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20 m. NNE of Mascara, situated, as its name de- , consisted of little more than 200 houses or huts in notes, on a mountain, and surrounded by ramifica- 1820. In 1836 the pop. was estimated at 4,000. In tions of the Atlas chain. It is ill-built, and ex- winter C. is damp and dirty; and in summer so dusty, tremely dirty; but formerly possessed extensive that in passing through the streets one is almost manufactories of carpets and other woollen fabrics, choked. Most of the houses are slightly built, and and was surrounded by villages in which the same usually only one story high, with a basement. The manufactures were carried on. It contains numer- walls are constructed of reeds, plastered over with oas ruins, supposed to be those of the ancient Gillin, loam or red clay. All the roofs are flat, being made the Apphar of Ptolemy, and in the vicinity are the of straw mats laid on a framework of reeds, which is remains of the ancient Tagadempt.-Also a town on also plastered with loam on the under side. The che S side of Jurjura range, 80 m. SE of Algiers. windows are in the roof, and consist of wooden trapCALLAHPOEWAHS, an aboriginal tribe of N America, lo- doors, which look very much like bird-cages. They cated in Oregon, between the Rocky mountains and the Pacific, have no glass panes, but gratings made of wooden In N lat. 430

spars. On the inside there is a window-shutter, and CALLALEY AND YETLINGTON, a township a string hangs down into the apartment, by means of Whittingham parish, Northumberland. Pop. in of which the shutter can be opened or closed. The 1841, 306.

most interesting object in C. is its splendid fortress. CALLAM PULO, a rocky islet in the strait of Though built on a low plain close to the sea, it has Malacca, near the Malay coast, in N lat. 3', E long. a magnificent appearance. It consists of two castles, 101° 20'.

the largest of which, built at the extreme point of a CALLAN, a river of co. Armagh, rising, in two tongue of land to the W of the town, the Spaniards head-streams, on the boundary with co. Monaghan. named Reale Filippe, but since the Revolution it has These unite 24 m. SW of Armagh-Breagne; and been called Castillo de la Independencia. It has two the united stream flows 10} m. N, and 3 m. NW to large, round, but not very high towers; and the courtthe Blackwater at Charlemont.-Also a p. and town yards are spacious. The walls are thick, rather low, in co. Kilkenny. Area of p. 5,634 acres. Pop. and surrounded by a ditch, which can be filled with 6,128. The town stands on King's river, 8 m. SW water from the sea. To the S of this castle there is of Kilkenny. Pop. 3,111.

a smaller one, called El Castillo del Sol. Before the CALLANDER, a parish in Perthshire, stretching war of independence these forts mounted both togealong the Teith, and along the Grampian range. ther 400 pieces of cannon, many of which were of Pop. in 1801, 2,282; in 1841, 1,665.—The v. of C. is large calibre. At present they have only 60 pieces 164 m. NW of Stirling. Pop. in 1841, 1,107. It is of cannon and 71 carronades. The whole have a place of mere local trade; but is much visited by bomb-proof casements and a covered way.-On the tourists on account of its vicinity to the Trosachs. fortress of C. the Spanish flag waved long after inde

CALLANSOESOE, or CALLA-SUsung, a town of pendence was declared in all the countries of Spanish the island of Butang, in the Asiatic archipelago, on South America. The Spanish general, Bodil, threw the NE side of Dwall bay. It has a harbour, but it himself into the castle, and with wonderful resolution is rocky and unsafe.

held out against Sucre, in a siege of a year and a CALANTSOOG, a town of Holland, in the prov. half. In January 1826 he submitted to a capitulaof N Holland, on the coast of the North sea, 16 m. tion, by which Spain abandoned its last footing on NNW of Alkmaar.

Peruvian soil. During the last three months the CALLAO, or COLLAC, a town of Peru, in the Spaniards suffered all the privations and miseries district of Junin, on an affluent of the Perene, 42 m. which a besieged army must endure within the troNE of Janja.

pics. [Tschudi.] The original town, which was CALLAO, or SAN-FELIPE-DEL-CALLAO, a town strongly fortified under Philip IV., was entirely deand port of Peru, in the prov. and 6 m. W of Lima, stroyed and submerged by an earthquake in 1746, of which it is the port, near the entrance of the and its ruins are still to be seen at low tides, under Rimac into the Pacific ocean, in Slat. 12° 3' 45",

On the 20th of Oct., 1687, at the second and W long. 77o 10. Variation in 1814, 8° 30' E. concussion of an earthquake, the sea retired within It is defended by several forts or castles; and the its usual limits, and returning in mountainous waves, port—which is the best in Peru-is sheltered on the overwhelmed Ć. and the adjacent country. During S and SW by a peninsula, and the islands of San the earthquake of 1746, this town suffered still greater Lorenzo and Callao, and affords excellent anchorage devastations. The port of C. and several of the for vessels of the largest size. There are no rocks buildings at once sunk into the ground. But this in the bay, which is from 14 to 16 leagues in circuit, evil was nothing, compared to the dreadful catasand the water is very deep, with clear ground and trophe which succeeded it. “The sea," says Ulloa, gradual soundings from 20 fath. to 34 fath. at the “receding to a considerable distance from the shore, mole head. As the winds which prevail here during returned in mountainous waves, foaming with the the winter always blow between the SE and the S, violence of the agitation, and suddenly turned C. and but most generally from the S, the bay of c. is the neighbouring country into a sea.

