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Particular professorships.] Besides the regular professorships | menced on or near their present site in 1443. They were built at in the several colleges and halls, professorships have at different the expense of the university, aided by liberal benefactions periods been founded for the university generally: some of them They form three sides of a small court. "The whole quadrangie by the university itself, others by individuals who took a special in- of apartments over the schools, consisting of four large and comterest in promoting the study of particular subjects. Of these, the modious rooms, is occupied by the public library, which contain: first in order of time is Lady Margaret's professorship of divinity, upwards of 160,000 volumes. — The botanical garden on the se founded in 1502, hy Margaret, Muntess of Richmond, and mother side of the town occupies between 3 and 4 acres, conveniently to Henry VII. The regius professorship of divinity and civil laid out and well-watered. - The anatomical school contains a law, physic, and Hebrew, was founded by Henry VIII. in 1540. large collection of rare and valuable preparations. The observeA professorship of Arabic was founded by Sir Thomas Adams, tory stands on an eminence about 1 m. from the college walks on Bart., in 1632. In 1663. Henry Lucas, Esq., M.P. for the univer- the road to Madingley. It was completed in 1832, at an expense sity, founded a professorship of mathematics, named from him the of £19,000 The front extends 120 ft. The principal entrance is Lucasian professorship: In 1683, John Knightsbridge, D.D., under a portico supported by fluted Doric columns. - For the fellow of St. Peter's, founded a professorship of casuistry. In purpose of promoting scientific inquiries, and of facilitating the 1684, the professorship of music was founded by the university. communication of facts connected with the advancement of phiA professorship of chemistry was also founded by the university, losophy and natural history, a philosophical society was instiin 1702 In 1704, Dr. Plume, archdeacon of Rochester, founded tuted in the winter of 1819. It has published several very interthe professorship of astronomy and experimental philosophy. In esting volumes of transactions.-The Pitt press, in Trompington 1707, the professorships of anatomy and botany were founded by street, a very elegant building, was finished in 1833.-The new the university, and, in 1724, the professorship of modern history Fitzwilliam museum is situated in the open part of Trompin ton by George I. In 1727, the famous Dr. Woodward founded the street, in front of the grove of Peterhouse college. The edifice is professorship of geology. In 1749, Thomas Lowndes, Esq, of the Corinthian order, covering an area of 160 ft in length, by founded that of astronomy and geometry, In 1768, John Norris, 162 ft. in depth. The façade, which is 76 ft. in height, presents Esq., of Whitton, in the county of Norfolk, founded a professor- an octastyle portico, pseudo-dipterally arranged, with side-colonship of divinity, named from the founder the Norrisian professor- nades or wings. The broad flight of steps ascending to the porship. In 1783, the Rev. Richard Jackson, M. A., founded the pro- tico, elevates the latter considerably above the adjacent buildfessorship of natural and experimental philosophy. A professor- ings: it is imposing in its proportions; and a great richness of ship of the laws of England, and a professorship of medicine, were effect is given by the sculpture with which it is decorated. The founded in 1800, by Sir George Downing, Bart., K. B. A profes- other three fronts are also highly ornamented with fluted Corinsorship of mineralogy was founded by the university in 1808, and thian pilasters, niches, and statuary; and the bold and forid mo. soon after endowed by government; and, in 1823, a professorship dillion cornice of the portico is carried in its full projection round of political econoiny.--In addition to this long list of professor- the whole building. The material employed is Portland stone ships, there are a number of distinct lectureships and literary St. Peter's college.] of the colleges, the union of which forms offices.

