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points resembling the Arab breed, and are said to be, Its navigation is said to be obstructed by rocks about of a stock originally brought from Africa. The pop. 90 m. from the sea. The exports from this river are in 1826 amounted to 2,325.-Camargue is supposed ivory, palm-oil, and slaves. to derive its name from Caius Marius, the Roman CAMAROON MOUNTAINS, a lofty group of general, to whom is attributed the division of the mountains on the coast of Africa, near the C. river. Rhone into its two principal branches; but this is Their base is nearly 20 m. in diam.; and their highquestionable, as the course of that river seems en- est peak, in N lat. 4° 13', and E long. 9° 12', has an tirely the work of nature.- Memoire sur la Camargue alt. of 13,357 ft. above sea-level. They are covered Par M. de Rivière. 8vo., Paris, 1826.

with verdure and trees nearly to the summit. AlCAMARINA, a town of Sicily, in the Val di though at a distance this noble mountain appears to Noto, in the prov. and 50 m. WSW of Syracuse, rise by a continuous slope from the sea, on a closer on a river of the same name, which falls into the view it is found to consist of a succession of hills, Mediterranean, 2 m. SE of Scoglielli.

with intervening valleys of the richest soil. The CAMARINAS, a town of Spain, in Galicia, in whole district indicates volcanic origin. These the prov. and 30 m. SW of La Coruna, on the mountains appear to be continued in the islands of N side of the bay of the same name. Pop. 2,000. Fernando Po, Prince's island, St. Thomas, and AnIt possesses a safe port, but difficult of access, and nabona which lie to the SSW. an active trade.

CAMAROSQUI, a town of Peru, in the district CAMARINES, a prov. of the island of Luzon, in the of the Pampas del Sacramento, on the l. bank of a Asiatic archipelago, consisting of the peninsula which river of the same name, 40 m. SW of its confluence forms the SE portion of the island, and which is with the Apo-Paro. connected with the body of the island by an isthmus CAMBADAO (SANTA), a town of Portugal, in only 12 m. in breadth. It is generally mountainous, the prov. of Beira, comarca and 19 m. N of Arganil, and contains several volcanoes. The principal stream and 33 m. NE of Coimbra, on the r. bank of the which it possesses is the Naga; but it encloses several Imontorio. It possesses some sulphureons springs. lakes, and has some thermal and petrifying springs. CAMBADOS, a town of Spain, cap. of a judicial The harbours, of which there are several, are excel partido, in Galicia, prov. and 20 m. N of Vigo, on lent, and the bays and roadsteads commodious and the Scoast of the bay of Arosa, at the mouth of the safe. The soil produces rice, tobacco, dye-woods, small river Umia. timber, &c., and the coasts abound with fish. The CAMBAGA, a town of Senegambia, in the kinginhabitants are tall, strong, and courageous, and dom of Futa-Jallon, on one of the head-streams of they manufacture varieties of stuffs, and hats of the the Tankisso, 30 m. NE of Timbo. filaments of the palm-tree. The mountaineers are CAMBAMBE FORT, a fort of Angola, on the chiefly Papous, subdivided into several tribes. The N bank of the Coanza, near the falls of that river, total pop. subject to Spanish sway is estimated at and 150 m. E of its entrance into the Atlantic. 164,000. The bishop and alcade reside at Naga, but CAMBAT, a prov. of Abyssinia, in the S part of the cap. of the prov. is Caceres.

the country of the Galla. It is generally mountainCAMARINIAGUAS, a town of Peru, in the dis- ous, but fertile. It contains a mixed pop. of Pagans, trict of the Pampas del Sacramento, or Pajonal, Christians, and Mahommedans. The cap. is Sangara. near the r. bank of the Apo-Paro, 90 m. NNW of CAMBAY, CAMBAUT, KAMBAYAH, or KAMBOJA, the confluence of the Apurimac.

a city of Hindostan, in Guzerat, the seaport of CAMARIOCA SIERRA, a range of mountains Ahmedabad, in N lat. 22° 21', E long. 72° 48', situin the island of Cuba, and forming a portion of the ated about a league from the gulf of the same name, central chain which intersects the island in its entire npon the N bank of the river Canari, Catari, or Extent.