This was not, always tranquil

, being defended from the S winds by however, totally performed by the first swell of the a long neck of land which projects into the sea, and waves, for the sea retiring further, returned with still by the large island of San Lorenzo, opposite to this more impetuosity, the stupendous water covering cape on the W, and the small islands of El Fronton both the walls and other buildings of the place, so and El Corcobado. The road is open to N and Nw that whatever had escaped the first, was now totally winds, but these are of rare occurrence, and only overwhelmed by these terrible mountains of waves, blow moderately. The river of Rimac-corrupted and nothing remained except a piece of the wall of into Lima, --which discharges itself into the sea under the port of Santa Cruz, as a memorial of this terrible the walls of C., furnishes abundance of good water; devastation. There were then 23 ships and vessels, and the loading and unloading of vessels is facili- great and small, in the harbour, of which 19 were abtated by a mole furnished with cranes. The gover- solutely sunk, and the other four, amongst which was nor's house, and former palace of the viceroy, are a frigate, called San Fermin, carried by the force of situated near the shore, which is firm and lined with the waves to a great distance [14 m.] up the country. shingle. A suburb named Poiti pisti is inhabited by This terrible inundation extended to other parts on Indians. The existing town, or rather village of C., the coast, as Cavallos and Guanape. At C., where



the number of inhabitants amounted to about 4,800, Tschudi adds, “ of the general correctness of those 200 only escaped; and 22 of these hy means of the statements: for a careful investigation of facts leads above-mentioned fragment of a wall.” In Nov. 1820, to the same conclusion; so that within the last 60 or the roadstead of C. was the scene of a naval combat 70 years the sinking must have been considerable. between the Spaniards and the independent forces of It must be observed, however, that the ruins on the Chili, in which the latter had the advantage. small tongue of land are not, as Darwin supposes,