the university which we have above described, St. Peter's, called Orders.] The several orders in the different colleges are a Peter house, is the most ancient. It was founded in 1257 by head, fellows, noblemen-graduates, doctors in the several fa- | Hugh de Balsham, bishop of Ely, on the west side of Trompculties, bachelors in divinity, graduates, bachelors in civilington-street. It consists of three courts, but has little of archilaw and in physic, bachelors of arts, fellow-commoners, pen- tectural character. The chapel, built in 1632, is chiefly remarksioners, scholars, and sizers. The head is generally a doc- able for its fine window of painted glass representing the Cruci. tor in divinity. Fellows are doctors in divinity, civil law, or fixion. physic, bachelors in divinity, masters or bachelors of arts, - Clare hall.] Clare hall, originally University hall, was founded their number is between 400 and 500. Noblemen-graduates are in 1326 by Dr. Richard Badew. Having been burnt to the doctors in the several faculties, bachelors in divinity, who have ground about 1342, it was rebuilt and liberally endowed by Elibeen masters of arts, and masters of arts who are not on the zabeth de Burgh, one of the sisters and coheiresses of Gilbert, foundation, but keep their names upon the boards for the purpose earl of Clare, whence its name. It stands on the E bank of the of being members of the senate. Graduates are bachelors in di- Cam, over which it has an elegant stone-bridge, leading by a vinity, neither members of the senate, nor in statu pupillari, de- fine avenue into a lawn surrounded by lofty elin-trees, and comnominated four-and-twenty men, or ten-year men. Bachelors of manding a prospect towards Coton and Madingley. It was arts, who are in statu pupillari, and pay for tuition, whether resi- rebuilt in 1638, and is the most uniform of the university build. dent or not, keep their names on the boards to become candidates ings. It consists of a court 150 ft. long by 111 broad. The chafor fellowships, or members of the senate. Fellow-commoners pel, rebuilt in 1769 at an expense of £7,000, is celebrated for the are generally the younger sons of the nobility or young men of neatness of its stucco-work. fortune, and have the privilege of dining at the fellows' table. Pembroke hall ) Pembroke hall or college was founded by They are equivalent here to gentleman-commoners at Oxford Mary countess of Pembroke, in 1343. It stands on the east side Pensioners and scholars both pay for their rooms, commons, &c.; of Trompington-street, nearly opposite to St. Peter's. It consists but the latter are on the foundation, and, from the enjoyment of of two courts of nearly equal dimensions, being about 95 by 55 scholarships, read the graces in the hall, the lessons in chapel, &c. feet, with the hall between them. The chapel, built by Dr. MatThe number of scholarships and exhibitions in the university is thew Wren, bishop of Ely, from a design by his nephew Sir between 700 and 800. The terms are three:- Michaelmas term Christopher Wren, is considered to be among the most elegant begins October 10th, and ends on the 16th of December. Lent, and best proportioned in the university. or January term, begins on the 13th of January, and ends on the Caius' college.] Gonville hall was founded by Edmund, son of Friday before Palm Sunday. Easter, or midsummer term, be- Sir Nicholas Gonville of Torrington, in the county of Norfolk. in gins on the 11th day after Easter-day and ends on the Friday 1348. It was consolidated with the new foundation by Dr. John after commencement-day, which is always the first Tuesday in Caius, in 1558, and under the charter then obtained the united July. The number of resident members of the several colleges foundations received the name of Gonville and Caius college, in 1810, 1845, and 1846, was as follows:

This college consists of three courts. The S court, and three re1840. 1845. 1846.

November, 1849. markable gates of Grecian architecture, built by Dr. Caius, one of

In coll In lodg. Total. the founders, are supposed to have been designed by John of PaTrinity, 443 516 526 228


dua, architect to Henry VIII., and to be the only works of his St. John's,

342 884 381 238 145 383 now remaining in the kingdom. The chapel is small, but greatly

113 Corpus Christi, 114 124 64

7 71

admired. Queen's, 111 112 121

47 91

Trinity hall.) Trinity hall was founded by William Bateman, Caius', 96 117 119 57 93 150

bishop of Norwich, in 1350. The chapel is remarkable for its St. Peter's, 75 110 105 57 11

68 finely painted altar-piece, and the library, for containing a comCatherine-hall, 83 94 95 37 39


plete body of the canon, Roman, and common law. This college Christ's, 72 66 75 72 45 117

is almost exclusively devoted to the students of civil law. Emmanuel's, . 73 69 78

64 50 114

Corpus Christi college.] Corpus Christi college was founded in Jesus', 60 56 58 68 12 70

1351 by the brethren of two guilds in Cambridge, bearing the Pembroke, 60 61 53 38


names of Gilda Corporis Christi, and Gilda Beatæ Mariæ Vir. Clare-hall, 59 54 52 56


ginis. The W front of the new court is 222 ft. long. It has a Magdalene,

42 50


lofty and massive tower at each extremity, with a superb gateSidney, 34 43 38 33


way in the centre flanked with towers corresponding with those King's, 34 31 85 29


at each end. The exterior is built of Ketton stone, and richly Trinity-hall, 33 31 34



ornamented. The court is 158 ft. long, and 129 broad, having Downing, 11 12 12



the chapel on the E, the library on the S, and the hall on the N

sides. The chapel is 66 ft. long, and its exterior is richly adorned 1,754 1,915 1,943 1,173 791 1,964

with sculpture.

King's college.] King's college—the inost magnificent foundaPublic buildings) The senate house, the public schools, and tion in Cambridge-was founded in 1441 by Henry VI. It conthe library, are the principal public buildings belonging to the sists of a provost and 70 fellows and scholars, the latter of whom university. The senate house, designed by Sir James Burrell, is are supplied in regular succession from Eton college. The sevean elegant building of Portland stone, and was erected at the ral buildings of this college form altogether the most superb expense of the university, aided by an extensive subscription. group in Cambridge. To the 8 of the old court stands the chaThe foundation was laid in 1722, but it was not entirely compel, one of the finest specimens of the later style of English pleted till 1766. The exterior is of the Corinthian order, the in. architecture in the kingdom. It was begun in 1441 by Henry terior Doric. The galleries are of Norway oak, and calculated to VI.. continued by Edward IV., Richard III., and Henry VII., ucommodate 1,100 persons. — The public schools were com- and completed with money bequeathed by the latter for that pur.