Mahi, 72 m. NNW of Surat. This city is enclosed CAMARNEIRA, a town of Portugal, in the prov. with a strong wall, about m. in circuit, in which of Beira, 23 m. NW of Coimbra.

there are 12 gates. The streets, which are very CAMARON (ALTO DEL), a town of the republic, large, had separate gates at the entrance of each, and in the intendancy of Mexico, 40 m. NNE of and these were shut every night; but of these Acapulco.

only a few remain. The houses, which are wellCAMARONE CAPE, a headland of Guatemala, built, are chiefly of stone, brick, or marble. The on the N coast, in N lat. 16°, and W long. 85° 5'. principal edifices of a public nature, are the dur

CAMARONES, a town and port of Bolivia, in bar or nawab's palace, the chief mosque, a fine the intendancy and 246 m. SE of Arequipa, prov. Hindu temple, three bazaars, and four tanks or cisand 50 m. S of Arica, at the entrance of a small terns by which the town is copiously supplied with river of the same name into the Pacific.

water in dry seasons. But the fallen fortunes of CAMARONES, a village of New Grenada, in this once-famous city are everywhere visible in its the district of Hacha, at the mouth of a river of ruins and desolation. The sea formerly flowed up same name, which flows into the Caribbean sea, 20 to the walls, and formed a commodious harbour; m. SW of the embouchure of the Rio Hacha. but it is now fully half-a-league from the town,

CAMARONES BAY, an extensive indentation and large vessels cannot approach nearer to it of the E coast of Patagonia, in S lat. 44° 46', by than within 3 or 4 leagues. This cause, together which a river of the same name enters the Atlantic. with the violence of the tides, which rise here 30 ft.,

CAMARONOS, a town of the island of Cuba, and flow with immense velocity, and the numerous 125 m. ESE of Havanna, on a stream which falls rocks in the gulf of C., have contributed to the deinto Jagua bay.

cline of its commerce. C. was formerly one of the CAMAROONS, or CAMAROENS, a river and bay largest and richest cities of the East. It was called of Africa, in the bight of Biafra.-Little is known of the Cairo of the Indies, on account of the extent of the river beyond its entrance, which exhibits an its commerce, its manufactures of silks, chintzes, open space of 7 m. across, but includes the mouth of and gold brocade, and the fertility of the adjacent the Malembe, which branches off in a NE direction. territory, which produces grain, cotton, opium, inAll the country immediately bordering the river is digo, and many other valuable articles of trade. low and marshy. In average breadth, as far as Its port was frequented by merchant-vessels from Captain Allen ascended, or for 50 m., it is 400 yards. every part of the East Indies, from Mozambique, Its depth, in the dry season, varies from 2 to 20 ft. Melinda, and from the Arabian and Persian gulfs.

low the town.

The principal articles exported from it were fine | three days hy about 150,000 persons.—The Cambercotton cloths, canvass for the sails of ships, silk well St. Giles' poor-law union comprehends the parstuffs of various kinds, scarfs for ladies' head-dresses, ish, embracing an area of 7 sq. m., with a pop. returncarpets, bed covers of silk and cotton, mattresses, ed in 1831 at 28,231; in 1841, at 39,868. The aveindigo, saltpetre, borax, cummin, ginger, rhubarb, rage annual expenditure on the poor of this district sugar, oil, ghee, elephants' teeth, and precious stones, during the three years preceding the formation of particularly cornelians, agates, and Mocha stones. the union was £15,930. Expenditure in 1846-7, The agates are of different hues: those generally £16,582. called cornelians are black, white, and red in shades CAMBES, a commune and town of France, in the from the palest yellow to the deepest scarlet. Great dep. of the Gironde, cant. of Creon, on the r. bank quantities of grain and fruits of different kinds were of the Garonne, 9 m. SE of Bordeaux. The envialso shipped for different parts of the East. Cotton, rons afford considerable quantities of wine. grain, and indigo are its chief exports at present.- CAMBIL, a town of Spain, in Andalusia, pror. Major Wilford supposes this place to be the Asta- and 14 m. SSE of Jaen, and on the r. bank of the campra of Ptolemy. In 1780 it was tributary to the river of that name. Mahrattas, but it now belongs to the East India CAMBING, an island of the Asiatic archipelago, coinpany. Though the commerce of C. has suffered in the Ombay Passage, to the N of the island of Tia great diminution, it is still very considerable; and mor, in N lat. 8° 15', E long. 125° 40'. It is about its pop. is estimated at 10,000, amongst whom are 30 m. in circumference. several Parsi families. The natives of the country, CAMBIO, a town of Piedmont, in the prov. of Lo particularly the Banjans, who devote themselves to mellina, and 18 m. S of Mortara, near the l. bank of commercial pursuits, and who have a perfect know the Po. Pop. 800. ledge of precious stones, carry on a very extensive CAMBIR ISLAND, an island of the China sea, trade with Diu, Goa, Cochin, Acheen, Bantam, Ba- near the E coast of Cochin China, in N lat. 13° 30, tavia, Bengal, coast of Coromandel, Persia, and the 16 m. SE of Port Qui-nhon. Red sea.-Forbes's Oriental Memoirs.Rennell's Me- CAMBISES, or CARAGOUNIB, a nomade tribe who inhabit the moir.-Hamilton.-Asiatic Journal.