The coasts of C. and San Lorenzo have under the remains of the city of C. swallowed up by the sea gone very remarkable changes within a few centu- in 1746, but of the C. which was destroyed by the ries. Mr. Darwin, the English geologist, is of opinion great earthquake in 1630. Another proof of this that this part of Peru has risen 85 ft. since it had sinking exists in the extensive shallow between the human inhabitants. On the NE declivity of San Lo- coast of the mainland and San Lorenzo, called the renzo, which is divided into three indistinctly marked Camotal. In early times this shallow was dry land, terraces, there are numbers of shells, of the same producing vegetables, in particular camotes (sweet species of conchyliæ which are at the present time potatoes), whence the name of this portion of the found living on the coast. On an accurate examina- strait is derived. The inundation took place in the tion of these shells, Mr. Darwin found many of them time of the Spaniards, but before 1746, either in the deeply corroded. “They have,” he says, a much great earthquake of 1687, or in that of 1630.” Humolder and more decayed appearance than those at the boldt ascertained that the water of the bay of C. is 2° height of 500 or 600 ft. on the coast of Chili. These colder than that off any other point of this coast; and shells are associated with much common salt, a little the worms and marine insects, so destructive elsesulphate of soda, and muriate of lime. The rest are where, do little injury to vessels here. The range fragments of the under-lying sandstone, and are cov- of the therm. in the bay of C. during 75 days, from cred by a few inches thick of detritus. The shells Dec. 15, 1832, was 70°; that of the barom. 29-83. higher up on this terrace conld be traced scaling off Between July 8 and Aug. 22, 1833, the therm. ranged in flakes, and falling into an impalpable powder; and 69°; and the barom. 29.77.- The English mails at on an upper terrace, at the height of 170 ft., and present [1849] reach C. in 47 or 48 days by steamlikewise at some considerably higher points, I found packet from Southampton; but arrangements now a layer of saline powder, of exactly similar appear in progress will, it is expected, reduce this to 30 or ance, and lying in the same relative position. I have 31 days. no doubt that the upper layer originally existed on CALLAO, or CALLAO-RAI, a small island in the a bed of shells, like that on the 85 ft. Iedge, but it Chinese sea, abont 15 m. from the coast of Cochindoes not now contain even a trace of organic struc-China, in N lat. 15° 15'. It is nearly 5 m. long, ture.” Mr. Darwin adds, that on the terrace, which and 2 m. broad. Its E shore is rendered inacis 85 ft. above the sea, he found imbedded amongst cessible by a continued range of overhanging cliffs the shells and sea-drifted rubbish, some bits of cot- and immense rocks, which in some places rise perton thread, plaited rushes, and the head of a stalk of pendicularly out of the sea; while the opposite side Indian corn. Tschudi, commenting on these obser- of the island is covered with verdure, and indented vations, says, “ San Lorenzo does not appear to have with several small sandy bays, affording safe and been inhabited in very early ages. The fragments of convenient stations for landing. These, however, human industry which have been found mixed in the are separated from each other by steep and rugged shells, have probably been brought thither by fisher- ridges, which render all communication between men who visit the island, and often pass the night on them by land extremely difficult. At the bottom it.” Darwin further remarks:—“It has been stated of one of the largest of these bays is a fertile valthat the land subsided during this memorable shock ley, contaiuing about 200 acres, where the ground (in 1746). I could not discover any proof of this; rises gently towards the E, and is bounded on yet it seems far from improbable, for the form of the each side by lofty mountains, the highest of which coast must certainly have undergone some change is about 1,500 ft. above the level of the sea. This since the foundation of the old town,” &c.—“On the is the only inhabited part of the island; and the island of San Lorenzo there are very satisfactory principal village, which stands upon the margin proofs of elevation, within a recent period; this, of of the beach, contains about 30 habitations. A course, is not opposed to the belief of a small sink- few of the houses are built of stone, and roofed ing of the ground having subsequently taken place." with tiles, but the rest are constructed entirely On this Tschudi remarks, that "satisfactory evidence of bamboo, and have a very neat and cleanly apof the sinking of the coast is not to be obtained in a pearance. visit of a few weeks' duration; nor can that evidence CALLAO. See CHAM-CALLAO. rest solely on geological facts, though doubtless they CALLAQUI, a volcanic summit of the Andes, on may furnish much important data. History must the confines of Chili and La Plata, in S lat. 38° 5'. aid the inquiry. Tradition and the recollection of CALLAS, a canton, commune, and town of old persons must be attended to. According to these France, in the dep. of Var, arrond. of Draguignan. authorities, a change more or less considerable has The cant. comprises 7 com., and in 1831 contained taken place in the level of the coast, after every great a pop. of 8,742. The town is 6 m. NE of Draguigearthquake. If we refer to the account given by nan. Pop. 2,268. It possesses oil and corn-inills, Ulloa, and compare the plan of the harbour of c., and coal is wrought in the environs. drawn by him in 1742, with the most correct modern CALLAUGHTON, a township in the p. of Much charts, we do not find much difference in the repre- Wenlock, Salop. Pop. in 1841, 149. sentations of the distance between the mainland and CALLAWAY, a county in the state of Kentucky, San Lorenzo. Four years afterwards, the great | U. S., comprising an area of 600 sq. m., bounded on earthquake occurred, which destroyed the city of C., the E by the Tennessee river, and intersected by and plunged it into the sea. Subsequently there was Clarke's river. Pop. in 1840, 9,794, of whom 8,870 a rising of the coast, which could not be inconsider- were whites, 911 slaves, and 13 free coloured. The cap. able, for according to the statements of old inhabi-is Wadesboro.—Also a county in the state of Missouri, tants of C., the distance from the coast to San Lo- containing a superficies of 760 sq. m., bounded on renzo was at one time so inconsiderable that boys the S by the Missouri river, and drained by Big and used to throw stones over to the island; while at pre- Little Au Vase creeks. It presents an undulating sent the distance is nearly 2 m. I have no doubt,” surface, and is very fertile. Pop. in 1830, 6,159; in

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1840, 11,765, of whom 8,601 were whites, 3,142 , which unites with the Assiniboine a little above slaves, and 22 free-coloured. The cap. is Fulton. Birdstail Fort.

CALLE (LA), CALA, or AL KALAH, a circle CALLINGER. See KaLLINGER. and town of Algeria, in_the prov. of Constanı- CALLINGTON, formerly KELLINGTON, a parish tine. The town is 115 m. ENE of Constantine, and and town in Cornwall, 12 m. S of Launceston. The 35 m. E of Bonah, on the Mediterranean. It is town stands on a gentle acclivity, and consists chiefly situated on a sterile rock, surrounded on three sides of one broad irregularly built street. Area of p. by the sea, and defended on the fourth by a strong 2,600 acres. Pop. in 1841, 1,685.-Two miles to the wall. In 1837 it contained 110 houses, 40 European N is Kit or St. Kit’s-hill, a huge mass of granite inhabitants, and a garrison of 80 men. The port, which rises 1,067 ft. above sea-level. which is protected by a fort, and in which 180 fish- CALLITZA, a town of Turkey in Europe, in Maing-boats can anchor, is the principal resort of the cedonia, in the sanjak and 60 m. ESE of Salonika, coral-fishers on the Barbary coast; and has also a on the SE side of the Gulf of Istillar. It occupies considerable trade in grain, wool, leather, tobacco, the site of the ancient Urunopolis. Wax, &c. The environs are extremely fertile; and CALLIUCAS, a river of Peru, which takes its the surrounding forests, which abound with cork rise in the E branch of the Andes, and unites with trees, are the most valuable in Algeria. From 1560 the Pisqui or Pachitea, 40 m. S of the junction of to 1709 C. formed the most important of the French that river with the Paro.---Also an aboriginal tribe establishments on the coast of Barbary. In 1806 of S America, who inhabit the district of Peru, bethe English endeavoured to obtain it by purchase, tween the E branch of the Andes and the Pachitea. and for a time rented it, from the Dey of Algiers; CALLO ISLAND, a small island of the S Pacibut it again fell into the hands of the French in fic, near the coast of Guayaquil

