Slike strani

lightning, occur during these months about once its improvement. The lands on each side of the St. a-week, or every ten days, which generally shift the Lawrence, and of the rivers which fall into its chanwind to the NW, and produce for a short time an nel, for a space of nearly 300 m. in length, extending agreeable coolness. The nights at this season ex- from 90 m. below Quebec to 30 m. above Montreal, ceed in splendour the most beautiful ones in Europe. were granted, in extensive lots called seigneuries, to To portray them in their true colours, would require officers in the army, and such other individuals as more than any language can accomplish, or any possessed interest to procure them, and who thus bepencil, but that of imagination, can execute.” The came seigneurs or lords of the territory. These tenwinter, although very severe, is not without its en- ures were entirely of a feudal nature, held immedi. joyments. The Canadians always take advantage ately of the king; and, upon every transfer of the of this season to visit their friends at a distance. property, the new purchaser paid a fifth part of the By means of curioles, or sledges, they transport value to the receiver-general, who gave a receipt themselves over the snow in a most agreeable man- upon the title, and by this act invested him with the ner, and with a degree of swiftness that appears possession. Each of these seigneuries occupied from almost incredible; for with the same horse, they 100 to 500 sq. m.; and the proprietors were bound will go 80 miles a-day,--so light is the draught of to concede them in smaller lots to settlers, upon these vehicles, and so favourable is the snow to the certain conditions. These lots were very narrow feet of the horse. “ Many of these are very hand-in front, seldom extending along the course of the some, ornamented with rich furs, and drawn by fine river more than 3 acres. but they stretched a conhorses, with showy harness, set off by high hoops siderable way, generally 80 acres, into the country. with silver bells on the saddles, rosettes of ribbon or These grants, or concessions, were of a feudal char. glass, and streamers of coloured horse hair on the acter; the grantees were the vassals of their lords. bridles; while the gay chirping sound of the bells, as the lords were the vassals of the king. It was and the nice crisp sound of the runners of the sleigh seldom that any price was given by way of purchase through the new snow, have a very cheerful effect.

money for these lots; and the rent paid by each tenant Ladies' dress in winter does not undergo so great a was very inconsiderable, frequently not more than transformation as that of men; all wear muffs and three livres, (2s.6d.) a-year, besides a bushel of wheat boas, certainly, but their bonnets and pelisses are and a couple of fowls. But the seigneur derived much like those worn in England. Men always a handsome revenue, partly from these trifling rents, wear fur caps, often with large flaps down over their partly from the fees received at his mills, to which cheeks, enormous pea-jackets or blanket coats, with his tenants were bound to bring their grain, and India-rubber shoes or moccassins of moose skin, or partly from the fine due to him upon every transfer thick cloth boots, with high leggings. In the very of the lots by sale or long lease. There were about cold weather they often wear coats of buffalo, or 100 of these seigneuries in Lower C., all subject to other skins, and move about like some great wild French law. By the customs of Paris,'-as the animal, with nothing to be seen of the human form French laws of C. were termed—the lords, poor as but a blue nose and a pair of red eyes. Although they were, holding immediately of the crown, gare the temp. is usually kept very high within doors, by out portions of their seigneuries to other lords, who means of stoves, people never seem to suffer by sud- again gave out to others some of these lands, all den transition to the extreme cold of the open air. which were subdivided into such small parts as not The great dryness of the air preserves them from to be capable of further severance; and so these lands danger. In the very low temp., a razor may be ex- have descended ever since, so that now these subdiposed all night to the air without contracting a stain visions of property are a source of the greatest diffiof rust. Colds are much less frequent in winter than culty. One might read in a C. newspaper an adverin summer.—The winter-markets at Quebec are very tisement offering for sale 1-300th part of one of these curious; everything is frozen. Large pigs, with the lordships. It was quite a common thing to see and peculiarly bare appearance which that animal pre- hear of a third, of a seventh, or of a half of a sixth, sents when singed, stand in their natural position on and so on in such a way as made it quite impossible their rigid limbs, or upright in corners, killed, per- for any one to know what suit, or service, or fines, he haps, months before. Frozen masses of beef, sheep, was to owe. Each possession owed various services deer, fowls, cod, haddock, and cels, long and stitt, and duties, all of a most vexatious description. like walking-sticks, abound in the stalls. The farmers “Can a law," it has been asked, “ which, along the have a great advantage in this country, in being able whole coast of the St. Lawrence, so far as it is directly to fatten their stock during the abundance of the open to the sea, would keep every acre of real estate summer; and, by killing them at the first cold wea- subject to the payment of a heavy tax on all imther, they keep frozen, to be disposed of at their provement, to a seigneur who does nothing to im. pleasure during the winter. Milk is kept in the prove it,-can such a law, by any skill of man, be same manner, and sold by the pound, looking like kept in force for ever? Ali land held under the lumps of white ice.” [Hochelaga.]

