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them,—the quantity of land being vast, and the country; but the wealth of this part of the continent quality unsurpassable. These lands are, indeed, of consists of live stock: besides large herds of cattle, immense extent, comprising not only the delta of sheep, horses, mules, goats, and swine abound. the principal rivers of C., but extending at intervals The mutton is of fine flavour; but the wool is infein tracts of various areas, far up towards their rior, as no attention is paid to this kind of stock. sources. They are periodically submerged during The buffalo, panther or American tiger, deer, and the rainy season; and as the head-waters of the San several other species of quadrupeds, are common. Joaquin communicate at that season with the tulé The beaver abounds in many of the streams, partilakes, transportation from above may be easily ef- cularly on the upper tributaries of the Colorado; but fected. Emigrants from Asia will, before many they are less numerous than formerly. The rabbit years, find it for their interest to settle upon these is reported as the only animal to be found in the fertile tracts of rice-bearing lands; or some of our Great Basin. The big-horn, or mountain-sheep, own people may find their account in investing and the grizzly bear, both inbabit the Sierra Nevada largely in rich plantations, which they can cultivate as well as the Rocky mountains. The latter is probato great advantage by hiring coolies and other la- bly the northernmost range of this species of bear. bourers at low wages. Europe pours her thousands In its descent to the level country, the bear is upon our Atlantic sea-board, and Asia will yet fur- sometimes met with in the vicinity of the towns on nish her share of inhabitants for populating our pos- the coast, terrifying the inhabitants, and occasionally sessions on the Pacific. The industrions and imita- carrying off a sheep, a calf, or an ox. Capt. Fretive Chinese will not make a bad cross with our mont encountered, in his late journey through the restless and inventive Yankees."

valley of the San Joaquin, large droves of elk and The wheat of C. is of excellent quality; and, ex- wild horses, also wolves and antelopes.—The birds cept in years when drought prevails, the product is of C. are generally similar to those of the United very abundant. Indian corn yields well, also pota- States. One of the most remarkable of the land toes, beans, pease, &c. There are several kinds of birds is the great Californian vulture. It builds its wheat grown in C. not known in other parts of the nest in the loftiest pine-trees among the mountains. United States. The most common is the Taos It is from 4 to 41 ft. long; and its quills are so large wheat, which grows about 3 or 4 ft. high, and has on as to be used by the hunters as tubes for tobacco each stalk seven ears, which are abont as large in pipes. The food of this species is carrion or dead size as those of Europe. The crop generally amounts fish, for in no instance will they attack any living to 40 fold, but sometimes to 60 and even 70 fold. animal unless it be wounded or unable to walk. In The wheat is sown between November and March; searching for prey, they soar to a great height, and and in May or June the crop can be gathered. In- on discovering a wounded deer or other animal they stead of Indian corn or maize, a smaller sort is cul- follow its track until it sinks. Although only one tivated, called Spanish corn. Both climate and soil bird may be first in possession, it is soon surrounded are alike favourable for the cultivation of tobacco, by great numbers, who all fall upon the carcase, and cotton, and rice. The oats in appearance resemble speedily reduce it to a skeleton. ours, but differ in the grain, and grow higher, with Commerce.] There could be little commerce, Mr. a thicker stalk, which, however, may be attributed Macgregor remarks, in a country in which the goperhaps to the fertility of the soil and to the cli- vernor had unlimited authority, and business could mate rather than to a difference in the species. only be transacted by first seeking him, and bribing Bryant says that oats and mustard grow spontane- both him and the subordinate functionaries. The duties ously, and with such rankness as to be considered levied under both Spanish and Mexican regime were nuisances upon the soil. “I have forced my way,” | enormous, often amounting to 80 per cent. ad valo