, New Granada, in S 1815. It was subsequently destroyed by the Arabs, lat. 1° 20', W long. 80° 43'. and presented but a heap of ruins when entered by CALLONI, a town of Syria, in the pash. of Gaza, the French in 1836. In 1846, 116 boats, manned by 13 m. NW of Jerusalem. 1,171 hands, were employed in the fishery of coral CALLOO, a commune and town of Belgium, in of this place. The coral trade is entirely in the the prov. of East Flanders, cant. of Beveren, 6 m. hands of Jew merchants, who export the coral of WNW of Antwerp, and 28 m. NE of Dendermonde, the finest quality to China; that of the second quality on the l. bank of the Schelde. Pop. 2,229. Adjato Poland; and that known as barbaresco and roba- cent is the fort of Liefkenshoek, on the Schelde, opchiara, to the East Indies. - The French circle of posite Fort Lillo. C. is inhabited by 38 different tribes, whose numbers CALLOSA-DE-ENSARIA, a town of Spain, cap. are supposed to amount to 42,000, and who cultivate of a judicial partido, in Valencia, prov. and 32 m. about 35,000 hectares of land in an area of 269,000 NE of Alicante, near the I. bank of the Alvir. Pop. hectares.

6,000. The environs afford excellent fruit and wine. CALLEJONES, a town of Peru, in the prov. and CALLOSA - DE - SEGURA, a town of Spain, 115 m. WNW of Lima, on the coast of the Pacific. cap. of a judicial partido, in Valencia, prov. and 27

CALLERTON, BLACK, a township in the p. of m. wsw of Alicante, and 3 m. NE of Orihuela, Newburn, Northumberland. Pop. in 1811, 158. near the N bank of the Segura. Pop. 4,500. It has

CALLERTON, High, a township, partly in the extensive manufactories of charcoal. parishes of Newburn and Ponteland, Northumber- CALLOW, a hamlet in the p. of and 2 m. from land. Pop. in 1841, 131.

Wirksworth, Derbyshire. Pop. in 1841, 112,- Also CALLIAN, or Calliani, a large and importanta parish of Herefordshire, 33 m. SSW of Hereford, town of India, in the Concan, on the S side of the near the Hereford railway and 2 m. from AllensCailas river, 30 m. NE of Bombay. It has a pop. of moor. Area 640 acres. Pop. 171. See also ACORN40.000; and has from an early period formed an important commercial emporium. An experimental CALLU, or Caly Nundi, a river of Hindostan, line of railway is about to be execnted between Bom- which takes its rise in the mountains of Gurhwal, bay and C., which may afterwards be pushed forward 27 m. ENE of Seharaunpoor, runs S through the to the Malsei ghaut, or to Alleh.-Also a small stream prov. of Delhi, inosculating with the Hindan, and in the Concan ghauts in Hindostan, which falls into passing Meerut and Bulundshuhur. Thence it bends the sea nearly opposite to Tannah.

SE; traverses the eastern part of the prov. of Agra ; CALLIAN DROOG, or CALYANADURGA, a town and, after a total course of 330 m., parallel in its enof Hindostan, in the Belaghant ceded districts, 44 m. tire extent with the Ganges, unites with that river, SSE of Bellary.

on the confines of Oude, a little above Canouge. CALLIAQUA, a town of the island of St. Vin- CALLUNDBORG. See KALLUNDBORG. cent in the p. of St. George, on the S coast, 2 m. CALM (La), a commune of France, in the dep. ESE of Kingstown. It possesses a good harbour. of Aveyron, cant. of Sainte-Genevieve. Pop. 1,498.