range of the Pindus, on the confines of Trikali. CAMBAY (GULF OF), a deep indentation of the NW coast of

CAMBLANES, a commune of France, in the dep. Indía, extending from the S extremity of the peninsula of Guzerat, in N lat. 20° 40', to the above city,--a distance of 180 m

of Gironde, cant. of Creon, 8 m. SE of Bordeaux, It is bounded by the coast of Guzerat on the W, and by that near the r. bank of the Garonne. Pop. 859. of Surat on the E. Near to the city of C. the tides run with extreme rapidity, nearly at the rate of 6 m. an hour: at high water W. R. of Yorkshire, between the Ouse and Aire, 3

CAMBELSFORTH, a township in the p. of Drax, rise 30 ft., and at low water leave the gulf dry for 7 leagues be

At 15 m. to the E of C., the breadth of the gulf is m. N of Snaith. Area 1,970 acres. Pop. in 1841, 32). only 6 m. It is here also completely dry at ebb tide; but the CAMBO, a township in the p. of Hartburn, Northbottom is covered with mud and quicksands, so as to render a umberland, 12} m. W of Morpeth. Pop. in 1841, 99. passage across without a guide extremely dangerous. Both in the gulfs of Cutch and C., the bore or rush of the tide is nearly as

CAMBO, a commune of France, in the dep. of the rapid as that at the mouth of the Indus and Ganges. The depth Basses-Pyrenees, cant. of Espelette, 12 m. SSE of of water in the gulf of C. is supposed to have been gradually di- Bayonne, on the l. bank of the Nive. Pop. 1,373. into the E side of the gulf, to the 8 of c.:

on it stands a town of It contains thermal springs and baths. the same name. The Nerbudda also falls into this part of the CAMBODIA, an extensive country in the penin-. gull: on it stands the town of Baroach. The Cambay coast of sula beyond the Ganges, to the SE of Siam, respectthe gulf is rather high. As we approach further to the S, to the ing which we possess very little information. The chamels in the N part of the gulf are liable to shift under the vio- Portuguese call it Camboja, pronounced Cambokha; lence of the freshes. A number of small native boats of about 30 the Dutch, Camboetsja, pronounced Cambootja; the tons, rigged with a large shoulder-of-mutton shaped lateen, a French geographers write it Camboge, or Cambodje; sinall one aft, and a jib, trade between this gulf and Bombay dur- and on our charts it is called Cambodia, which some ing eight months of the year; the violence of the SW monsoon prevents their putting to sea for the other four months.

consider a corruption of the Chinese name Kan-pouCAMBE (LA), a commune of France, in the dep. chi. It is called Kao-inien by the Tonquinese. This of Calvados, cant. of Isigny. Pop. 785.

country comprises the S extremity of that long neck CAMBERFORD, a hamlet in the p. of Tamworth, of land which lies between the two gulfs of Siam and Staffordshire. Pop. in 1841, 122.

Tonquin, forming what might be termed the rump of CAMBERNON, a commune of France, in the the Chinese empire. It is situated between 8° 47' dep. of the Manche, cant. and 4 m. NE of Coutances, and 15° lat.; and is bounded by Laos on the N; and 14 m. SW of Saint Lo. Pop. 1,446.