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pose in 1515. Its extreme length is 316 ft., forming the N side banks of which are generally fertile. The hilly of the grand court; its breadth 84 ft.; its height to the summit of the battlements 90 ft., to the top of the pinnacles 101 ft., and

tracts afford excellent pasturage. Pop. 1,790.-Also to the summit of the corner towers 146 ft. Of this splendid edi

a township of Washington co., in the state of New five nothing excites greater admiration than the vast roof of York, 34 m. NE of Albany. It is level, and is wastone, wrought like fanwork, which hangs above the spectator tered by the Hoosic river and its tributaries. The witboat the support of a single pillar. It is also remarkable for the magnitude and beanty of its painted windows, of which

soil consists of gravelly loam. Pop. 2,005. -Also a there

are twelve on each side nearly 50 ft. in height, which, with township of Coos co., in the state of New Hampthe window to the E, are filled with various subjects from Scripshire, on the Androscoggin. It possesses a hilly ture history. This beantiful glass was put up in the early part surface, and had in 1840 only 5 inhabitants.--Also a of the reign of Henry VIII.

facesi's college.) Queen's college was founded in 1448 by Mar- village, cap. of Dorchester co., in the state of Marypret of Anjou, consort of Henry VI., and refounded in 1465 by land, on the S side of Choptank river, which is here Elizabeth Wydsille, consort of Edward IV. The grove and gar

2 m. wide, 12 m. from the Chesapeake bay and 61 dens are particularly beautiful, lying on both sides of the river, and connected by a wooden bridge of one arch, which is greatly in the state of Michigan, 66 m.

SW' of Detroit. Pop.

SE of Annapolis.-Also a township of Lenawee co., admired for the ingenuity of its construction.

Catherine hall.) Catherine hall was founded in 1475 by Ro- 644.—Also a township, cap. of Guernsey co., in the tert Woodlark, D.D., chancellor of the university and provost of King's college.

state of Ohio, 77 m. E of Columbus. Pop. 1,845. Jesus' college] Jesus' college was founded in 1496, by John The village is pleasantly situated on the E side of Aloxeke, bishop of Ely. Its site was a Benedictine nunnery es Will's creek, on the national road, and contains 130 tablished about the year 1130, and dedicated to St. Rhadegund.

Christ's college.] Christ's college was originally founded by dwellings and about 700 inhabitants. - Also a village Henry VI. in 1456, under the name of God's house. In 1505 the of Wayne co. in the state of Indiana, on the W side farne was changed, and the former society was incorporated with of the W branch of Whitewater river, and on the the present college, at the instance of the lady Margaret, coun-national road, 52 m. E of Indianapolis. — Also a tess of Derby, who endowed it liberally. The buildings consist of a principal court, a quadrangle 138 ft. by 120 ft., and a second township of Upper Canada, in the Ottawa district, court built on two sides, that next the garden and fields being intersected from S to N by the Petite Nation river. an elegant and aniform pile of stone 150 ft. long. The chapel, Pop. in 1842, 108. 84 ft in length, is floored with marble. The garden contains a

CAMBRIDGE, a town in the state of Massachumulberry tree planted by Milton, when a student here. St. John's college.) St. John's college was founded by the exe

setts, U. S., 3 m. NW of Boston, and 431 m. from cutors of Margaret, countess of Richmond and Derby, in 1511. Washington, in N lat. 42° 23', W long. 71° 08'. It The buildings of St. John's college, which are mostly of brick, is composed of three portions: Old C., the seat of forin three courts The first and most ancient is about 228 ft. by ?16 It is entered from the street by a handsome gateway,

the university; C. Port, about half-way between the sarmounted by turrets coeval with the foundation. The second university and the bridge to Boston; and E C., or is about 270 ft

. by 240. It was built by the benefaction of Ma- Lechmere's Point, the seat of the court-house. It is ry, countess of Shrewsbury, is very handsome, and appropriated

one of the oldest towns in New England, having been principally for the fellows' apartments. The third lies next the river, and is of smaller dimensions than either of the former. incorporated by the name of Newton in 1630, but The chapel, 120 ft. long, occapies the N side of the first court took its present name in 1638. It is connected with The spacious gardens and extensive walks belonging to the col- Boston by C. and Canal bridges, and by the viaduct lege, lie on the W side of the river, over which there is a handsoine stone-bridge.

of the Lowell railway; with Charlestown, by Prison Magdalene college.) Magdalene college was begun by Edward point bridge. It is a large, handsome, and pleasant Stafford, duke of Buckingham, by the name of Buckingham town, though not so elevated as some of the neighhoase, in 1519. Being unfinished at the time of the duke's at-bouring places. It contains a jail, a state arsenal, 3 tainder, it was granted to Thomas, Baron Audley, lord-high- banks, 5 churches, and numerous manufactories of charrellor, who endowed it in 1542.

