
cent of the farm population is south of the laticrops;, while the generous depth of the soil
tude of the northern boundary of Midland keeps it from drying out. There is little irre
County. In general, Michigan lands produce claimable marshland. In general, the soil is
many kinds of crops on each farm, contributing easy to work, presenting but little stony land
about half of the total value. Corn is the leadlike New England and very few barrens due
ing crop, raised mainly in the southern part of to outcrops. The mixture of clay and sand the lower peninsula; only a few hundred acres makes a soil not too adhesive for the plow and
are raised in the upper peninsula and in the one not easily washed full of gullies. The lime
northern third of the lower peninsula only stone areas are specially fortified against de
about as much as in any one of the better southterioration through wasteful farming, and in
ern counties. The wheat crop is second and has many places there is an abundance of natural
been decreasing since 1900, the yield is only fertilizers. In the upper peninsula, in the west,
about one-fifth that of Minnesota. Wheat the rocks are either barren or thinly covered,
raising tends to concentrate in the central part with an occasional fertile valley; in the east,
of the lower peninsula. Oats rank third in the the soil is of good depth and generally rich in a variety of mineral elements.
ESTIMATED CROP STATISTICS, 1918. Drainage and Water Power.- Michigan has more than 5,000 interior lakes, mainly of
Quantities, glacial origin. Many of those near the shores,
bushels especially of Lake Michigan, were once a part of the Great Lakes. They vary in size from an acre to a thousand acres, covering in the ag- Corn..
1,610,000 48, 300,000 $62,790,000 gregate an area of 712,864 acres. Generally
754,000 10, 716.000 22,397,000
1,658,000 66, 320,000 45,761,000 they have a border of woodland and sandy or
472,000 6,750,000 10,125,000 muddy margins, with more or less vegetable Barley
275.000 8,332,000 8,332,000 and animal life. Many of these lakes are beau
78,000 780,000 1,326,000 tiful pleasure resorts. Streams are fed by these
Total cereals... 4.847,000 141, 198.000 $150, 731,000 lakes, which together with them form an equable system of drainage. The rivers, though numerous, are relatively short and shallow, owing to the peninsular character of the State.
State. The hay crop, chiefly clover and timSome have cut deep enough to form rapids, es
othy, is widely distributed and yields about onepecially in the north, furnishing water power.
fourth of the total value of farm crops. A Of the large power they could develop, 250,000 great variety of vegetables are raised, in large horse power is now furnished, mainly by the
quantities. Michigan leads in beans and peas. Saint Mary's, the Au Sable, the Menominee, The estimated output of beans in 1918 was the Saint Joseph, the Muskegon, the Grand. 4,887,000 bushels, valued at $24,435,000. Owosso the Kalamazoo, the Huron and the Thunder is the centre of the bean area. The pea belt inBay. In lumbering days, the Saginaw, the Mus. cludes the northeast and east central parts of kegon and the Menominee were chief among the lower peninsula. The west central part of
Pop. 5,703 Alcona.
F9 4,939 Lake 7,675 Alger
B 6 26,036 Lapeer 39,819 Allegan.
.J 5 10,608 Leelanau. 19,965 Alpena
F 9 47,907 Lena wee 15,692 Antrim
F 6 17,736 Livingston. 9,640 Arenac
G9 4.004 Luce 6.127 Baraga
B 3 9,249 Mackinac. 22,633 Barry
.J 6 32,606 Macomb. 68,238 Bay
26,688 Manistee 10,638 Benzle
F4 46,739 Marquette 53.622 Berrien
21,832 Mason 25,605 Branch
19,466 Mecosta 56,638 Calhoun
K 6 25,648 Menominee. 20,624 Cass
L 4 14.005 Midland 19.157 Charlevoix
E 6 10.606 Missaukee. 17,872 Cheboygan
E 7 32,917 Monroe 24.472 Chippewa
C9 32,069 Montcalm 9,240 Clare
H 7 3.755 Montmorency 23.129 Clinton
J 7 40,577 Muskegon 3.934 Crawford
F 7 19.220 Newaygo 30,108 Delta
C 6 49.576 Oakland.. 20,524 Dickinson
C84 18,379 Oceana 30,499 Eaton
K7 8,907 Ogemaw 18,361 Emmet
E 6 8.650 Ontonagon 64,555 Genesee
I 9 17,889 Osceola 8,413 Gladwin
G8 2,027 Oscoda 23,333 Gogebic
B 2 6,552 Otsego. 23,784 Grand Traverse F 5 45,301 Ottawa 28,820 Gratiot.