by Cochin China and Siampa on the E; by the CAMBERWELL (Sr. Giles), a parish of Surrey, Chinese sea on the SE; by the gulf of Siam on the including the hamlets of Dulwich and Peckham, and SW; and by the kingdom of Siam on the W. It is part of Norwood, in the E half-hund. of Brixton, 4 divided into three districts : viz., Northern C. or Pem. W of Greenwich. In 1619, Edward Alleyne kheng; Southern C. or Nan-kheng; and Cancao or founded and endowed Dulwich college in this parish; Pontiamo, forming the SW district. In general form the yearly income of which is now about £8,000. this country resembles Egypt, being a very large val. The village is delightfully situated; and the beauty ley forming the basin of the May-kiang river, from its of its environs has made it a favourite residence with mouth up to the parallel of 15° N. This country the more wealthy citizens of the metropolis. The was at one time an independent state, governed by ancient part of the village is the green and its vici- its own princes; and is of higher antiquity than any, nity; the more modern occupies the rising ground to of the surrounding states. In 1786 it was conquered the SE, and comprises the Grove, Champon, Den by the Siamese. It is now in great part divided bemark, and Herne hills. C. is one of the polling-tween the Siamese and the Cochin-Chinese, and is the places for the members for the eastern division of cause of much hostility between the two countries. Its Surrey.-A fair is held here annually, in the month king seems to owe any independence be may possess of August, which continues for three days. By the to the mutual jealousy of his two powerful neighbours. more sober and respectable part of the inhabitants it Physical features.] The frontiers towards Laos is generally regarded as a nuisance; but being at form a natural barrier. High mountains rise toonce a manorial right, and a source of emolument, wards the E extremity of this line, and run S toall attempts to suppress it have hitherto proved inef- wards the sea. The Tchampawa chain runs from fectual. In 1839, this fair was attended during the NE to SW, and terminates on the banks of the Meinam, Meinam-kom, May-kiang, or Cambodia river, , and Malays, are settled in the country. These which runs from N to S, and divides itself into a last are scarcely distinguishable from the natives number of arms before reaching the sea, so as to form in features and complexion. Some of the young several large islands at its mouth. This noble stream native females are handsome and beautiful before is the largest of all those that water the Indo-Chinese their teeth, tongue, gums, and lips, are stained with territories, being the lower course of the river of the favourite masticatory compound of lime, betel, Laos, the Kiou-long-keaung of Yunnan, and the and areca; but from this practice, and their general Matcha of Tibet. Before it has reached the ca- dirty habits, at thirty they are objects of disgust, and at pital of Laos, it has already run 1,200 m. of a di- forty absolutely hideous. Like the Japanese ladies, rect course, but has 600 m. more to run ere it mingle they wear a number of long robes of different colours, its waters with those of the sea. Not far below its one over the other; the upper one being always entrance into C. it begins to send off branches. One shorter than the one immediately beneath it. They of these, after passing Lowaik, rejoins the May-kiang all profess Buddhism.-The language of C. is harsher 36 m. below. It has two main deltoid branches, the than the Siamese, and differs materially from it. It W called the Bassak channel, and the E called the is at the same time more copious; and its literature river of Japan: these two branehes are themselves sub- is rather extensive. Dr. Gutzlaff says he has seen a divided into other minor branches. The mouth of the geographical work in the language of this conntry, Bassak is, according to Captain Hamilton, very deep: written some centaries ago, and more correct in its the shallowest part of the channel being 4 fath., and details than Chinese works of the same class. deepening within to 20 fath. in some places. The N Cities.] At the distance of 60 m. from the mouth of entrance, the Japan river, 10 leagues distant, is the Don-nai-which is certainly a branch of the Cambroader, but much shallower and little frequented. bodia-stands the city of Saigon, called by the natives It was ap the Don-nai branch of the Japan river that Luknui. The intermediate country is a dead fat of White sailed to Saigon, and found it to preserve a alluvial soil, thickly covered to the water's edge with mean depth of from 8 to 15 fath. all the way, having mangroves and other trees, and resembling, in all seldom less than 3 fath. to the very banks. It is in respects, the sunderbunds of the Ganges. On the fact one of the finest navigable rivers anywhere to be seventh day of his tedious navigation, Captain White found. The valley, watered and annually inundated says, a few scattered cottages and patches of cultiby the C. river, is highly fertile. On the borders of vated ground began to make their appearance; these the inundated territory a tract of desert land begins, were succeeded by groves of cocoa-nut trees, herds and seems to extend a great way to the E. The of buffaloes, fishing-boats, and a distant forest of coast of C. is generally low, sandy, covered with cop- masts indicating their approach to the city. The pice-wood, and washed by a very shallow sea. A great American expedition landed at the great bazaar, or part of the country is covered with one impenetrable market-place, which they observed to be well-stocked forest of ancient trees, where no voice is heard but with a variety of fruits and provisions, exposed for that of birds and beasts, and not an inch of cultivat- sale mostly by females; and progressed along a wide ed ground is visible.

and regular but filthy street towards the citadel, a Climate and productions.] Captain White informs large quadrilateral area enclosed by walls of brick us that the climate of c. is as fine as that of any and earth, about 20 ft. high, and of immense thickother country within the torrid zone; the periodical ness. Within this enclosure are the viceroy's palace winds passing over and refreshing every part of it. and very spacious barracks. In the naval arsenal, The therm. in the month of October ranged from 80° situated on the banks of a deep creek, Captain to 85* in the shade at Saigon, and the rains were White saw 150 gallies of most beautiful construcheavy and almost constant. From the mountains tion, mounting from 4 to 16 small brass guns, hauled the natives procure gold, copper, silver, and iron; up under sheds. On the W side of the city was a and from the forests a great variety of valuable drugs, canal