throngh thousands of acres of these, rem. Then there were heavy municipal dues and higher than my head when mounted on a horse!” church-rates, which swallowed up the substance of The clover-of which there are several species—and the settlers. Yet this costly government afforded all the grasses are heavily seeded; and the seed, them no protection either of life or property. The when ripe, is as fattening to stock as grain. The principal imports were cottons, velvets, silks, branclover is generally found in the valleys, in height dies, wines, tea, &c.; and the exports hides, tallow, from 2 to 3 ft., and even as much as ó ft. Both skins, wheat, and salmon. The chief article of wealth green and when dried it constitutes excellent fod- of the inhabitants was cattle, for the rearing of which der for cattle. The wild flax is exactly the same the country affords uncommon facilities; but the as that found in the United States. The Indians whole amount of external trade was trifling in the use it for their nets and for ropes. The soil is extreme. Both Spain and Mexico regarded this diswell adapted for grapes; from 3,000 to 4,000 gal tant province as a kind of Botany bay, to which they lons of wine are made, and about the same amount transported such malefactors and suspected politiof brandy. The Sierra Nevada is remarkable for cians as they did not wish to put to death, but to a new species of pine, which has been called the keep harmless. This country, notwithstanding its nat-pine; it produces an oily and pleasant - tasted splendid coast and inexhaustible richness of timber, nut, which forms an important part of the winter did not even possess a ship; and it was only in 1831 store of the almost famished inhabitants of these that the second ship was built at San Pedro, by an regions. The Quercus longiglanda—a new species, American! All the harbours of the W coast togebelonging to the division of white oaks—is distin-ther had only 22 ships up to 1846. Nay, in the guished by the length of its acorn, which is com- whole of C. there did not exist one house built of monly an inch and a half, and sometimes two inches. stone before the Americans came there; they used This tree attains frequently a diameter of 6 ft., and dried loam stones, which the Indians made, and were a height of 80 ft., with a wide-spreading head. The astonished at the wooden palace which an American many varieties of deciduous and evergreen oaks, adventurer in San Juan had built. The Mexican which predominate throughout the valleys and lower authorities were quite as suspicious of strangers as the hills of the mountains, afford large quantities of Spaniards had been before them; and only allowed acorns, which constitute the principal food of the foreign commerce to be established at Monterey and Indians of that region. Their great abundance, in San Diego. But the natural richness of the country, the midst of fine pasture-lands, must make an im- and its inviting position, had, during the last twenty portant element in the agricultural economy of the years, gradually attracted a number of foreigners. First

he says,

came the whalers, who form in the South seas a kind ,ence in grains to the NW, to Mexico, to Central Amerof pioneers, and who navigate the whole world; after ica, to Ecuador, to Peru, and the N coast of Asia. them came the Boston traders and supercargoes, to barter American goods for skins and tallow; after the Atlantic and Pacific oceans--the length of which would ex

Great railrocul.] A vast scheme for a railroad route between them the officers of the Hudson's Bay company, ceed 2,000 m.-is now occupying public attention in America. whose governor, Sir George Simpson, visited č. Three routes for this great line have been proposed; one from twice, and who instituted agents there to provide the Charleston in s Carolina, by Memphis, on the E bank of the

Mississippi, 750 m. above New Orleans, and thence to Monterey northern stations of the company with corn and cat- or San Francisco; another by St. Louis; and a third more to the tle; at the same time an influx of the Americans N, by Mr. Whitnoy. Mr. Whitney proposes that the route made their appearance, and obtained grants of land should comnfence at Lake Michigan, to which point there is alfrom the Mexican government in 1831, and made thenice proceed to C. For its construction he asks no capital, but settlements for their countrymen. More recently, a that Congress should grant 30 m. of land on each side of the stream of emigration took place from Oregon; and line at 10 cents per acre, which land is at present for the most Captain Satter, who founded New Helvetia on the part worth nothing, and could only be brought into value by the

opening of the road. Possessed of this grant, the projector Sacramento river, near the bay of San Francisco, would require sufficient to be sold to construct a section of io m., may be considered the patriarch of regenerated C. and as the land at the commencement of the route would lie in As in former days the Jesuits did not hesitate to

settled districts, and would therefore, unlike the rest, fetch im

mediately a good price, he would not only have no difficulty in adopt in their South American missions the practical finishing this section, but would have a considerable surplus of institutions of the Peruvian Incas, so Captain Sutter property on each side of it for future contingencies. The conhas followed up the same work. He has made the struction of the first 10 m. being completed by the sale and set

tlement of the lands through which they run, the next 10 m., Indians in his neighbourhood industrious and tract

instead of starting from an unimproved and unpeopled spot, able, without finding it necessary to employ the whip, would then pass through a district rendered valuable by the or other methods of punishment which the Francis- population which had advanced towards it; and in this way bit cans made use of; and he has proved that, with lit- by bit the work would be steadily completed. For 800 m. the tle means, but with circumspection and persever- scription for settlement, more than 500 m. being without timber : ance, extraordinary results may be obtained. Al- and so far from the proposed grant of 30 m. on each side being ready a lively intercourse exists between New Hel likely to interfere unfavourably with the revenue from the public vetia and the Sandwich islands, which Captain Sutter lands, there can be little doubt the tide of settlement it would athas established with his own ships. This enterpris- granted districts to a degree far beyond what the whole wouli ing gentleman emigrated from Missouri to c. in have produced but for the existence of the road. For seven 1838-1839. On his first settlement he had some