CALLIES, a town of Prussia, in the prov. of Po- CALMAR, a town of Sweden, the cap. of the merania, regency of Coslin, circle and 17 m. SSE of prov. of Smaland, situated on the sound or strait of Dramburg, and 38 m. E of Stargard. Pop. 2,382. the same name, in the Baltic, about 5 m. from the It is well built, contains a castle and a church, and island of Oland, which lies directly opposite. It is has some manufactories of cloth and tobacco. The one of the oldest places in the kingdom, but its site environs are extremely marshy.

was formerly different, a fire having consumed the CALLIGNY, a village of France, in the dep. of original town in 1647. The new town was founded the Orne, cant. of Tinchebrav, near the r. bank of on the island of Quarnholm, a suburb on the mainthe Noireau, 17 m. N of Domfront. Pop. 1,500. land occupying the site of the old town, and com

CALLIGRAY, or KilliGRAY, one of the Western municating with it by a bridge of boats. It is built isles of Scotland, in the district of Harris. It is situ- in a form nearly circular; and has somewhat more ated about 3 m. E of Bernara; and is about 2 m. long, than 5,000 inhabitants. On the side next the harand 1 m. broad. The S end is a deep moss, almost bour it is surrounded with double walls and ditches; entirely uncultivated; the N is cultivated with care. and outside the town, on the sound, stands the casThe pop. in 1841 was only 7.

tle of C., deemed one of the strongest places in SweCALLING, or QUAPELLE River, a river of Bri- den. The harbour is small, but secure. The comtish North America, in the Swan River district,merce of the town was formerly considerable, but a



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great part of it has been transferred to Stockholm. / mit to his authority, were compelled to seek for new settlements It consists in the export of timber, tar, and hemp: terior parts of Asia, and anong the cities of the Usbeck Tartars;

towards the W. Many of them dispersed themselves in the inBefore the annexation of the provs. of Schonen and others took refuge in Russia ; some thousands fled to Siberia; Blekingen to Sweden, C. was considered a barrier- but the greater number accommodated themselves to the Chinese fortress, and the key of Gothland. Here was held, sovereignty. At present the most numerous and powerful of the

C. hordes, according to Grosier, inhabit the country lying bein 1397, the general assembly of the states in which

tween the Caspian sea, Samarcand, and Kashgar. Others are was concluded the famous union of C., by which located, with their flocks and herds, on both banks of the Volga, Margaret, styled the Semiramis of the North, united between the Irghis and the Caspian, and extend their excursions

on both sides of the Don and the Ural. the kingdoms of Sweden, Denmark, and Norway

Before their subjugation and dispersion, the C. were divided under one head. C. is the see of a bishop, has & into three principal branches: viz., the Sugares, the Coschotes fine cathedral church, an academy, and a dockyard. and the Torgots.--Of these, the Sungares were the richest and The governor of C. and Oland resides in the neigh most formidable, and were engaged in almost perpetual hostili

ties with the Mongolians and the Chinese. They resided around bouring palace of Holsmo. In 1800 a fire which the Balkash lake, and its rivers Chuy and ili; and held in broke out in the town of C. destroyed 150 houses, tribute the Great Kirghissian horde, and the towns of Little the buildings of the academy, including its library, Bucharia.--The Coschotes or Khoschots, upon the conquest of and part of the public magazine. Steamers ply be protection of that power, except a smaller part which had re

Tibet, became subject to the Chinese, and still continge under the tween C. and Stockholm 3 or 4 times a-week, mak- tired to the Irtish, and fell under the dominion of the Soongarians, ing the passage in about 24 hours. Mr. Lyell ob- Those under the dominion of China are estimated at 50,000, and

are said to have derived their name, which implies warrior or tained striking proofs of the gradual rising of the

hero,-from the courage which they displayed in the wars of land along the coast at this place. The fortress, Ghengis. - The Torgots, or Torvauts, who had separated frin which appears to have had its foundations originally the Sungares, and had formed themselves into a particular laid below the level of the sea in 1030, has them horde, settled at an early period in the steppes of the Volga and

received from the Russians the appellation of the Volgaic C now nearly 2 ft. above the level of the Baltic; and But many of them being disgusted by the interference of the part of the moat on one side of the castle, which is Russian government with the authority of their taish, or khar. believed to have been formerly filled with water

returned in great numbers in 1770 and 1771, over the river Ural from the sea, is now dry, and has its bottom covered

on the ice, and across the Kirghissian steppes, into their ancient

possessions in Sungaria. The first emigration consisted of with green furf.

30,000 families, and the second of 50,000 families; being 80,000 CALMARZA, a town of Spain, in Aragon, prov. families in the whole, or about 500,000 persons. Their plan of and 19 m. SSW of Catalayud, on the r. bank of the

retreat was so well laid, and so ably executed, that in spite of

Russian vigilance and Russian pursuit,-in spite of opposition Mesa.

from their hereditary enemies of the great Kirghissian hordeCALMBERG, a town of Wurtemberg, in the they reached the Balkash Nur, and were received by the Chinese Black forest, at the junction of a small stream with guards posted on the Tekis and Eli. Pasture-lands on the banks

of these two streams were assigned them by orders of Kienlong, the Enz., 8 m. NW of Calw.

but the chiefs with their families were all sent, under a strong CALMETTE (La), a commune of France, in the guard, to Pekin, there to remain as hostages to ensure the subdep. of Gard, cant. of Saint-Chapter. Pop. 1,097.

mission and peaceable conduct of the rest. The present C. posCALMEZ CAPE, a promontory of Nubia, on the

sessors of Sungaria, under the sovereignty of China, are the Tor

gauts, the most numerous body, and the Derbets, whose numbers Red sea, in N lat. 21° 27', E long. 37° 28'.

are unknown. These different branches, however, since their CALMHOUT, a town of Belgium, in the prov. expulsion from their ancient habitations, have become so incorand 11 m. NNE of Antwerp. Pop. 1,995.

porated with one another, and are so assimilated in manners CALMINA, a town of Upper Guinea, in the king and customs, that most of them are ignorant of their particular dom of Dahomey, 21 m. SE of Abomey. It con- The C. are distinguished from the other nomade nations of tains a royal residence. Pop. 15,000.