Trinity college.) Trinity college occupies the site of two col- various kinds.-C. was an important place in the leges, Michael house and King's hall; the former founded in early history of the


At the commencement 1324 by Henry de Stanton, chancellor of the Exchequer to Ed. ward I1; the latter, in 1337. by Edward III. In 1546, both

of the Revolution, 20,000 militia were collected here; these colleges were suppressed, and in the same year the magni- and in 1775 Gen. Washington arrived here, and took ficent establishment of Trinity college was founded by Henry the command of the American army. The first

The magnificent quadrangle, called King's court, in honour of George IV., who headed a subscription for its erection printing-press was established in this town in 1639; with a donation of £2,000, was commenced in 1823, and com

and the first work printed was 'the Freeman's Oath.' pleted in 1826, after designs by Wilking, at an expense of £40,000. Pop. in 1845, 12,490.—The

mean range of the barom. The chapel, the hall, and the master's lodge in the first court. are large and lofty buildings. The latter has, since the time of

at C. betwixt May 1st, 1847, and May 1st, 1848, was Elizabeth, been the residence of the sovereign, when the univer- | .056; the mean temp. at 9 A. M., 49° 5'; at 3 P. M. sity has been honoured with a royal visit

, and the judges always 54° 7'; the highest temp. occurred on 20th July, reside here during the assizes. The library in Nevile's court is a 93°; the lowest, on Jan. 11th, 1848 —7o. The fall magnificent room, 200 ft. in length, and proportionably lofty.

Emanuel college.] Emanuel college was founded in 1984, by of rain in inches was 43049.-Harvard university Sir Walter Mildmay, chancellor of the exchequer, and privy is the most richly endowed institution, and the oldest councillor to Queen Elizabeth The buildings of this college are of the kind in the United States, having been founded the greater part of them modern, and of stone They form one in 1638, 20 years after the arrival of the pilgrims at principal court, 128 ft. by 107. Sitney-Susser college.) Sidney-Sussex college was, pursuant

Plymouth. It occupies a spacious square handto the will of Frances Sidney, countess of Sussex, founded in somely shaded. At the time of its foundation, £400 1598 Oilver Cromwell was a student at this college: in the were granted by the general court; and this was master's lodge there is a portrait of him, in crayons, by Cooper: subsequently increased by a donation of nearly £800 and in the library a bust of him by Bernini, taken from a cast

by Rev. John Harvård, from whom it takes its name. Dorening college.] Downing college was founded by Sir George The buildings, 11 in number, are spacious and handDorning, Bart., of Gamlingay Park, by will dated 1717. In 1764 Sir Jacob died, the other devisees having died before

some, and contain a chapel, lecture rooms, dining bim without issue, and, after a litigation of 36 years, a charter halls, and accommodations for the students; there is was obtained. The first stone was laid on the 18th of May, also a house for the president. There are belonging 1807, since which the building has proceeded at intervals. A portion of the buildings, sufficient for opening the college, being lent philosophical apparatus, a mineralogical cabinet;

to the institution, a library of 90,000 vols., an excelcorapleted, ander-graduates were admitted to reside and keep terms in the month of May, 1821. The buildings form a quad- an anatomical museum, a chemical laboratory, and rangle in the Grecian style.

botanical garden of 8 acres. It has a president, 20 CAMBRIDGE, a township of Somerset co., in the professors, and generally about 300 students; and has state of Maine, U. S., 63 m. N of Augusta. Pop. in had, up to 1848, 6,131 alumni, of whom 1,628 have 1840, 461.-Also a township of Lamoille co., in the been ministers of the gospel. It is the most imstate of Vermont, 48 m. NW of Montpelier. It is portant literary institution in the United States; and intersected by the Lamoille and its tributaries, the qualifies students for every branch of literature and


after his death.

science.—Mount Auburn cemetery, about 1 m. W of decayed vegetable matter, is very rich: but the the university, for beauty and extent may be con- farmer is often subjected to considerable damage sidered the Pere la Chaise of the United States. from heavy rains and consequent inundations. In The grounds, 100 acres in extent, are delightfully the SE part of the county, particularly those porsituated, comprising every variety of hill and dale, tions of it watered by the Cam, the dairy is the and embellished with ornamental trees and shrub- great object of attention. The parishes of Cottenbery. The first interment was made in 1831, since ham, Soham, and Willingham, are famous for their which time it has been gradually filling up, and now cheese; the superiority of which is attributed to the contains numerous monuments.

quality of the herbage on the grazing tracts. Ely is CAMBRIDGE, a district of Monmouth co., in noted for its garden-vegetables. Besides the botter Van Diemen's land, in the peninsula of Bellerive, and cheese produced in this district, a vast number stretching WSW along Pitt Water.