years—that is to say, ever since the settlement of Oregon-the

projector has laboured at this scheme, apparently with increastrouble with the Indians; but by the occasional ex- ing confidence in its perfect feasibility, although with little enercise of well-timed authority, he converted them couragement, until the discoveries in C. brought the public to into a peaceable and industrious people. On appli- the shape of local jealousies, several states of the union being cation to the chief of a village, he obtained as many ready to oppose the general plan in order to support any other boys and girls as he could employ; and there was at route that would run through their own lands. The committee that time a number in training for a woollen factory. in Congress to whom it was referred have declared it to be as He bought up the stock of a Russian establishment, in the

way of its successful accomplishment. It has also received the owners of which wished to leave the country, the approval of 19 different states. Mr. Whitney calculates that consisting of a large number of cattle, artillery, &c., the whole line might be completed in 15 years. The greatest and made payment for them annually in grain.

impediment to the construction of a railroad from the Mississippi

overland to the Pacific lies in the nature of the country over The imports and exports of C., M. de Mofras gives which the road must be carried. In the case of the selection of as follows:

any route N of Mexico, a space of from 1,200 to 1,500 m, must be Iinports. Exports.

traversed, consisting of plains, mountains, and deserts, without Mexican flag,

50,000 65,000

timber, population, materials, or supplies, and thought to be desUnited States flag,

70,000 150,000

titute of anything that would contribute to the support of English flag,

the road on this side of the Pacific. But it appears there is no

20,000 45,000 Miscellaneous flag,

10,000 20,000

longer any doubt of the existence of inexhaustible supplies of

cannel coal near the sources of the Nebraska or Platte river, Total, 150,000 280,000

which is the route of the overland emigrants to C., via the South

pass, the Salt lake, and the Great basin. The want of timber in The articles exported in 1841 were hides, 210,000 the great plains, were there no substitute for fuel, would render dols.; tallow, 55,000 dols.; peltries, wood, &c., 15,000 cold and the snows deep; but these mines will supply the fuel dols.; total, 280,000 dols. The business done under required. They will also supply an article of trade with the the Mexican flag was not in Mexican vessels, but in Mississippi river, and thus contribute

, it is urged, to colonise the those belonging to citizens of other countries doing plains, and to the sale of the public lands along the route to setbusiness in Mexico. In 1841, of 11 vessels that for the workmen employed. It is known, also, that iron is found reached C. under the Mexican flag, only a boat of from the frontiers of Missouri to the Rocky mountains; if this 86 tons, in the service of government, was Mexican. coal, therefore, can be rendered available, the means are on the The amount of custom-duties raised at Monterey, derful capacities of the valley of the Salt lake, the reports would

ground for the manufacture of the rails required. Of the wonfrom 1839 to 1842, was as follows:

be incredible, if they were not all consistent. This valley is the 1839, 83,613 dollars. 1841, 101,150 dollars.

half-way station on the great central route, and its fertility ob1840, 72,308

1
1842, 73,729

viates all fears on the score of provisions for the workmen. Four

years ago this district had not a single settler : it is now in the Upper C. presents the greatest facilities for raising hands of the Mormons, who are crowding to it from all quarters cattle, cultivating corn, and the grape. But its of the United States; and in a few years more, if the settlers commercial resources are at present founded entirely progress at the same rate as now, they will be able to raise food

and cattle for the subsistence of 100,000 persons. With the road on its metallic wealth; and its fertile soil will remain finished to the Salt lake, another important article will come into neglected as long as labour can be more profitably market-that of salt, which is contained in the heavy brine of employed in collecting gold than in its application the great lake to an immense extent. It exists in a crystalline to agriculture or the mechanical and manufacturing salt for 100 m along its shores. Rock-salt exists in the surarts. For details as to the commerce of this region, rounding mountains, as do also copper and gold. The climate the reader is referred to the articles San FRANCISCO, about the lake is described as extremely salubrious, and mediciand MONTEREY. The value of the trade between the riety. Such are some of the intermediate advantages of the unstates to the E of the Rocky mountains and C. was es- dertaking, as set forth by those favourable to the construction of timated in 1849 at 25,000,000 dollars. When the agri- the Pacific railroad by way of the Platte river, the South pass. cultural resources of C. shall have been developed, it and the Salt lake valley, through the infant Mormon state of will probably furnish the greatest part of their subsist- | Union, in pursuance of a petition already before

Congress, will

have its capital 2,500 m. from the seat of federal government, or but exclusive of the wandering tribes, had doubled five-sixths of the distance from Liverpool to New York.

By the construction of a line by any of the routes proposed, itself in twelve years. In 1790, it was returned at Lieutenant Maury asserts the United States would be placed in 7,748; and in 1802, had increased to 15,630. Since a position to command the trade of the entire East."