Asia, by their peculiar habits and appearance. They are comCALMONT, a commune and town of France, in wonly of a middle size, athletic, and well-made: the only per

sonal defect which is frequent among them is their having the the dep. of the Haute-Garonne, cant. of Nailloux, on thighs and legs somewhat bent. Pallas says they are generally the r. bank of the Lers, 26 m. SSE of Toulouse. slender and delicate in their limbs; that he never saw a single CALMONT-DE-PLAMAGE, a commune and

man among them who was very corpulent. Their countenance

is at first extremely forbidding; a large head, round face, dark town of France, in the dep. of Aveyron, cant. of Cas-olive complexion, high and prominent cheek-bones, enormous sagnes-Bégonhès, 8 m. SSW of Rödez. Pop. 1,397. cars

, small sparkling black eyes widely separated from each It contains some china-manufactories.

other, and placed obliquely and downwards towards the nose, a CALMOUTIER, a commune of France, in the and turned up, exposing to view two immense nostrils, thick and

flat short broad nose scarcely rising above the level of the face, dep. of the Haute-Saone, cant. of Noroy-le-Bonrg. fleshy lips, exceedingly white teeth, a short chin, a thin and Pop. 920.

scanty beard, and black coarse hair tied up in a long queue be

hind, are the characteristic features of a C. Many of the women, CALMUCKS, KALMUKS, OELOETS, or Elitis, supposed to bo however, have rather agreeable features, and delicate complex. the Hippophagi of Pliny and other ancient historians, a tribe of ions, which are set off by the fine black of their hair; soine of independent Tartars, and a branch of those nomade barbarians, the higher classes among them would even be considered as who, in the beginning of the 13th cent., under the name of Mo- beauties by Europeans. The dress of the men consists chiefly of guls, and led on by Ghengis Khan, subdued and desolated the a shirt and drawers made of cotton, or sometiines of sheep-skin; finest provinces of Asia. They are the only Tartar nation that small round bonnet trimmed with fur, and ornamented with a has retained the ancient language of the Moguls in all its purity. tuft of silk, or horse hair of a red colour; and immensely larze They have also preserved the manners, the dress, and the reli- boots. They have also a kind of doublet made of sheep-skin, gion, which all historians have attributed to these conquerors ; and without sleeves, which, in the N tracts, they wear over the and their Contaish, or Great khan, claims the honour of being shirt. In summer many of them go entirely naked, with the the true descendant of the Great Ghengis. The appellation of exception of a cloth bound round the waist. A cotton shirt is Calmuc or Khalimuk was bestowed upon them by the Mahoin- the only dress of the women during summer; in winter they medan Tartars, as a tern of reproach, on account of their pagan wear a long cloak of sheep-skin, and a bonnet like that of their worship: but they have a better right to the name of Moguls busbands. They wear in their ears shells, and large mock pearls than their neighbours on the frontiers of China, now known by of a very irregular shape. The married women wear their hair the name of Mongoulians; indeed the territory of this people, in braided, and falling over the shoulders on each side of the face, the beginning of the last cent., embraced the very states which but fastened at the end with bits of lead or tin: a virgin has Ghengis left to liis successors, and comprehends the most consi- only a single braid hanging down the middle of her back. When derable and richest part of Tartary. From the river Jaik, or equipped for war, many of the C. wear a helmet of steel, with a Ural. on the W, their possessions extended along the S bounda- gilded crest, from which hangs a net-work of iron rings as low ries of Siberia, as far as the river Selinga on the E; and, skirting as the eyebrows in front, and falling behind over the neck and the empire of China, they reached on the 8 towards the confines shoulders; and their bodies are sometimes protected by a coat of the kingdom of Ava. Turning then to the NW, they were of mail formed of iron or steel rings netted together, which bounded by the Mogul empire, Great Bucharia and Turkistan. adapts itself to the shape, and yields readily to all the positions These extensive territories, however, have been greatly curtailed of the body. These flexible coats of mail are manufactured in by the successive encroachments both of the Russians and the Persia, and are reckoned as equal in value to 50 horses. A Chinese. The C. were driven from Tibet in 1720; and about cheaper sort, made of scales of tin, sells for 6 or 8 horses. Their forty years after, Kiang Long extended his dominions as far as arins are bows and arrows, lances, sabres, and ponianis Firethe Belur-Tagh; so that such of the Calmucks as refused to sub- arnis are contined to the higher orders, and are kept with great The tents of the C., which are their only habitations, and are in the wild angelica, the seed of the Tartarian maple, and a species general ose with all ranks, from the prince to the peasant, are of of liquorice. Their principal amusements are hunting, wrestling, a circular fonn, with a conical roof, and a hole at the top. They archery, and horse-racing; indeed, the greater part of a C.'s time are constructed of cane or wood, and covered with felt made of is spent in diversions. They are excellent horsemen, being trainCamel's hair or wool Those of the chiefs are large and well- ed to riding from their infancy. The women, however, are as famished, having the floors covered with mats or Indian carpets, expert at this exercise as the men, and manage