, just finished, 23 m. in length, 80 ft. wide, and and of woods for building and for dyeing; of the lat- 12 ft. deep, which had been cut through immense ter the Cambogia guttifera is well-known in com- forests and morasses, and completed in the short merce. Among the productions of the soil are rice space of six weeks. It connects the Donnai with of six different kinds, sugar, pepper, sago, cassia, the great river of C.; 26,000 men were employed cinnamon, areca, betel, tobacco, cotton, raw silk, in- night and day, by turns, in this stupendous underdigo, and many other articles well-adapted for a fo- taking; and 7,000 lives sacrificed by fatigue and reign market. Arrack is the common beverage of consequent disease. Close to the city, and near the the country. Antelopes of various kinds, deer, and bank of the river, was a long range of rice-magahares, abound on the hills; peacocks, pheasants, and zines, which is a royal monopoly, and can only be partridges are plentiful; and water-fowls of all kinds exported by special permission. A number of temswarm in the creeks and rivers. Elephants, rhino-ples, similar to Chinese pagodas, and dedicated to ceroses, and tigers, abound in the woods, and are Boudh and his subordinate deities, are scattered hunted for their ivory, horns, and skins. The horn over the city. The streets generally intersect each of the rhinoceros is a royal monopoly, and is greatly other at right angles, and some of them are described prized by the Chinese; the test of its goodness is re- as very spacious; some of the houses are of brick ported to be the strength of the noise heard when covered with tiles, but the greater part of wood the concave root is applied to the ear, as shells

are thatched with palm-leaves or rice-straw. White inby children to hear if the tide be coming in.' Sev- forms us, on the authority of a missionary, confirmed eral ineffectnal attempts have been made by different by that of the viceroy, that Saigon contains 180,000 European nations to open up a commerce with this inhabitants, of whom about 10,000 are Chinese. country. See articles KAMPOT and UDONG.

This place carries on a brisk trade both with SingaPopulation.] The pop. of C. certainly amounts to pore and the N ports of China, principally in betelat least 1,000,000; but we have no means of approach-nut and silk. –When Haginaar, Wusthof, and Haing to accuracy in our estimate of it. In their dress milton wrote, Lowaik was the capital of Cambodia. and manners the C. imitate the Chinese. They are, The city is situated 300 m. up the river; not on the according to Gutzlaff, “a cringing, coarse people, river itself

, but on a branch of it called Sistor, which, narrow-minded, insolent, and officiou3 as circum- 36 m. below, rejoins the main stream. It is 40 stances may allow." Rice and dried fish consti- | leagues S of the frontiers of Laos, and 60 leagues E tute their chief food. Many Japanese, Chinese, I of the gulf of Siam. All the houses are built contiguous, and the whole enclosed with double rows of Scheldt here, joins the Oise at Chauny.-C., the trees and walks between. The inhabitants were Camaracum of the Romans, is of great antiquity. It estimated at 30,000 souls, and were composed of became in the middle ages the cap. of the premier Japanese, Portuguese, Cochin-Chinese, Malays, and bishop of the same name. In 1544 it was taken by Cambodians. According to Van Wusthof, there is Charles V., and in 1595 by Spain; but it was rea city on the great river which he passed by on his gained by France in 1667. It was taken by the voyage from Lowaik to Winkjan, called Huysoun, English on 24th June, 1815. noted for the beauty of its silk manufactures; and CAMBREA, a town of Senegambia, in the disbeyond it is Munkok, a large commercial city on the trict of Segalia, on the Bentala river, 100 m. NW of frontiers of Laos, being the mart where the Laojans Timbo. It is inhabited by Serracolets, and possesses and Cambodians meet to exchange their several a considerable transit trade. commodities. The coast of C. is said to possess CAMBREMBO, a town of Piedmont, at the head some very fine ports, amongst which is Chantibun of the valley of Brembana, 13 m. NNE of La Piazza. tributary to Siam, and containing 30,000 inhabitants, CAMBREMER, a canton, commune, and town of and Kangkao, belonging to Cochin-China. Chanti- France, in the dep. of Calvados, arrond. of Pontbun exports pepper, rice, and betel-nut to Canton ; l'Evêque. -- The cant. comprises 31 com., and in and some of the ports trade with Singapore. From 1831 contained a pop. of 8,214.-The town is 13 m. Kamao, situated at the S extremity of C., to Cape SW of Pont-l'Evêque. Pop. 1,252. Liant, the coast is bordered with an archipelago of CAMBRES (LES), a hamlet of France, in the beautiful islands inhabited by Cochin-Chinese, Chi- dep. of Seine-Inferieure, cant. of Cleres, and com. nese, and Cambodians.

of Anceaumeville. Pop. 56. CAMBON, a commune and town of France, in CAMBRE'SIS, an ancient county of France, conthe dep. of the Loire Inferieure, cant. of and 4 m. taining an area of 96,985 hectares, in the prov. of from Savenay. Pop. 4,930.