of calves are fattened for the London market. The CAMBRIDGESHIRE, an inland county of Eng- oxen are usually of the Norfolk and Snffolk breed; land, between 52o l' and 52° 45' N lat.; bounded on the cows of the C. horned breed. The SE of the the N by Lincolnshire; on the E by Norfolk and county, from Gogmagog-hills to Newmarket, being Suffolk; on the S and SW by Hertfordshire and bare and heathy, is appropriated chiefly to sheepEssex; and on the W by Bedfordshire, Huntingdon-walks. This district is an open thinly inhabited and shire, and Northamptonshire. Its extreme length is bleak country, connected with that vast tract of land, about 50 m.; its greatest breadth about 30 m.; and which, extending S into Essex, and N across Suffolk its circumference 138 m. It contains an area of 857 into Norfolk, forms one of the largest plains in the sq. m., or about 584,480 acres; although in the cen- kingdom. Its soil is lean and gravelly. The best sus of 1841 only 536,313 acres are returned. The parts produce light crops of barley; but much of it surface of this county, being in most places very is only used as sheep-walks. A great number of level and thinly wooded, affords no great variety of sheep are also kept in the fens; the breed preferred scenery. On the S, the landscape, heaved into little is a cross between the Leicester and the Lincolnhills, with woods, open downs, and rich corn fields, shire. The extent of highland country depastured is pleasing. The Gogmagog hills, a bleak bare range, by sheep within the county was estimated in 1808 at a few miles to the SE of the town of C., though of 243,000 acres. C. ranks as the 6th agricultural no great elevation, yet, rising from a level country, county in England.—This county may be said to command extensive and interesting prospects. To have no manufactures, if we except that of white the SW of C. is Orwell hill, which rises to an alt. of bricks and coarse pottery. The fens abound in wild 300 ft. above sea-level. The vale of the Granta, or fowl, which, by means of decoys, are caught in vast Cam, between Cambridge and Bartlow, abounds with numbers for the London market. In the fenny diselm trees, and here the scenery around the villages tricts the trade in leeches forms a considerable branch is fine. The N part of the county, including the of employment. The manner in which they are Isle of Ely, is, for the most part, a dead level, inter- taken is this:-Two or three persons, furnished with sected by canals and ditches. Of that vast expanse long poles, enter the marshes with their shoes and of fen land known by the name of the Bedford level, stockings off, and continue beating the weeds and the full half, comprehending nearly the whole of the rushes for some time. The leeches, by this proceedMiddle and a great part of the South level, lies in ing, are aroused from their wonted lethargy, and, this county. Over this extensive flat, the towns and impelled by hunger, the effect of long abstinence, villages, built upon little elevations, through the seize with avidity the first animal object they meet moist and foggy air rise upon the view like so many with. The feet and ancles of the leech - catchers islands, and the turrets and spires can be seen at he being exposed to them, are freely fastened upon by distance of many miles. The principal of these ele- the creatures, which are thence removed and depovated spots is that on which the city of Ely is placed. sited in a basket carried for the purpose. When All the low grounds are naturally a bog, formed by taken home, they are washed in a weak solution of the stagnation of water from the overtlowing rivers salt and water, and when purified, are carefully of this tract; but, by infinite labour and expense in packed in wet linen cloths, and in this manner are cutting drains and raising banks, much of them has despatched to the different leech - merchants and been rendered either rich meadows, proper for the medical establishments throughout the country. fattening of cattle, or arable land covered especially Rivers.] The rivers of Cambridgeshire the prinwith some of the finest oats in the kingdom. The cipal of which are the Ouse, the Cam, the Lark, and principal of the drains are the Old and New Bedford the Nen-abound in fish, particularly pike and eels. rivers—as they are called—which run in a straight – The Old Ouse, entering the county in the p. of line upwards of 20 m. across the country, from the Haddenham, below St. Ives, and crossing it from W Great to the Lit Oase

to E, passes Ely, and forms the S and SE boundary Soil, Agriculture, &c.] The soil of this county is of the Isle of Ely. It receives the Cam at Harriexceedingly diversified, but the greater part is fertile, mere, and the Lark, which is navigable to Bury-St.The general nature and products of the Ely fens are Edmund's, at a place called Prickwillow below Ely. the same with those of Lincolnshire, which they ad- | At Brand creek it receives the Little Ouse, and join. Though their soil is rich, and, in dry years enters Norfolk, through which it flows N to the very productive, they are subject to frequent inun- Wash. In its modern course, the Ouse, entering dations; and the farmer is occasionally liable to lose the county to the NW of Earith bridge, runs down all the labour of the year. The fenny country ex- the New Bedford river, in a direction nearly NE, tends S of the Ouse, and runs up to the neighbour- and enters Norfolk a little to the W of Welney. It hood of Cambridge. There are still about 150,000 is navigable in its whole course through the county. acres of unimproved fen land in this county; but – The Cam, or Granta, navigable to Cambridge, is considerable districts of fenny land have been much formed by two small streams which unite between improved of late years by the employment of steam- Granchester and Harston. length above C. is 25 engines in draining. The marshes in the vicinity of m.; and from C. to its junction with the Ouse, 15 m. Wisbeach consist of sand and clay; the soil of the -In its old course, the Nen enters the county from fens is a strong black earth on a gravelly bottom; Huntingdonshire at Benwick, and, flowing NE, enters the uplands consist of chalk, gravel, loam, and clay. Norfolk at Outwell. In its modern or N course, it In the fen districts, the soil, consisting of mud and separates Huntingdonshire from the isle of Ely, till it enters the isle at Moreton's Leam, whence it pro- , and income-tax in 1843 was £1,102,415.---The exceeds to the Wash. A new tidal channel has been penditure for relief of the poor in 1846-7 was £81,334. cat for this river along the W side of the Sutton wash. The proportion per cent. of paupers relieved on the