the animal and the beds hung with rich curtains. An encampment of the with more gracefulness and skill; for a male C, on horseback, principal honles presents the appearance of a city, with regular though he never loses his seat, appears as if he were intoxstrstts sometimes extending a mile in length, and containing icated and about to fall off every instant. So partial are they to a nervus shops in which several of the more refined arts are this amusement, that even the ceremony of marriage is somepractise in considerable perfection They hare artificers in cop- times performed on horseback. “A girl is first inounted," says pop, brass, and iron; goldsmiths, who make trinkets for their the intelligent traveller whom we have so often quoted, “ who winnen, idols of gold and silver, and vessels for their altars; also rides off at full speed. Her lover pursues; and, if he overtakes workmen who are expert at inlaid work, enamelling, &c. " One her, she becomes his wife. But it sometimes happens that the very remarkable fact," says Dr. Clarke, “and which I should woman does not wish to marry the person by whom she is purhesitate in asserting, if I had not found it confirmed by the ob- sued, in which case she will not suffer him to overtake her; and servatinns of other travellers, is, that froin time immemorial, the we were assured, that no instance occurs of a C. girl being thuis enental tribes of C. have possessed the art of making gunpow- caught, unless she has a partiality for her pursuer. If she disder. They boil the efflorescence of nitrate of potass in a strong likes him, she rides, to use the language of English sportsmen, les of poplar and birch ashes, and leave it to crystallize; after *neck or nothing,' until she has completely escaped, or until vaich, they pound the crystals, with two parts of sulphur and as the pursner's horse is tired out, leaving her at liberty to remuch charcoal; then, wetting the mixture, they place it in a turn, to be afterwards chased by some more favoured admirer." ca tron over a charcoal fire, until the powder begins to grand- The C. are passionately addicted to gambling, and will somelate." Upon the breaking up of an encampment -- which, in times sit whole nights at cards, until they have lost all that they sanmer, generally takes place every eight or ten days--in order possess, even their very clothes. This game, however, is only to o in search of fresh pasture, their first care is to despatch perinitted during their festivals; at all other times it is prohibited toide of their people to find out a proper situation for the under a severe penalty. They have also chess, draughts, backterits of the khan, the lama, and the huts containing the idols. gammon; and the young people amuse themselves with singing, The tents are then struck; and, being so made as to take to pieces and dancing to the balalaika, or two-stringed lute. In their and fold up in a small compass, are easily packed upon the backs drinking parties--which are very frequent, and to which every of the camels or oxen. The camel that is loaded with the most one brings his share of rack or koumiss-harmony and decorum Minas furniture is decorated with bells, and marches before; are said to prevail; and, though they are generally kept up until the rest following one behind another. On these occasions, the the stock of liquor is expended, yet they are seldom attended Women are dressed in their best clothes; and beguile the tedious. either with riot or intoxication. The most common diseases to Dess of the journey with merriment and songs.

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care. Their best bows are made of the wild goat's horn, or of tures, which, when withered by the droughts of summer, they whalebone, and the common kind of maple, or thin slips of elm renew by setting fire to the old grass. Upon these occasions, the of or, fastened together, and bound with a covering of linden or flames will sometimes extend nearly 100 leagues; and, within 15 tarch bark.

days, the country is again covered with verdure. A wealthy c. The C., according to Mr. Tooke, are divided into three ranks; possesses several hundreds of cattle, sometimes thousands; but the nobility, who are called “white-bones;' the common people, ten cows with a bull, and eight mares with a stallion, are consiwho pay tribute, and are termed .black-bones;' and the clergy. dered a sufficient independence They have few camels, and The noble ladies are called white flesh,' and the common these are confined entirely to the rich and the priests. Their women black flesh.' In time of war, upon the first summons, horses are small, but swift, and capable of galloping for several every man must appear on horseback before his prince, who dis- hours successively without injury, or of passing a whole day pisses such as are unfit for service. All the subjects belonging without drinking. They castrate the greater part of their male en ese prince are terined an oluss, and are divided into imaks, foals, and slit their nostrils that they may breathe more freely each containing from 150 to 300 families, and cominanded by a when they run. Their horned cattle are of a beautiful shape; SILVIN ar noble. But thouri each oluss has its petty prince, and their sheep are the same as those which are found throughor taish, yet they all acknowledge more or less the sovereignty out all Great Tartary. They are exceedingly fat, with large of the contaish or Great khan, whose authority is considered as tails, and broad pendent ears; and their wool is so coarse that it perfectly established and sacred, but whose interference is only is fit for nothing but making felt. almitted in affairs of general importance.