seigneurial tenure is burdened with a yearly payment Soil and Cultivation.] The northern parts of L. of a fixed irredeemable rental –cens et rentes—to the Canada are too barren to be cultivated with any suc- seigneur, often light, but not unfrequently the recess; and, even in the neighbourhood of Quebec, the Whenever it is sold, a twelfth part of the crops of grain seldom exceed 12 bushels to the acre. purchase-money is due to this same seigneur, in the The settlements of this prov. are chiefly on the banks shape of lods et ventes. Thus, if a man buy land for of the St. Lawrence; the soil of which gradually im- 1,000 dollars, and in a year or two improve or build proves as you ascend the river. Wheat is sown early upon it to the value of 20,000 dollars, it will cost in May, and is generally ripe by the end of August. him the twelfth part of that sum to dispose of what Maize is also grown, and a little tobacco. The grass he has just spent so much to get. If he had made land is good, even as low as Quebec. Good arable no improvements

, he might have sold again for the land, in the best situations, sells for £5 per acre; in- twelfth part of his first 1,000 dollars, the cost at different land for 4 or 5 dollars; wood land for 2 dol- which his unimproving predecessor parted with it. lars.—When the French commenced their settlements Let an estate change hands often, and its whole value in C., the country presented the appearance of one is soon gone, in successive twelfths to the do-nothing vast unbounded forest; and great privileges were be- seigneur. The seigneuries extend all along both stowed on the colonists to encourage them to attempt banks of the St. Lawrence, and for miles back on


As a class

you need

each side, till we get beyond Montreal, the head of of late years, and to a small extent, that they hav all navigation from over sea: on both sides of the begun to adopt the application of manure, the rotaRichelieu almost to the province-line, or outlet of tion of crops, and the use of artificial grasses, or to Lake Champlain: and for some distance up most of employ the marl which is found in considerable quanthe other considerable rivers of the province: in a tities on the shores of the St. Lawrence. Their genFord, everywhere where trade and enterprise have eral practice was to plough the same field, and sow the best field offered them by nature. There is a law the same grain, twenty times over; while their only in force--an act of the British parliament by the remedy for land exhausted in this manner, was to way, and most vehemently complained against by leave it fallow for a few years. the French Canadian assembly-providing a means Population.] The pop. of C., when it fell into the for getting rid of this tenure; bat unluckily it put hands of the British, in 1760, amounted, according the cart before the horse, by requiring the seigneur to General Murray's report, to 71,000 inhabitants; to more first in each case; and the said cart has stood but the extensive province of Upper C. was not then remarkably still on the strength of it. There is an inhabited by Europeans. According to a census ordinance, too, just passed by the special council, for taken in 1814, the pop. of Lower C. amounted to the emancipation of the city and island of Montreal; 335,000, of whom 275,000 might be called native but, from some of its provisions, it may be doubted Canadians; the remainder being a mixture of English, whether the procedure under it will not prove much Scotch, Irish, and Americans. In 1844 it contained too tedious for the exigencies of the case. What a pop. of 699,806, of whom 524,000 were of French those exigencies are, may be readily inferred from origin. The rate of increase appears to be only the fact that the city of Montreal, among the very about 17,500 per annum. The greater part of the oldest European settlements on the continent, and French pop. is confined to the northern branch of with natural advantages probably inferior to those of the St. Lawrence, from Montreal to Quebec. no other site in North America, New York and New The habitans or French settlers "are usually tall and slender, Orleans hardly excepted, ranks with the third or