Flanders, now comprised in the dep. of the Nord. CAMBORNE, a parish and market-town in Corn- Its chief towns were Cambray, the cap.; and Cateau. wall, 94 m. NW of Penryn, intersected by the Red- Cambrésis. It was ceded to France by the treaty of ruth railway. The town is situated in the centre of Nimèguen in 1678. an extensive mining district in which copper, tin, CAMBRIA, a county in the state of Pennsylvania, and lead are wrought. The Dalcoath copper-mine U.S., situated in a valley between the main branch in this p. has been sunk to the depth of 1,000 ft., of the Alleghany mountains and Laurel Ridge, comand sometimes affords employment to 1,000 hands. prising a superficies of 720 sq. m., drained by the Pop. in 1801, 4,811; in 1831, 7,699; in 1841, 10,061.head-waters of the Kiskiminitas, or Connemaugh, Area of p. 6,900 acres.

and W branch of the Susquehanna rivers. It is CAMBOULAS, a village of France, in the dep. hilly but moderately fertile. Pop. in 1830, 7,076; of Aveyron, cant. of Pont-de-Sallars. Pop. 260. in 1840, 11,256.-Also a township of Niagara co., in

CAMBOUNES, a commune of France, in the the state of New York, 283 m. NW of Albany. Its dep. of Tarn, cant. of Brassac, 12 m. E of Castres. surface is generally level, and its soil consists of a Pop. 1,683. It has some woollen manufactories. compound of sand and calcareous loam. Pop. in

CAMBOYA, a river of New Grenada, which falls 1840, 2,090.--Also a township of Cambria co., in into the Napo, 85 m. WNW of the confluence of the state of Pennsylvania. It presents a hilly surthat river with the Amazon.

face, and is drained by Black Lich creek and the N CAMBRAY, or CAMBRAI, an arrondissement, can- branch of Little Connemaugh river. Its soil conton, commune, and town of France, in the dep. of sists of sandy clay. Pop. 1,156. In this township the Nord. The arrond. comprises an area of 89,260 | is Ebensburg, the cap. of the co. hectares; and contains 6 cant., viz., Cambrai, Car- CAMBRIDGE, the county-town of Cambridgenières, Cateau, Clary, Marcoing, and Solesme. Pop. shire, is locally situated in the hund. of Flendish, but in 1831, 152,444; in 1836, 157,362; in 1846, 174,094. possesses separate jurisdiction; 50 m. N by E of Lon

- The cant. comprises 31 com., and in 1831 con- don; 57} m. by railway; 247 m. from Ely by railway; tained a pop. of 38,987.—The town is situated on and 50 m. from Norwich. The borough extends about the r. bank of the Schelde, at the mouth of the Saint 3 m. 1 furlong from E to W, and has an average Quentin canal, at an alt. of 226 ft. above sea-level, breadth of 14 m., comprising an area of 3,194 acres, 12 m. ESE of Douay, and 34 m. SSE of Lille; in 2 roods. The town derives its modern name from the 50° 10' 39" N lat. Pop. in 1789, 15,340; in 1821, river Cam, by which it is divided into two unequal 17,085; in 1836, 17,846; in 1846, 18,308. This town, parts. It was the Grantan bryege or Grante-brige of the seat of an archbishopric, is large and well-forti- the Saxon Chronicle, signifying the bridge over the fied, and contains several fine streets and edifices, Granta,' the ancient name of the river Cam. “It and a handsome parade. The citadel occupies a once extended,” says Carter, “from the castle of commanding situation, and is esteemed one of the Grandchester—now a small village 2 m. SW of the strongest in Europe. The old cathedral, of consi- town—to the castle of Chesterton, 3 m. along the W derable antiquity, and which contained the tomb bank of the river Cam; but we have nothing remainof the celebrated Fenelon, was destroyed in 1793. ing of that ancient city, except the village of GrandThere are a communal college, an episcopal palace, chester, and the parishes of St. Giles and St. Peter, a town-house, a library of 27,000 vols., and a theatre now part of modern C., being the two extremities of in the place. The bishop of C. is a suffragan of that ancient city.” “The site of the Roman Granta," Paris, and has for his diocese the dep. of Nord. says Dr. Stukeley, “is very traceable on the side of This town is celebrated for its manufactures of linen c. towards the castle, on the NW side of the river.” and cambric; and possesses also extensive cotton and The approach is by no means striking; and the town linen yarn spinning - mills, manufactories of tulle, owes its picturesque attractions entirely to the maglace, calicoes, and other cotton fabrics, hosiery, black nitude and beauty of the buildings belonging to the soap, sugar from beet-root, and oil, salt refineries, university, with the extensive walks and gardens attanneries, bleacheries, and numerous breweries. Its tached to them. The town is situated nearly in the commerce, which is extremely active, consists in middle of the borough, occupying about one-fifth of articles of local manufacture, grain, seed, hops, but the whole space. The Cam flows through the town, ter, lint, wool, and coal. It is much promoted by entering on the S side, and pursuing a northerly di. the canal of St. Quentin, which, issuing out of the rection, along the back of the colleges, on the W side