Canals and roads.] The numerous canals which estimated pop. of 186,538, in 1847, was 10:7; the intersect the isle of Ely were cut for the purpose of average on all England being 8.8 per cent. The rate drainage, but a number of them are also navigable. per head on this pop. of expenditure for relief of the Vermuyden's canal, commencing at Ramsey in Hunt- poor was 98. 14d.; the average on the estimated pop. ingdonshire, enters the isle near Ramseymere. At of all England being 6s. 1}d. Welche's dam it joins the Old Bedford river, and C. is within the Norfolk circuit. The assizes leaves the county a little to the W of Welney. This and quarter-sessions for the county are held at the cat is seldom used. The New Bedford river is the town of C. The isle of Ely, with all its privileges, main channel for barges passing from the upper to having been restored to the abbey of Ely after the the lower parts of the Ouse. The Old Bedford river, re-establishment of that monastery by King Edrunning parallel with the New, excepting the lower gar, the abbots, and after them the bishops, exercised part of it near Denver-sluice, is now seldom navi- the privileges of a co.-palatine till the reign of Henry gated, being nearly choked up since the New was VIII., when, in common with those of other palatimade.-A canal has been cut from Peterborough. nates, these privileges were abridged by act of parthrough Whittlesea-dyke to the Old Nen below Ben-liament. The bishop is still Custos rotulorum of the wick, and thence to Marsh. There are also short isle of Ely, including the hundreds of Ely, Wisbeach, cuts from the Ouse to Soham and Reche.- The great and Witchford. His jurisdiction is entitled the royal north road from London to York and Edinburgh franchise, or liberty of the bishop of Ely. The civil passes through the W border of Cambridgeshire, officers of this franchise are a chief justice, a chief entering it at Royston, 37 m. from London, and bailiff, a deputy bailiff, two coroners, and a few subquitting it at Papworth-St.-Agnes, between the 520 ordinate officers, all of whom are appointed by the and 53d mile-stones. The road from London to bishop. The spring-assizes and the April and OctoNorfolk passes through the SE corner of the county, ber sessions for the isle are held at Ely; the summerentering it at Great Chesterford, 46 m. from London, assizes and the other sessions at Wisbeach; at each and leaving it about 5 m. beyond Newmarket.- of these places there is a gaol and a court-house. The Eastern counties line of railway intersects the Under the old system of representation, 2 knights s part of the county. It runs from Bishop-Stortford were returned for the shire, 2 for the borough of C., station, 32 m. from London, by Stanstead, Elmham, and 2 for the university. Under the reform act, the Newport, Warden, Chesterford, Littlebury, Whittles-county now returns 3 members, who are polled for ford, and Shelford, to Cambridge, and thence to Ely, at Cambridge, Newmarket, and Royston. The numfrom which it is prolonged to Norwich.

ber of electors in 1842-3 was 3,903. Dirisions, &c.j With the exception of fifteen History.) This county, at the time of the Roman invasion, parishes in the E part of it, which belong to the formed part of the kingdom of the Iceni. In the time of the heparchd. of Sudbury and dio. of Norwich, and the p.

tarchy, when several Saxon chiefs settled upon the ruins of the

Roman government, C. became part of East Anglia, consisting of of Iselham, in the peculiar jurisdiction of the bishop this county, Huntingdon, Norfolk, and Suffolk, and so called on of Rochester, C. forms an archd. in the dio. of Ely, and account of its easterly situation in respect of the other Saxon prov. of Canterbury; and comprises the deaneries of kingdoms. On the conquest of East Anglia by the Danes, in

870, this county was laid waste; but, for fifty years, during which Barton, Bourne, (otherwise Knopwell,) Cambridge, East Anglia remained under the Danish dominion, the city of C. Camps, Chesterton, Ely, Shangeryard, Wisbeach. It appears to have been one of their principal military stations. contains 169 parishes, of which 66 are rectories, 84 After the overthrow of Harold at the battle of Hastings, and the vicarages, and 14 perpetual curacies. The dissent

consequent advance of the conqueror, the isle of Ely became the

refuge of the Anglo-Saxon prelates and nobility, who bere sucing churches in it are also numerous. The number cessfully defended themselves, and bade defiance to the power of of daily schools in the county in 1831 was 550, at- the Norians from 1066 to 1074. The county in general, and the tended by 14,565 children; of Sunday schools 94, at- isle of Ely in particular, suffered severely during the civil wars in tended by 14,051.-It is divided into 18 hundreds, bles in the reign of Charles I., C. and the isle of Ely, were asso

the reigns of Stephen, John, and Henry III. During the trou

ciated under Lord Grey of Werke for the parliament; and Pop. in 1831. Pop. in 1841. though the university voted its plate for the king's service, yet Armingford 28,771 acres.