of sinewy build, and with a dark brown complexion; the girls fourth-rate cities of the Union. By nature the sea

are black eyed, and disposed to be beautiful; while the women

are always dumpy, but good-looking. Their dress is similar to port of a territory only less than the great valley of that

of the French peasantry; the men weitr

the old-fashioned the Mississippi, -having water-power easily available. capote on their heads, every variety of fantastic caps and hats, and enough to cover her island with the mills and and on their feet a mocassin made of cow-hide; the women wear

jackets or mantelets, which are made of bright colours, and on factories it might keep at work,—with a denser rural the heads either a cap or a straw hat, made in the gipsy fashion. population round her than surrounds any other city Occasionally they make an effort to imitate the English in their on the continent for the same distance,--and with no

dress, and at such times invariably appear ridiculous.

they are devoted principally to agriculture." (Lanman.] serious natural difficulty in the way of the extension

The landholders, among the old French settlers, are described of her trade in any direction whatever,—this city has as strongly attached to ancient prejudices; but honest, inoffena population of little more than 30,000 souls, and the sive, and very hospitable. "* Indeed," says Grey, whole island on which it stands, 32 m. long, and 10 shopkeeper

, nay, nor even seigneur, or country-gentleman, who,

never be at a loss for a house to stop at. There is not a farmer, m. broad at its widest part, city and country toge- on being civilly applied to for accommodation, will not give you ther, nambers only about 50,000!"—After the con- the best bed in the house, and every accommodation in his power." quest of C. by the British arms, those parts of the The following character of the descendants of the old French

settlers, contrasted with that of the British or American settlers, lower prov. which had not been previously granted from the pen of Volney, himself a Frenchman, is little favourable as seigneuries were surveyed, divided into townships, to his countrymen as settlers or colonists: "The American settler, and granted to individuals to be held by the English of English or German descent, naturally cold and phlegmatic tenure of free and common soccage. These townships not ardently, but without ceasing, to every thing conducive to its

sedately forms a plan of managing a farm. He turns his mind, are in general divided into lots of above 200 acres

formation or improvement. If, as some travellers have laid to each. The first step of a settler in the process of his charge, he becomes idle, it is not till he has obtained the obcoltivation, is to build a log-hut, and open a road of ject of his pursuit, or what he considers as a competency. The communication with the nearest neighbours. He

Frenchman, on the contrary, with his troublesome and restless

activity, is led by enthusiasm or some sudden fit to undertake a Dext proceeds to clear the land of wood; and this project of which he has calculated neither the expense nor the is done in various ways. One mode is, to cut down difficulties. More ingenious, perhaps, he rallies the slowness of

his German or English rival, which he compares to that of the the timber, dig out the roots, and then burn the

ox; but the German or the Englishman will answer, with his cool whole in heaps upon the ground, which, when thus good sense, that the slowness of the ox is better adapted to the laid open, is soon covered with vegetation, and ca- plough than the fire of the mettlesome racer. And, in fact, it pable of grazing cattle; but this method, besides

often happens, that the Frenchman, after having done, corrected,

and altered what he had begun, and harassed his mind with debeing very tedious, is attended with great expense, sires and fears, is at length disgusted, and relinquishes the whole. and costs about 30s. per acre. A more simple and The American settler, slow and silent, does not rise very early; economical, and, at the same time, equally success

but, when he has once risen, he spends the whole of the day in ful plan, is to cut down and burn the trees; and, after gives orders to his wife, who receives them with coldness and

an uninterrupted series of useful labours. At breakfast, he coldly turning up the earth with a hoe or harrow, to sow the timidity, and obeys them without contradiction. If the weather spaces between the standing roots. A third method be fair, he goes out, ploughs, fells trees, makes fences, or the like: is to set fire to the growing wood, to stop the growth ill it be wet, he takes an inventory of the contents of his house,

barn, and stables; repairs the doors, windows, or locks; drives of the larger trees by cutting a deep circle in the nails, makes chairs or tables; and is constantly employed in bark, to sow the interstices with grain, and to remove making his habitation secure, convenient, and neat. With these the decared timber at leisure. In clearing the dispositions, sufficient to himself, he will sell his farm, if opporground, however, a certain portion of wood is always tunitynoffer, and retire into the woods, 30 or 40 m., to form a new

settlement. in left standing, for supplying fuel and other domestic for himself, first a hut, then a stable, then a barn; clearing the purposes; and these stripes of forest, while they serve ground and sowing it, &c. His wife, patient and serious as himas boundaries between the different lots, contribute self