Hitherto,” | the foundation of the missions, there had been in all, he says, “in all parts of the world, except Europe and the West according to the parish-registers, 33,717 baptisms, met on barely equal terms." To reach home from India, China, 8,009 marriages, and 16,984 deaths. These registers, New Holland, the islands of the Pacific, or the ports of South however, Humboldt observes, must not be assumed America, an American and British ship had both to pursue the as data from which to deduce the proportion of births same route, although the course of one was terminated at Liver: and deaths, as in the number of baptisms the adult that Oregon and c. are Americanized, all of these ports are Indians were confounded with the children. The nearer; and the chief among them, as Bombay, Calcutta, Singa- total number of Whites, Mestizoes, and Mulattoes, pore, the ports of China, Japan, New Holland, Australia, Poly- might be estimated in 1802 at 1,300. The smallness nesia, and the islands of the East, many thousand miles nearer of this number, so disproportionate to the fertility and to the United States than they are to England."

Routes.] The routes to C. from Europe are three: first through extent of the country, was doubtless owing entirely the United States ; second, across the isthmuses ; third, around to the absurd regulations by which the Spanish preCape Horn. The first way is through Boston, New York, or Phila- sidios were governed, and to the principles of coloby the Platte and Fort Laramie, and across the south pass of the nization obstinately followed by Spain, which were Rocky mountains, to the Sacramento. This overland journey is in general directly opposite to the true interests both of three months in a country without accommodation, beset with of the mother country and colonies. " It is truly go together in parties, carrying their goods in waggons, or on distressing,” says the Spanish navigator Galiano, the backs of mules and horses. The route occupies about 4 catching a glimpse of the better spirit of the 19th months. Travellers from England may go to New Orleans and cent., " that the military, who pass a painful and laboway by the Rio Bravo del Norte into New Mexico and then rious life, cannot in their old age settle in the counIndia mail-steamers to Porto Bello, or Chagres, on the isthmus hibition of building houses in the neighbourhood of across the Rocky mountains. - The second way is by the West try, and employ themselves in agriculture. The proof Darien, in New Granada, and so by an overland journey of 50 the presidio is contrary to all the dictates of sound Chagres and Panama has been repaired by the local authorities policy. If the whites were permitted to employ by means of a loan from the Royal Mail steam navigation com- themselves in the cultivation of the soil, and the pany

At Panama the Pacific steam navigation company's rearing of cattle, and if the military, by establishing American mail-steamer running to San Francisco. Passengers their wives and children in cottages, could prepare can therefore go on by this steamer, or by sailing-vessel, to C. an asylum against the indigence to which they are This is reckoned a three months' journey, and is a very expen- too frequently exposed in their old age, New C. sive one. Very little luggage can be carried. If the line of would soon become a flourishing colony, and a resttransit were made across the isthmus at a point further N, near Tehuantepec, nearly 3,000 m. would be saved on the route from ing-place of the greatest utility for the Spanish navithe United States — The third way is by ship throughout gators, who trade between Pera, Mexico, and the from England to C., round Cape Horn, and along the whole sea- Philippine islands.” The Spanish governor of C. remonths” voyage. The English have a settlement in the Falkland sided at Monterey, with a salary of 4,000 piastres. islands near Cape Horn, which is likely to benefit by the in- His authority was confined entirely to the garrisons creased trade to the Pacific. Passengers by sea may get round and the independent Indians; for he was not allowed Cape Horn most readily by taking a berth for Valparaiso in Chili, for which many ships go out, bringing back copper-ore,

to interfere with the affairs of the different missions, guano, hides, and tallow, while ships for C. must be chartered but was only obliged to grant assistance when they purposely. From Valparaiso passengers may get on either by claimed it. His real subjects consisted of about 400 coasting-vessels trading with C., or by the Pacific steam naviga- military, distributed in the different presidios, which tion company's steamers to Panama, and thence by the Ameri

were all the means he possessed, or indeed appears can government steamers to C.