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3,998 ongh to the NE corner. Two principal roads enter


14,400 83 1,100 21,409 the borough, on the south side, from London,-one Emmanuel,

2,500 40 670 4,277 Sidney,

2,400 36 by way of Royston, the other by way of Chester

4,232 Downing, 3,200

4,220 ford. --and after uniting in Bridge-street, proceed across the Cam to Huntingdon. A road from New

431 £90,330 793 £13,390 £133,268 market enters the borough on the E, and passes History.] The honour of having laid the foundation of this through Barnwell to the northern part of the town. most splendid establishment, seems due to Sigebert, king of the The principal lines of streets are those of the two

East Angles, who, according to Bede, with the advice of Bishop

Felix, in the early half of the 7th cent, established in his own first-mentioned roads. Nearly all the colleges and dominions a school in imitation of certain institutions for educa. grounds are on the W side of the town. The streets tion which he had seen in France. This school is supposed to are generally narrow and winding, and the houses have been set up at C. Edward the Elder, according to the irregularly built; but Bridge-street, St. Andrew's, gular system of academical education seems to have been first in

chronicle of Hyde abbey, erected halls for the students; but a reand Trompington streets, are broad, airy, and plea- troduced at C. in the early part of the 12th cent. Edward III., sant, and the whole town is well-paved, and lighted in 1333, granted most important privileges to the university, with gas.-C. possesses no manufactures; but by the making its authority paramount to that of the borough. In 1634,

the university renounced the supremacy of the Pope, and in the Cam, which is navigable up to the town, a consider- following year resigned all its charters to the king, who soon able trade is carried on with the port of Lynn. The after restored them, and reinstated the university in its privicommodities forming the staple of this traffic are

leges.—The following account of this celebrated seat of learning corn, coal, timber, and iron; the warehouses for is compiled chiefly from Dyer's History, and the University Ca

lendar. which are situated on the banks of the river, at the Government.] Of the 17 colleges, or halls, or societies, which two extreme ends of the town. Great quantities of form the university of Cambridge, each is a body corporate, and oil pressed from flax, hemp, and cole seed, at the ruled by its own particular statutes ; but each is also subject to

general laws which regulate the practice of the confederated body pamerous mills in the isle of Ely, are brought up as a university. Each of the 17 departments, so to speak, of this the river; and large cargoes of butter are, by the literary union, has its allotted share in the general administrasame means, conveyed hither weekly from Norfolk tion; each, through its individual members, deliberating upon, and the isle of Ely to be forwarded by the waggons throngh the executive branches of its government.-- The senate

rejecting, or decreeing laws in the senate, and enforcing them to London. The principal market-place, consisting takes cognizance of the whole bnsiness of the university. Here of two oblong squares, is spacious and centrically the office-bearers are elected; and without a grace passing through situated. Cambridge has two fairs; one for horses, of arts and the doctors in divinity, civil law, and physic, having

it, no degree can be granted. It is composed of all the masters cattle, timber, and pottery, beginning on the 24th of their names upon the college-boards, holding any university of Jane, and continuing for a week. The other, called fice or resident in the town, the whole amounting to nearly 2,000. Stourbridge or Sturbitch fair, was anciently one of The senate is divided into two classes, or houses, - masters of

arts of less than five years' standing, and doctors of less than the most celebrated and best frequented in the king two, compose the regent, or upper house,--the remainder constidom. It commences on the 18th of September, and tute the non-regent, or lower house. The latter wear black silk continues for fourteen days. The staple commodi- hoods, the former hoods lined with white silk. Hence they are

also denominated the white-hood house and the black-hood house. ties are leather, timber, cheese, hops, wool, hard