I 7 11,249 Presque Isle 29,673 Hillsdale
L 7 2,274 Roscommon 88,098 Houghton
B 3 89,290 Saginaw 34,758 Huron.
H 10 33,930 Sanilac 53,310 Ingham
J8 8,681 Schoolcraft 33.550 lonia
J 6 33,246 Shiawassee 9.753 losco
G9 52,341 St. Clair. 15,164 Iron
.C 3 25,499 St. Joseph 23,029 Isabella
H7 34,913 Tuscola 53.426 Jackson
K 7 33,185 Van Buren. 60,427 Kalamazoo
K 5 44,714 Washtenaw 3.097 Kalkaska
F 6 531.591 Wayne 159.145 Kent..
I 5 20,769 Wexford 7.156 Keweenaw
H 5 I 10 F 5 L 8 .J9 B 7 C8 J11 G4 C 5 H4 H6 D 5 H8 G 6 L 9 I 6 E8 .I 4 H 5 J 10 H4
G8 .B 2 H 6 F 8 F 7 .J4 E 8 .G7
I 8 I 11 .C 6 .J8 J 11 .L 5
I9 K4 .K 9 K 10 G 5
Incorporated Cities and Towns of 5000 and over 474 Addison
L 8 401 Carsonville.... I 11 11.458 Adrian L 8 442 Caseville.
H 10 766 Ahmeek
I 5 473 Alanson. E 7 1,126 Cass City
H 10 5,833 Albion .K7 1,358 Cassopolis
L 5 1,204 Algonac
J 11 947 Cedar Springs I 5 3,419 Allegan
L 5 2,737 Alma
E 6 675 Almont J 10 2,420 Charlevoix
E 6 13,273 Alpena
.J 7 15,010 Ann Arbor K9 6,859 Cheboygan
D 7 155 Applegate I 11 1.764 Chelsea
K8 748 Armada .J 11 1.363 Chesaning
I 8 513 Ashley I 7 1,350 Clare
H 7 631 Athens K 6 345 Clarkston.
.J 10 252 Au Gres.
L8 494 Augusta K 6 308 Clifford.
I 10 648 Au Sable. G 10 425 Climax
K 6 1.559 Bad Axe. H 10 1,011 Clinton
.K9 502 Baldwin H 5 810 Clio.
.I 9 543 Bancroft .J 8 5,945 Coldwater
L 6 1.158 Bangor
H 7 1,071 Baraga
K 4 248 Baroda .L 4 853 Colon
L 6 411 Barryton
369 Columbia ville I 10 29,480 Battle Creek .K 6 543 Concord
.K7 47,942 Bay City H9 1,24+ Constantine
L 5 504 Bear Lake
G4 814 Coopersville. . I 5 418 Beaverton
G 5 4.119 Belding
.J8 1.030 Bellaire F 6 1,380 Croswell
I 11 486 Belleville
55 Croton, Newaygo .H 5 930 Bellevue.
3,775 Crystal Falls. ..04 10,833 Benton Harbor
H4 563 Benzonia, F4 228 Daggett
D 5 880 Berrien Springs
.J8 4,583 Bessemer
I 9 4,519 Big Rapids
K 10 1,607 Birmingham J 10 1,286 Decatur
K 5 1,474 Blissfeld
L 9 628 Deckerville H 11 501 Bloomingdale K 5 443 Deerfield
L9 5,218 Boyne City E 6 721 Detour.