Distances. The following are the comparative distances to to have required, for keeping in subjection the wanEngland and C. from various places in the Eastern and Southern dering Indians, so long as the authority of the mis

sionaries was unshaken. The Spanish races, which To ports of

England. California. previous to the American occupation held the counFrom Persian gull,

11,300 m. 10,400 m. try, were few in numbers and in a declining condiBombay,

11,500

9,800 tion. Accurate returns of the pop. of C. have never Calcutta,

12,200 9,300 Singapore,

12,800

been made; but it would seem that the pop. had Canton,

13,700

6,100 for many years been decreasing. Perhaps it amount. Shanghai,

14,400

5,400 ed in all to 6,000 or 7,000, of whom four-fifths were Jeddo (Japan),

15,200 New Guinea,

Mestizoes, nearly one-fifth Indians, and the remain

14,000 NW point of New Holland, 11,800

7,800

ing fraction Europeans. The Mexicans all lived in NE ditto,

13,500

towns or villages for mutual protection. "The scale New Zealand,

13,500 5,600 had been turned. The Spaniard was no longer the DISTANCES FROY SANDY HOOK, NEW YORK, TO SAN FRANCISCO. aggressor. Times had changed with him since the Sandy Hook to Charleston bar,

fierce adventurers of the peninsula lorded it with a Savannah,

tyrant's hand over the helpless savages of the wilHavana,

1,260 Balize,

1,771

derness; and the descendants of the red-men had From Havana to Chagres,

1,048 begun to pay back in blood the debt long owing to New York to Chagres,

2,308

the relentless persecutors of their race. But the InChagres to Panama, Panama to Rio Realjo,

dians, more politic than the Middle age Spaniards, Panama to Acapulco,

1,500 did not attempt to exterminate their foes: they preto Mazlatan,

2,000 served them to rear cattle and cultivate the soil. to San Diego,

3,000 to San Francisco,

When the harvest was gathered in, and the kine

3,500 New York to San Francisco via Cape Horn, 17,000

fatted, they would come in a body to carry off the The time of the voyage is as follows:

one and drive away the other: using the conqueror's From New York to Chagres,

12 to 15 days. right, and appealing to the law, which the Spaniards From Chagres to Panama,

had taught them the validity of, in their defence. From Panama to San Francisco, From New York to San Francisco (round the capes), 130

The government of Mexico has never been able to

prevent these civil and internecine disorders." Population.] According to M. Humboldt, the pop. M. de Mofras, whose account of C. was published of New C., including the Indians attached to the soil, | under the immediate direction of the French minis.

seas:

To

7,400

4,500
6,000

6.900

614 miles.
680

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50 700

Do.
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2 20

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360
300

90

ter, Marshal Sonlt, in 1842, estimated the area of some pearls; but this friendly intercourse did not long continue, Upper C. at 500,000, sq. m., and the pop., exclusive and Viscaino determined to abandon the conquest without leavof Indians, scattered over this extent, at 5,000.

ing any settlers in the country, and returned to New Spain at the He

end of the same year. About six years after, Viscaino was again classifies this pop. as follows:

appointed to explore the NW coast of California, in order, if pos

sible, to discover some convenient harbour that might afford an Californians descended from Spain,

4,000

asylum to the galleons on their return from Manilla. In this exAmericans from United States,

pedition-which was attended with much danger and distressEnglish, Seotch, and Irish,

he fell in with a very commodious and spacious harbour in 32° N European Spaniards, .

80

lat., which he called San Diego; and also another in 36° 40', French and Canadians,

80

which he named Monterey, and which afterwards became the Germans, Italians, Portuguese, and Sandwich is

principal settlement of the Spaniards in this country. Viscaino landers,

90

describes the country as covered with trees, the climate mild, the Mexicans,

soil fruitful and well-peopled, and the natives kind and tractable.

From this period C. was frequently visited by private adventurTotal,

5,000

ers, for the sake of the pearls found upon its coast, and which Among the English and Americans, he states, are

they either fished, or purchased from the Indians. In 1697, the

Jesuits requested permission to undertake the conversion of the many runaway seamen, but most of them are emi- Indians. Father Salva Tierra entered upon this enterprise with grants from the W. The location of this pop. he only six soldiers and three Indians; and having landed in the gives as follows:

bay of San Dionysio, on the 19th of October, founded the presidio

of Loretto, the principal place of all the missions of Old C. They San Diego,

1,800 were at first received with great joy and affection by the Indians Santa Barbara,

800 of the neighbouring rancherias, to whom they distributed a daily Monteres,

1,000 allowance of poroli, or boiled maize, in order to induce them to San Francisco,

800

attend to the religious exercises and instructions of the holy faScattered

1,100 ther. But what was given as a favour was soon claimed as a

right; and the Californians broke out into complaints, which in a Total,

5,000 short time ended in open hostilities. But by the determined cour

age and perseverance of the missionaries, they were reduced to Bryant, a later observer, estimated the permanent submission, and the maize was served out as formerly. The inpop. of that part of Upper C. between the Sierra Ne- constancy and ingratitude of this people, however, was such, that

it was found impossible to bind them, either by promises or affecFada and the Pacific at 25,000 in 1846-7, viz. :

tion; and it was not without much difficulty, and after submitHispano-Americans,

8,000

ting to many hardships and deprivations, that a prospect appeared Foreigners,

5,000 of rendering this colony a permanent establishment. Their zeal, Christianized Indians,