, will second his endeavours on her part, and they will remain

sometimes six months, without seeing the face of a stranger; but to give to the cultivated districts a wooded appear- at the expiration of four or five years, they will have acquired an ance.-- With the exception of a few cases, the French

estate that insures a subsistence to their family. The French Canadians are very deficient in agricultural skill.

settler, on the contrary, rises early in the morning, if it were only

He consults his wife on what he shall do, and lisIn consequence of the peculiar tenures before men

tens to her advice. It would be a miracle if they were always tioned, their farms are generally small, and their ca- of the same opinion; the wife argues, opposes, disputes; the huspitals limited. They are also generally ignorant band insists upon or yields the point, is irritated or disheartened.

Sometimes his house is irksome to him, and he takes his gun, of recent improvements, inclined to indolent habits,

goes a shooting, or a journey, or to chat with his neighbours. and strongly averse to any innovations. It is only At other times he stays at home, and spends his time in talking


to talk of it.


in C.

with good humour, or in quarreling and scolding"-"This customs of Paris,' was given to the colony, and a alone," adds Volney, “is one of the most distinguishing and council-of-state was established in the capital. This characteristic features of the two nations; accordingly, the more I reflect on the subject, the more I am persuaded that the domes- council consisted of the governor, the bishop, the intic silence of the British Americans is one of the radical causes tendant, 4 counsellors chosen by these 3, a procuraof their industry, activity, and success in agriculture, commerce,

But this constiand the arts ; and the same applies to the English, Dutch, and tor-general, and a chief secretary. other people of the north, from whom they are descended.

tution subsequently underwent various alterations. silence they concentrate their ideas, and have leisure to combine The number of counsellors was gradually increaseri them, and make accurate calculations of their expenses and re- to 12; and the subaltern judges to so great a multiturns. They acquire more clearness in their thoughts, and consequently in their expression. Hence there is more decision in

tude that a litigious spirit began to prevail among their conduct, both public and private, and it is more to the point the colonists, from the influence of which they have On the contrary, the Frenchman, with his perpetual doinestic continued to suffer even to the present day. During chattering, evaporates his ideas, submits them to contradiction, the first four years after the conquest of C. by the excites around him the tattling of women, backbiting, and quarrels with his neighbours; and finds at length he has squandered British, it was divided into three military governaway his time, without any benefit to himself or his family." ments; and the officers of the army acted in the The antagonism between the French and English settlers, thus not double capacity of commanders and judges. The ed and lamented by Volney, many years ago, is still apparent to laws of England, however, were soon established in the latest observers. Sir Charles Lyell thus sketches the contrast in taste and habits between the

two races even in the 8 part the prov.; and its criminal code, particularly, was of the United States: “I observed that all whose native tongue speedily experienced to be an inestimable benefit in was English were indignant at the small value which the captain seemed to set on their time; but the Creole majority, who

spoke comparison with the summary proceedings under the French, were in excellent humour. A party of them was always French system. But the English civil laws were playing whist in the cabin, and the rest looking on. When sum- not received with equal approbation by the old colomoned to disembark at their respective landings, they were in no nists; and, in 1774, an act of the British legislature haste to leave us, wishing rather to finish the rubber. The contrast of the two races was truly diverting, just what I had seen restored to their place the old coutumes de Paris. A