C 10 325 Boyne Falls E 7 571,784 Detroit
K 10 585 Breckenridge
K9 219 Breedsville K4 341 Dimondale.
J7 767 Brighton
.J4 370 Britton L9 5,088 Dowagiac
L 4 1.020 Bronson L 6 371 Dryden
.J 10 K 8 1,070 Dundee
L 9 1 10 2,315 Durand
802 East Lansing .J 7 G6 1,452 East Tawas
G9 .J 5 2,094 Eaton Rapids K 7 A 3 307 Eau Claire
L 4 L 7 1,063 Ecorse
18 292 Emmett.
.J 11 578 Empire
F4 15,485 Escanaba
.C 5 1,477 Essexville.
H9 1,386 Evart
H 6 437 Fairgrove.
I 9 564 Farmington K 10 522 Farwell
.H 7 533 Fennville.
.J4 2,331 Fenton,
.J9 340 Fife Lake
F 6 54,772 Flint..
J9 938 Flushing
I 9 1,689 Ford City, Wayne K 10 234 Forestville H 11 476 Fowler
J 7 905 Fowlerville
.J8 693 Frankenmuth
.I 9 1,555 Frankfort
F4 220 Fraser
J 11 460 Freeport.
.J 6 2,009 Fremont
I 5 330 Fruitport
14 358 Gagetown.
H 10 238 Gaines
.J9 656 Galesburg
K 6 405 Galien
L 3 497 Garden
.C 6 1.538 Gaylord.
.E 7 4.211 Gladstone
.C 5 988 Gladwin
H 7 537 Gobleville.
.K 5 5,856 Grand Haven .I 4 2,893 Grand Ledge. .J 7 128,291 Grand Rapids
.J 5 680 Grandville
.J 5 428 Grant
.I 5 760 Grass Lake
K8 1.775 Grayling
F7 4.045 Greenville
I 6 830 Grosse Point
K 11 862 Grosse Point Farms,
K 10 3,559 Hamtramck. K 10 12,079 Hancock
.A 3 364 Hanover.
K 7 1,556 Harbor Beach .H 11 1,805 Harbor Springs E 6 336 Harriette
.G5 543 Harrison
G7 444 Harrisville
F 10 1.555 Hart
H4 1,268 Hartford
K4 4,383 Hastings
J 6 310 Hersey
H6 462 Hesperia.
H4 4,120 Highland Park.. . K 10 411 Hillman
E 8 5,001 Hillsdale
.L7 225 Hilltop, Berrien L 4 12,185 Holland
.J4 1.537 Holly
.J9 1,008 Homer
K 7 5,113 Houghton.
.A 3 1,046 Howard City I 6 2,338 Howell
J9 450 Hubbardston .I 7 1,059 Hubbell.
A 3 2,178 Hudson
. L8 1,174 Imlay City. I 10 5,030 Ionia
.J 6 9,216 Iron Mountain ....04 2,450 Iron River
C3 14,779 Ironwood
B 1 12,448 Ishpeming
B4 1,876 Itnaca
I 7 35,363 Jackson
K8 1,396 Jonesville
.L7 48,886 Kalamazoo
K 5 1.415 Kalkaska
F 6 467 Kent City
.I 5 360 Kinde
H 10 497 Kingsley
.F 5 302 Kingston
I 10 703 Laingsburg .J 8 171 Lake Ann
F 5 740 Lake City
G6 2,325 Lake Linden
A 3 1,222 Lake Odessa
J6 954 Lakeview..
I 6 708 L'Anse B
3 40,498 Lansing
J 7 3,946 Lapeer
I 10 10,356 Laurium
A 3 663 Lawrence
K 4 1,042 Lawton..
.K 5 313 Leonard.
.J 10 331 Le Roy
G 5 1,032 Leslie
.K8 519 Lexington I 11 122 Lincoln
.F 9 550 Linden
.J9 96 Lisbon, Kent .I 5 660 Litchfield
K7 1,761 Lowell
.J 6 10,367 Ludington
H4 626 Luther
G 5 611 Lyons.