12,000

however, at last surmounted every opposition, and in a few years

several missions were founded throughout the peninsula. Total,

25,000

But while the Spaniards, for nearly a century and a half, were

wasting their strength and treasure in attempting to convert The uncivilized Indians scattered over the valleys and civilize a barren and ungrateful country, it is a matter of surof the Sacramento and San Joaquin, and in the prise that New C., whose shores had been carefully examined by

Viscaino, and were represented by him as both populous and fergorges of the Sierra Nevada, were not included in tile, should have been so long neglected. This fine country, which this estimate; and the Indian pop. inhabiting the re- would have most amply repaid all their exertions, if properly cogion of the Great Salt lake, the oases of the Great lonized, was not occupied by the Spaniards until

167 years after

its first discovery; and it was not until the court of Spain became Basin, and along the Rio Colorado and Gila, and the alarmed at the progress of discovery made by other maritime affluents of these rivers, must form a considerable ag- powers on the NW coast of America, that orders were given to the gregate number.

Chevalier de Croix, the viceroy, and the Visitador Galvez, to Under the vigorous Anglo-American rule now

found missions and presidios in the ports of San Diego and Mon

terey. The expedition by sea anchored at San Diego in April established in this country, aided by the prodigious 1769; but owing to the scarcity of provisions, their fatigues, the and immediate impulse given to the stream of emi- want of shelter, and an epidemical disease, the consequence of gration towards C. by the discovery of its golden the bad quality of their food, the colony was reduced to great dis

tress. Most of them fell sick, and only eight individuals remaintreasures, this pop. is hourly increasing. The num

ed on their feet, when the land expedition, which had come ber of inhabitants in the country on the 1st of Janu- through Old C., arrived with assistance. But it was not till after ary, 1848, was probably about 15,000, exclusive of a whole year of researches and labour, that they succeeded in Indians of this number 9,000 were Californians, clearly pointed out its situation and latitude. The first mission

finding again the harbour of Monterey, although Viscaino had 5,000 Americans, 1,000 foreigners of many nations. was established at this place, in 1770, by the Franciscans. The The immigration of American citizens in 1849 was missions of New C., with their pop. in 1802, and time of estabestimated at 80,000; of people of other nations, at lishment

, are shown in the following table: 20,000. The pop. would therefore amount to about

Missions.

Founded in Pop.

the year 115,000, exclusive of Indians, on 1st January 1850;

San Diego,

1769 1,560 and this pop. will probably be doubled in the course San Carmelo, or San Carlos de Montercy, 1770 700 of the year. It is impossible to form anything like San Gabriel,

1771 1,050 an accurate estimate of the number of Indians in the

1771 San Antonio de Padua,

1,050 San Luis Obispo,

1772 700 territory. Some estimate their number at 300,000. San Juan Capistrano,

1776 1,000 History.) We have already observed that C. was first discov- Santa Clara,

1777 1,300 ered in 1534, by Hernando de Grixalva, in a voyage undertaken

San Francisco,

1779 820 by the order and at the expense of the famous Hernan Cortez,

Santa Buonaventura,

1782 950 who hail fitted out several small squadrons for the purpose of

Santa Barbara,

1786 1,100 prosecuting his discoveries in the South sea. Discontented with

La Purissima Conception,

1787 1,000 the tediousness and unsuccessfulness of these discoveries, Cortez,

Na Santa de la Soledad,

1791 570 in 1536, ernbarked in person with 400 Spaniards and 300 Negro

Santa Cruz,

1794

440 saves, and landed on the E coast of California, in the bay of

San Miguel,

1797 600 Santa Cruz, now called the Port de la Paz. Having coasted

San José,

1797 630 both sides of the golf with great difficulty and danger, he return

San Juan Baptista,

1797 960 ed to Santa Cruz, after losing many of his companions who died

San Fernando,

1797 600 of famine and fatigue. Urgent affairs, however, demanding his

San Luis Reg de Francia,

1798 600 presence in Mexico, he committed the command of the squadron

San Rafael,

1817 to Francisco de Ulloa, who, in the course of two years, explored

San Francisco Solano,

1822 the coasts of the gulf of California-then known by the name of

Santa Ines,

1822 the Sea of Cortez-lo near the mouth of the Rio Colorado. But When the Jesuits--who had carried hither the policy and sygthe first European settlement which was attempted on this pen. insola was by order of Philip II. of Spain, in 1596. That monarch

tem of Paraguay--were suppressed, the Dominicans and Fran

ciscans succeeded to their charge; but they wanted the necessary appointed Sebastian Viscaino to the command of an expedition knowledge or tact to work the system of their predecessors. The fitted oat for the purpose, which landed in the Bay de la Paz, missions declined in wealth and authority. The government, and, finding the Indians of a peaceable and friendly disposi- too, interfered in their management, and levied taxes upon the tion, established a garrison within a palisade, and erected a small produce. Finally, the rarages of the small-pox completed their church and soine Kuts with branches of trees, as the capital of destruction: it swept off more than half of the aborigines, and their conquest. The natives brought them fruit, fish, and also the rest returned to the woods, whence they have kept up a se