Doctors of more than two years' standing, and the orator of the Fare, and cattle.

university, are privileged to vote with either of the houses they Municipal government and franchise.] Though a think proper.-The right of electing the two members of parlia

ment is vested in the doctors and masters of arts who have their borough by prescription, C. was not incorporated till

names on the boards of their respective colleges. The returning the early part of the reign of Henry I. By the mu- officer is the vice-chancellor.-Besides the two houses of the nicipal act of 1835 the government of the town is senate, a council called the caput is chosen annually, by which vested in a mayor, 10 aldermen, and 30 councillors. every university grace must be unanimously approved before it

can be introduced to the senate. It consists of the vice chancelThe same act divided the town into five wards; and lor, a doctor of each faculty-law, physic, and theology-a regent, assigned to it a commission of the peace. A new and a non-regent master of arts. A meeting of the senate is county court has recently been erected in the mixed called a congregation. A list of the days on which congregations Italian and Palladian style. The façade, 102 ft. in

are to be held for transacting university business, is published by

the vice-chancellor a few days before the commencing of each length, projects before a wider and loftier mass in the term. These days occur generally once a-fortnight; but the vicerear, containing the two court-rooms.—The borough chancellor can convene the senate when he pleases; and any has returned two members to parliament ever since member not below five-and-twenty, with the proper officers or

their legal deputies, may transact whatever business is brought the 23d of Edward I. The elective franchise was

before them. Meetings are enjoined by the statutes on certain formerly vested with the freemen not receiving alms, days, and a congregation may be held at any time when forty in number somewhat below 200, and of whom more members can be convened. than the half were non-resident. The number of chancellor, a high steward, a vice-chancellor, a commissary, a public

The executive administration of the university is committed to a electors in 1847 was 1,946.

orator, an assessor, two proctors, two pro-proctors, two moderators, CAXBRIDGE UNIVERSITY is a society of students in all the libe- a registrar, two taxors, two scrutators, classical examiners, syndics, ral arts and sciences, incorporated by the name of the Chancel- marshal, three esquire bedells, yeoman bedell, university printer, lilor, Masters, and Scholars of the University of Cambridge,' and brary keeper, under library keeper, school keeper, &c. --The chanfamaed by the union of 13 colleges, and 4 halls possessing equal cellor is the head of the whole university, and presides over all cases privileges with the colleges. It is situated in the county-town of relative to that body. The office is biennial, but tenable for life, C. over which it possesses both a special and a concurrent juris- if the university chooses tacitly so to allow.—The vice-chanceldiction. The revenues of this university were estimated in 1835 lor, in the absence of the chancellor, is governor of the university 43 fullows: Heads of houses, 17 in number, £12,650; 431 fellows according to the statutes. He possesses magistratical authority whose revenue is £90,330; 793 scholarships with £13,390; 179 both in the university and the county; and he must be the head esirge-officers with £17,750; 252 prizes of the value of £1,038; of some college.--The moderators, nominated by the proctors, 591 benetices and incumbents with £93,300; rent of rooms, and appointed by a grace of the senate, act as substitutes for the £15,680; and college-revenues, £133,268.

proctors in the philosophical schools, and are generally deputed

to officiate for the proctors in their absence.-The registrar, electFellows. Revenue. Scholarships.


ed by the senate, attends personally, or by deputy, all congrega.

tions, to give requisite directions for the due form of such graces Peterhouse, 24 £3,960

£440 £5,646

as are to be propounded, to receive them when they have passed Clare-hall, 22 4,400

both houses, and to register them in the records.--'The scrutators Penbroke, 16 2.960 43

4,746 -who are non-regents, and chosen by the non-regents only--at7,370

1,580 10,844 tend all congregations to read the graces in the lower house, to Tricity, 12 1,440

210 2,446 gather the votes, and publicly to pronounce the assent or dissent Corpus Christi, 2,400

4.5.35 of that house.- Classical examiners are nominated by the several King's,



50 46


680 670






22,071 colleges. Their business is sufficiently indicated by their official Queen's 4.000

5.682 appellative.-Syndics are members of ihe senate chosen to transCatharine hall. 14 2,060

3,571 act special attairs relating to the university, such as the framing Jesus',


4,998 of laws, regulating fees, inspecting buildings, &c





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