..J 7 546 McBain
.G6 236 McBrides
.16 714 Mackinac Island ..D 7
D7 1,200 Mancelona
F 6 1,047 Manchester
K8 12,381 Manistee
..G4 4,722 Manistique ..06 1,069 Manton
G6 529 Maple Rapids .I 7 1,047 Marcellus
K 5 3,770 Marine City .J 11 767 Marion
..G6 57 Marlborough,Lake H 5 1,062 Marlette.
I 10 12,409 Marquette
B 5 4,236 Marshall
K 7 1.742 Mason
..J8 310 Maybee
.L9 687 Mayville
I 10 352 Mecosta
H 6 242 Melvin.
I 11 557 Memphis
.J 11 768 Mendon.
.L 6 10.507 Menominee
.D 5 505 Merrill
.18 510 Mesick.
G5 276 Metamora
J 10 804 Middleville
.J 6 2,527 Midland
H8 100 Mikado.
F9 1,355 Milan
K9 973 Milford
.J9 519 Millersburg. .E8 623 Millingtop
.19 332 Minden City H 11 6,893 Monroe
L 10 942 Montague
14 362 Montgomery L 7
443 Montrose 1,515 Morenci.
.L8 337 Morley
I 6 470 Morrice
J 8 7,707 Mt. Clemens .J 11 513 Mt. Morris
I 9 3,972 Mt. Pleasant H7 463 Muir.
.J 7 312 Mulliken
J 7 2.952 Munising.
.B 6 26,100 Muskegon
I 4 1,690 Muskegon Heights,
Muskegon. I 4 1,346 Nashville
J 6 9,416 Negaunee
B 5 1.207 Newaygo
I 5 920 New Baltimore. .J 11 1,182 Newberry.
B 8 528 New Buffalo. .L 3
478 New Haven J 11 5,156 Nlles
.L4 440 North Adams. L8 717 North Branch .I 10 352 North Muskegon ..14 524 Northport.
.E 5 1,665 Northville
K 10 4,974 Norway
C4 237 Oakley
I 8 781 Oakwood, Wayne K 10 627 Olivet
K7 367 Omer
G 9 2,702 Onaway
E8 324 Onekama
G4 398 Onsted
L 8 1,964 Ontonagon
B 2 717 Orion
.J 10 377 Ortonville
.J9 864 Oscoda
G 10 312 Otisville
I 9 2,812 Otsego
K 5 273 Otter Lake
19 1,078 Ovid
.J 8 285 Owendale.
H 10 10,230 Owosso
.J8 1,191 Oxford
.J 10 509 Parma
.K 7 1,643 Paw Paw
K 5 274 Peck
I 11 1,089 Pellston
D 7 1,129 Pentwater
H4 288 Perrinton.
.17 720 Perry
.J 8 490 Petersburg
L 9 4,778 Petoskey
E7 289 Pewamo.
.J 7 183 Pierson.
I 5 687 Pigeon
H 10 477 Pinckney
K9 677 Pinconning
H8 1,493 Plainwell
K 5 1,671 Plymouth
K 10 17,524 Pontiac
.J 10 533 Port Austin G 10
344 Port Hope. H 11 18,863 Port Huron .J 11 1,832 Portland
.J 7 216 Port Sanllac, Sanilac
I 11 263 Posen
E 9 430 Potterville.
.J 7 1,347 Quincy
L 7 1,102 Reading
L 7 328 Redford
K 10 4,211 Red Jacket,
Houghton .B 3 1,690 Reed City
H 5 465 Reese
.19 278 Richland
690 Brown City
422 Caledonia 20,000 Calumet
Statute Miles, 44=1 Inch.
57 P Cordell
Strait of Mack
Hatlar Strait of Mackinac
SA BOIS BLANC I.
Rand McNally's New 11 x 14 Map of Michigan.
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