8,638 Clarendon enumerates C among the associated counties in which Chesterton,

4,905 the king had no visible party, nor so much as one fixed quarter. Cheveley, 12,867

3,694 Triplow-heath and the neighbourhood of Royston were places of Chilford. 21,430 5,310

general rendezvous for the parliamentary army during its preFlendish,


3,114 sence in the county. Longstow,


CAMBRIDGE GULF, an extensive indentation Northstow,


of the NW coast of Australia, about 60 m. in depth, Papworth,



and 11 m. in width, terminating in a narrow creek, Staine,


4.883 but entirely destitute of fresh water.--King. Staplne,

39,572 10,615 11,666 CAMBRIDGE PORT, a village of Cambridge Thriplow.


5,233 Wetherley,


township, Middlesex co., in the state of MassachuWhittlesford,


3,416 setts, 2 m. W of Boston. It possesses considerable ISLE OF ELT.

trade and manufactories. Ely.


5,505 CAMBRILS, or CAMBRILLA, a town of Spain, in Wisbeach,

70,790 17,264 19,907 Catalonia, prov. and 11 m. WSW of Catalonia, on a Witchfon North), 78,760 17,723 20,843

small river, and 2} m. above its entrance into the Witchford (South),

7,799 Cambridge borough,

20,917 21,453

Mediterranean. Pop. 2,000. It is surrounded by Ely city, 17,480 6,189

6,825 walls, and possesses a small port, a parish-church,

and an hospital. Its commerce consists chiefly in 536,313 143,955 164,459

wine and wool. The pop. of the co. in 1801 was 86,346; in 1811, CAMBRIN, a canton and commune of France, in 101,109; in 1821, 121,909. Of the pop. in 1831, out the dep. of Pas-de-Calais, arrond. of Bethune. The of 35,715 males above 20 years of age, 19,385 were cant. comprises 17 com., and in 1831 contained a engaged in agricultural pursuits. Of the pop. of pop. of 17,300. The village is 6 m. E of Bethune, 1841, 136,337 were natives of the co.—The aniount and 17 N of Arras. Pop. 499. of real property in the co, assessed to the property

CAMBRON-CASTEAU, a town of Belgium, in















the prov. of Hainault, on the Dendre, 10 m. NNW , ton, peaches, melons, &c. in great abundance. Two of Mons. Pop. 618. It possesses a fine castle, celebrated battles took place in this locality in 1780 which occupies the site of an ancient abbey. and the following year. About 2 m. to the W is a

CAMBUSLANG, a parish in the middle ward of large Indian mound, supposed to mark the site of an Lanarkshire, on the S bank of the Clyde. Pop. of ancient town of the Catawbas.--Also a township of p. in 1801, 1,558; in 1841, 3,022. Coal abounds in Lorain co., in the state of Ohio. Pop. 504. this district.

CAMDEN, a township of Upper Canada, in the CAMBUSNETHEN, a parish in the middle ward Western district, bounded on the s by the Thames. of Lanarkshire, lying along the S Calder and the Pop. 316. Clyde. Pop. in 1801, 1,972; in 1841, 5,796; of whom CAMDEN, a county of New South Wales, bound485 were in the v. of C., 15'm. E of Glasgow. Coal ed on the NE by the Nepean, by which it is sepaand iron are extensively wrought in this p.

rated from Cumberland co.; on the NW by the WarCAMBUTO, a town of Bolivia, in the intendancy ragamba; on the E by the ocean; on the S by the and 130 m. NW of La Paz, on the E side of Lake Shoalhaven river, by which it is separated from St. Titicaca, and 70 m. W of Zarata.

Vincent co.; on the W by Berber's creek and the CAMBYNA, an island of the Asiatic archipelago, river Wolondilly; and on the NW by the Wolondilly in the Flores sea, near the SE extremity of the is- and the Warragamba. It is 72 m. in length from Ń land of Celebes, in S lat. 5°, E long. 122° 28'. It is to S, and 39 m. in breadth, and is generally moun63 m. in circumference, and is generally mountain- tainous, but is well-watered, and possesses considerous. In the centre is a lofty peak. It produces rice able fertility. It is watered by branches of the Cowand dye-woods, and abounds with goats, buffaloes, pasture and Wingecarabee rivers, falling into the and varieties of fowls.