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ries of inroads and depredations to the present hour. To all by the Rio Colorado, and partly perhaps by the vermilioti or strangers, except those of the Spanish race, the Indians are gen- purple tinge which occasionally overspreads it at sunrise and erally well-disposed. Their connexion with the now dilapidated

Fish of all species are plentiful in the gulf. The spermissions has, in part, civilized them. Their knowledge of the maceti whale haunts its mouth; and seals, turtles, and tortoises country and the usages of their late masters, enabled them to act abound in it. Its marshy coasts are infested with caymans, nop against them with effect; and had it not been for the presence of tiles, and insects; and sharks and mantayaras - a species of the English and Americans, they would have either driven the gigantic ray fish-form the dread of the divers employed in its Spaniards entirely out of the country, or rigorously confined them pearl-oyster banks. Navigation seldom extends to the N portion to their villages.

or head of the gulf; and in the month of September it is entirely About twenty years ago, the attention of the English, who interrupted by the cordonazos, or hurricanes, which blow at this came to C. for trade, was drawn to its state, and many English season with great violence. seamen and Americo-English trappers or fur-hunters determined to profit by the opportunity which offered of making themselves CALIGURRY, a town and fort of Hindostan, masters of the country. In October, 1836, a revolution was got in the Carnatic, 20 m. NW of Nellore. up by some of the C. officials, supported by 30 trappers and 60

CALIMA, a town of New Grenada, in the dep. of rancheros or mounted farmers, headed by Isaac Graham, a New Englander. On the 2d Nov., Graham took the fortifications and Cauca, on the r. bank of a river of the same name, town of Monterey; and on the 4th the Mexican governor gave 15 m. ESE of its junction with the San Juan, and 60 up his authority to him; and C. was declared independent; but

m. SSW of Novita. Near the mouth of the S. Juan the attempt to make it a part of the United States was frustrated by some of the foreign merchants. The property of the missions

is a hill of the same name surmounted by a fort. was distributed among the revolutionists; but in 1840, dissen- CALIMERA, a town of Naples, in the prov. and sions broke out between Alvarado and Graham, and in April of 12 m. NW of Otranto, district and 11 m. SE of that year the latter determined on again upsetting

the govern- Lecce, and on the road from that town to Otranto. and 21 New Englanders. He was, however, betrayed, attacked Pop. 1,300. A fair is held here once a-year. The at night, and his force made prisoners. Alvarado shipped them environs afford good wine. off to Mexico; but the governments of England and the United CALIMERE, or CALYMERE POint, a promontory States got their release, and a large sum was awarded to compensate them for their imprisonment and the confiscation of their of Hindostan, on the SE coast of the Carnatic, in the property. In 1841. Alvarado obtained from Mexico a supply of district of Tinnevelly, in N lat. 10° 17}', E long. 300 convicts as a military aid. In 1842, on a rumour of war be- | 79° 56'. It is low and covered with cocoa-nut trees; tween the United States and Mexico, Commodore Catesby Jones and unapproachable with safety under o or 6 fath. took possession of Monterey, but subsequently gave it up. When, however, the late war broke out, in 1846, the United States, or CALINGAPATAM, a town and small seaport of rather a party of American adventurers, aided by the presence Hindostan, in the Northern Circars, 16 m. ENE of of an American vessel of war off Monterey, got possession of Cicacole, near the mouth of the

Peddair river, which that town, and raised the standard of independence in C. By treaty between the United States and the Mexican re

at its entrance into the gulf of Bengal, is about 1 m. public, the ratification of which was exchanged at Queretaro, in width, but much obstructed by sand-banks. In on the 30th of May, 1848, New Mexico and Upper C. were ceded | 1820 it consisted of about 30 dwellings; and posto the United States, and now constitute a part of that country sessed mud-docks for building small coasting-vessels. This acquisition was noticed in the American president's message in the following terms: "Embracing nearly 10 degrees of CALISS, a town of Mecklenburg, near the l. bank latitude, lying, adjacent to the Oregon territory, and extending of the Elde, 4 m. NE of its junction with the Elbe, from the Pacific ocean to the Rio Grande, a mean distance of and 32 m. S of Schwerin. nearly 1,000 m., it would be difficult to estimate the value of those possessions to the United States. They constitute of them