The principal food of the C. consists in the milk and flesh of The C. are of a social and hospitable disposition, faith- their cattle; but horse-flesh is esteemed the best. They are, ful to their chiefs, affable, and eager to oblige. They possess a however, not very delicate in this respect, as they eat not only vivacity and good humour which seldom forsakes them, even in such of their cattle and horses as have died of disease, but dogs their most wretched state: for a C. is scarcely ever seen dejected cats, marmots, rats, and almost every kind of wild beasts; and by souw, and is never subdued by despair. They are, however, the poor sometimes even feed upon carrion. Their favourite dish slovenly and dirty in the extreme, destitute of true courage, and during a journey, is a piece of flesh placed under the saddle of greatly addicted to cheating. - Within a C. tent," says Dr. the horse, which, by warmth and pressure, becomes a tender and Clarke, “we found some women, though it was difficult to dis- palatable steak. They eat also the roots of chervil, dandelion, tinguish the sexes, so horrid and inhuman was their appearance. and several other species of wild plants, which they use both Two of them, covered with grease, were lousing each other, and raw and boiled, Of milk they make a feriented liquor called it surprised us that they did not discontinue their work, or even koumiss; from which they distil a spirit similar to brandy, bis p as we entered." * The old women," continues this cele. which they call rack or racky, and of which they are remarkably brated traveller, “were eating raw horse-flesh, tearing it off fond. The koumiss is generally made of mare's milk, which is fron large bones which they held in their hands. Others, always preferred to that which comes from the cow, as it yields squatted on the ground, were smoking, with pipes not 2 inches three times inore spirit. It is prepared by mixing a sixth part in length, much after the manner of the Laplanders." But these of warm water with any given quantity of warın milk,--which defect. mar in some measure be overlooked on account of the In summer must have previously stood twenty-four hours, and in mod qualities which they possess, and which render them so winter three or four days; to this is added a little old koumiss, by superior to the Mahommedan Tartars. Robberies are rare among way of yeast; the mass is then agitated, and sometimes artificial them, except against a hostile tribe, and murder is almost un- beat is applied to produce the vinous ferinentation. From this known. They pay great respect to old age; and though of a substance their rack is distilled; and Dr. Clarke, who witnessed the choleric temperament, and fierce when irritated, they live much process in a C. camp, has given us the following account of it: Bore amicably together than could be expected from their inde- * The simplicity of the operation, and of their machinery, was pendent and migratory manner of life. If any one receives a very characteristic of the antiquity of this chemical process. present of meat or drink, he divides it faithfully with his compa- Their still was constructed of mud or very coarse clay; and for nians, and if a relation has lost his flocks or other substance, by the neck of the retort they employed a cane. The receiver of the war or accident, he is always most liberally assisted. “A C., still was entirely covered by a coating of wet clay: the brandy prvided with a horse," says Professor Pallas," with arms and had already passed over. The woman who had the managequipage, may ramble from one place to another, for three ment of the distillery, wishing to give us a taste of the spirit, noths together, without taking with him either money or pro- thrust a stick, with a small tuft of camels' bair at its end, through visions. Wherever he comes, he finds either distant relations or the external covering of clay, and thus collecting a small quan. friends to whom he is attached by the ties of hospitality, and tity of the brandy, she received it into the palm of her dirty and from whom he meets with kind reception. Even though he greasy hand, and, having tasted the liquor, presented it to our scald loddge in the first cottage he finds upon his road, his lips." This liquor is clear and weak, but its strength is somewants will be supplied with cordiality. A stranger, of whatever times increased by a second distillation, and it is capable of being mation, never fails to be well received by a C.; and he may de- kept a long time in glass bottles. They are also extremely fond pend upon having his effects in security, the moment he has put of tobacco and tea; but, as the last article is difficult to be obhimself under the protection of his host; for to rob a guest is tained, the poorer classes supply its place with several kinds of considered by the C. as the most abominable of all crimes." wild plants, such as the seed of the sharp-leaved dock, the root of

which this people are subject, are the itch, and malignant fevers, As the riches of the C. consist entirely in their flocks, it is which arise from their gross diet and want of cleanliness; and from them they draw their whole means of subsistence. They during the heats of summer these last are sometimes very fatal. Dieses cultivate the ground, though they inhabit extensive tracts The venereal disorder, to which they give the name of the housepot country equal in climate and fertility, perhaps, to any in the disease,' as properly belonging only to such as dwell in houses, is weil Their nerds roam at large over the most luxuriant pas- not uncommon; but it is not often found among the lower orders


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