Hawkesbury, and by some branches of the ShoalhaCAMDEBU, a district of S Africa, in the terri- ven. The Merrigong range runs in a SE and NW tory of Graaf Reynet. It is watered by the Sunday direction through its whole length. The timber is and its tributaries, including one of the same name, generally cedar. which takes its rise on the S side of the Sneeuwberg

CAMDEN, or JONESBURY, a village, the cap. of or Snow mountains, and falls into the Sunday at Camden co., in the state of North Carolina, U. S., the village of Camdebu.

on the E side of Pasquotank river. CAMDEN, a county in the state of North Caro- CAMDEN BAY, an indentation of the N coast of lina, U. S., comprising a surface, generally low and Russian America, in W long. 145o. marshy, bounded on the SW by the Pasquotank CAMDEN HAVEN, or St. BROTHER'S HARBOUR, river. Pop. in 1830, 6,721 ; in 1840, 5,663; of whom a port of New South Wales, co. of Ayr, 15 m. 3,844 were whites, 1,661 slaves, and 158 free colour- SSW of Port Macquarie, in S lat. 31° 40', E long. ed.— Also a county in Georgia, comprising an area of 152° 53'. 700 m., bounded on the E by Cumberland island, by CAMDEN (East), a township of Upper Canada, which it is separated from the Atlantic, and on the in the Midland district. It contains two lakes, and S by St. Mary's river, which is navigable to the larg. is intersected by a mill-stream. Near the centre is est vessels. It is intersected by the Santilla and its a quarry of fine marble. The township is genetributaries. Pop. in 1830, 4,578; in 1840, 6,075; of rally well-settled, its soil varies in quality. The whom 2,004 were whites, 4,049 slaves, and 22 free timber consists of hardwood and pine. Pop. 4,788. coloured. Cap., Jeffersonton.-Also a township of CAMDEN VALLEY, a district of New South Waldo in the state of Maine, 42 m. ESE of Au- Wales, in Cambridge co., intersected in a N direcgusta. It is pleasantly situated on the W side of tion by York river, and bounded on the W by a Penobscot bay, has a good harbour, extensive build-range of low barren hills. ing docks, and an active coasting-trade. Pop. in CAMEARAN, a name common to five Indian tribes of Brazil 1840, 3,005.-Also a township of Oneida co., in the who inhabit the mountain-ranges which separate the provinces state of New York. It presents an irregular surface, of Goyaz and Para. drained by Fish creek and its tributaries. The soil CAMEL. See ALAN. consists of sandy loam, and is generally fertile. Pop. CAMELEY, a parish of Somerset, 4} m. SSW of 2,331.-Also a city and port-of-entry in Gloucester Pensford. Area 1,630 acres. Pop. in 1841, 643. co., in the state of New Jersey, on the E side of De- CAMELFORD, a market-town in the p. of Lantelaware river, opposite Philadelphia, and 29 m. SSW glos, Cornwall. It is situated on the Camel river, 1 of Taunton, and at the termini of the Camden and m. from Lanteglos. The town is small, and its inAmboy and Woodbury railroads. It consists of three habitants are chiefly engaged in agricultural occupaparts,-the central or principal, and N and S suburbs, tions; but from the time of Edward VI., till its disand contains about 400 dwellings. Vessels of 150 franchisement by the reform-act, it returned two tons come up at high tide to the central district of members to parliament. C., and those of the largest dimensions to the lower CAMEL ISLAND, an island of the China sea, suburb. Pop. 3,371.-Also a village of Kent co., in midway between the Malay peninsula and the island the state of Delaware, on the s branch of Jones' of Borneo, in N lat. 1° 10', and E long. 106° 55'. creek, 3 m. S of Dover. It contains about 30 dwell- CAMELMOUTH STATION, a town of South ings.—Also a village of Somers township, Preble co., Africa, in Hottentotia, at the junction of the Fish in the state of Ohio, near the junction of Paint and or Harbeest and the Gamka or Lions river, and 50 Seven Mile creeks, and 102 m. WSW of Columbus. m. SSE of the confluence of these united rivers with It consists of about 60 dwellings.-Also a township the Gariep or Orange river. of Hillsdale co., in the state of Michigan, 120 m. SE CAMELON, a village in the shire of Stirling, and of Detroit. Pop. 147.–Also a village, cap. of Ben- p. of Falkirk, 14 m. NW of Falkirk, on the line of ton co., in the state of and 9 m. W of the Tennessee, the Forth and Clyde canal. and 79 m. W of Nashville. Also a village, cap. of CAMEL-QUEEN'S, or Queen’8-Camel, a parish Kershan district, in the state of South Carolina, on of Somerset, 51 m. ENE of Ilchester. Area 2,280 the E bank of Wateree river, which is crossed, 14 m. acres. Pop. in 1841, 739. In the vicinity is a reto the SW, by a bridge, and which is navigable by markable eminence named Camalet. flat boats of 70 tons. It contains about 200 dwell- CAMEL'S RUMP, one of the highest peaks of ings, and 1,000 inhabitants. The surrounding dis- the Green mountains, on the E border of Huntingdon trict is liable to inundation, but produces corn, cot. township in the state of Vermont, U. S., 17 m. W



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