CALITRI, a town of Naples, in the prov. of selves a country large enough for a great empire; and their ac- Principato Ultra, district and 15 m. E of San-Anquisition is second only in importance to that of Lonisiana in gelo-de-Lombardi, on a hill bathed on the S by the of great salubrity, they embrace the most important ports on the Ofanto. Pop. 5,219. It contains a handsome parish whole Pacific coast of the continent of North America. The church, and a convent. A fair is held once a-year. possession of the ports of San Diego, Monterey, and the bay of Sheep and cattle are reared in great numbers in the already valuable and rapidly increasing commerce of the Pacific surrounding district, and form an important branch The number of our whaleships alone, now employed in that sea,

of the local commerce. exceeds 700, requiring more than 20,000 seamen to navigate CALIX, or Calig, a town of Spain, in the prov. them: while the capital invested in this particular branch of and 40 m. N of Castellon de la Plana, and 11 m. N commerce is estimated at not less than 40,000,000 of dollars. The excellent harbours of Upper C. will, under our flag, afford

of Pensacola, on a small river. Pop. 3,000. security and repose to our commercial marine; and American CALIZZANO, a town of Piedmont, in the prov. mechanics will soon furnish ready means of ship-building and and 42 m. WSW of Genoa, 15 m. N of Albenga, on repair, which are now so much wanted in that distant sea By

the l. bank of the Bormida. the acquisition of these possessions we are brought into immediate proximity with the W coast of America, from Cape Horn CALKEN, a commune and town of Belgium, in to the Russian possessions. N of Oregon; with the islands of the the prov. of E Flanders, 9 m. of Termonde, on the Pacific ocean; and, by a direct voyage in steamers, we will be in Schelde. less than 30 days of Canton and other parts of China."

Pop. 4,950. Under the governorship of General Riley a constitution differ

CALKERTON, a tything in the p. of Rodmarton, ing little from that of the state of New York has been framed for Gloucestershire. Pop. in 1841, 145. the new state of C., by delegates assembled in convention, which constitution has been subsequently ratified and confirmed by the SE of Templemore.

CALLABEG, a parish in co. Tipperary, 2 m. votes of the citizens. The legislative power is vested by this con

Area 6,014 acres. Pop. 2,429. stitution in a senate and assembly. Senators are be chosen CALLAC, a canton, commune, and town of the assembly. The number of members of assembly is not to Guingamp. The cant. comprises 9 com., and in for two years, and their number is not to exceed one-half that of France, in the

dep. of the Côtes-du-Nord, arrond. of exceed 36 until the pop. shall exceed 100,000; and after that, shall 1831"contained a pop. of 13,922. The town is 19 not exceed 80.

CALIFORNIA (GULF OF), a great arm of the Pacific, com- m. SW of Guingamp. mencing under the 23d parallel, between Mazatlan, on the coast of Mexico, in N lat. 23° 30', on the E, and Cape Palmo, on the

CALLACHE, a town of Peru, in the dep. and coast of peninsular California, in N lat. 23° 10', on the W; and

120 m. NNW of Truxillo, and 40 m. ENE of Lamextending in a NNW direction, between the continent and the bayeque; on the l. bank of the river of that name. peninsula, up to the parallel of 32°, where it receives the waters CALLAGHANS, a village of Alleghany co., in of the Rio Colorado. Its length is about 700 m. Its breadth varies from 150 to 40 m. Its E shores are generally low, and

the state of Virginia, 191 m. NW of Richmond, at the water is shallow; but its opposite shores, to the parallel of the junction of the roads leading to Warm Sweet 80°, are rocky and elevated. The prevailing winds in this gulf and White Sulphur springs. are from the S; yet there is a sensible current always setting to

CALLAGHAN'S MILLS (LOWER and UPPER), wards its mouth. The tides vary considerably in different localities. At Mazatlan the rise is 7 ft.; at Guaymas, 54 ft. The

two villages in the p. of Killuran, co. Clare, on the port of Guaymas, in the Mexican dep. of Sonora, in N lat. 27° Ougarnee river, 3 m. SE of Tulla. Pop. of Lower 40', is the best on the coast. Mazatlan is little frequented. The

C. 183; of Higher C. 148. first Spanish navigators who entered this gulf bestowed on it the names of the Sea of Cortes, and the Red sea. The latter

CALLAH, or KALLAH (EL), a town of Algeria, name was suggested partly by the red colour given to its waters in the prov, and 60 m. E of Wahran, or Oran, and

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