Whenever we were signalled by a Neyro, and told to ball council was at the same time appointed, consisting of *till master was ready,' I was sure to hear sonne anecdote from the lieutenant-governor, the chief-justice, the secrean Anglo-Saxon passenger in disparagement of the Crcoles. My attention was next called to the old-fashioned make of the French tary of the prov., and 20 other members chosen indifploughs. On this river (the Mississippi), as on the St. Law- erently from the French and British residents. This rence,' said an American, the French had a fair start of us by council was invested both with legislative and exemore than a century. They obtained possession of all the richest cutive authority, and power to perform every act of lands, yet are now fairly distanced in the race. When they get into debt, and sell a farin on the highest land next the levee, they government except that of imposing taxes. This ar. do not migrate to a new region farther W, but fall back soine- rangement, however, was not greatly relished, either where into the low grounds near the swanp: There they retain by the British emigrants, who found themselves deall their antiquated usages, seeining to hate innovation. To this day they remain rooted in those parts of Louisiana where the prived of some of the most valuable privileges which mother-country first planted her two colonies two centuries ago, they had enjoyed in their own country, or by the and they have never swarmed-off, or founded a single new set- native Canadians, who had begun to relish the adtlement. They never set up a steam-engine for their sugarmills, have taken no part in the improvement of steam naviga- vantages of a free government. — In 1791 - 2, the tion, and when a railway was proposed in Opelousas, they op- colony was divided into two provinces, the Upper posed it, because they feared it would 'let the Yankees in upon and Lower; and a legislative council and an assenthem.'

One of the passengers had been complaining to me that bly were constituted in each. The council of the a Creole always voted for a Creole candidate at an election, however much he differed from him in political opinions, rather than upper province consisted of at least 7 members, support ar. Anglo-Saxon of his own party. I could not help and that of the lower of 15; which numbers, howsaying that I should be tempted to do the same, if I were of ever, might be augmented at the king's pleasure. French origin, and heard my race as much run down as I had done since I left the Balize. "A large portion of the first French These were summoned by the governor, under the settlers in Louisiana came from C., and I have no doubt Gayarre royal authority, and were nominated for life. The is right in affirming that they have remained comparatively sta- house-of-assembly in Lower C. consisted of 50 memtionary, because they carried out with them, from the mother bers, and in Upper C. of 16, chosen by the freecountry, despotic maxims of government, coupled with extreme intolerance in their religious opinions. "The bigotry which checked holders in the towns and counties. In counties, the growth of the infant colony was signally displayed when electors required to be possessed of landed property Louis XIV. refused to permit 400 Huguenot families, who had to the clear yearly value of 40 shillings or upwards; fled to 8 Carolina, after the revocation of the edict of Nantes, to be incorporated among the new settlers of the Mississippi. Not- and, in the towns, of a dwelling-house and lot of withstanding the marked inclination of the Anglo-Saxons to seek ground to the yearly value of £5 sterling; or to have no other cause than that of race to account for the alleged sta- paid, for one year at least, a rent of £10 per annum. tionary condition of the Crcoles, I was glad to find that one of the house-of-assembly was elected for four years at the most intelligent citizens of New Orleans took a more hopeful and less fatalist view of the matter. 'I observe," he said, "that most; but subject to be dissolved before the terminathose French emigrants who have come out to us lately, espe- tion of the full period. The governor, together with cially the Parisians, are pushing their way in the world with

is such of the executive council as were appointed by much energy as any of our race; so I conclude that the first settlers in Canada and Louisiana quitted Europe too soon, before the king for the affairs of each province, acted as a the great revolution of 1792 had turned the Frenchman into a court of civil jurisdiction for hearing and determinprogressive being.' Among the Creoles with whom I came in ing appeals; and the governor was styled Governorcontact, I saw many whose manners were most polite and agreeable, and I felt as I had done towards the Canadian habitans, general of the British provinces in North America; that I should have had more pleasure in associating with them but each of the four provinces had a lieutenant-gothan with a large portion of their Anglo-American rivals, who, vernor, who, in the absence of the governor-general, from a greater readiness to welcome new ideas, are more likely had all the powers of chief magistrate. to improve, and will probably outstrip them in knowledge and power."

The government above traced has undergone seve

ral modifications of late years; and on the 230 July, III. OF CANADA IN GENERAL.] We shall now 1840, an act was passed for the re-union of the prodevote a few paragraphs to some general notices of vinces of Upper and Lower C., which are governed the entire province of C. which could not be conve- by a governor appointed by the Crown, assisted by a niently arranged under either of the special heads legislative council, and house-of-assembly; the forof the Upper and Lower prov.

mer answering to the house-of-lords, the latter to the Government.] Previous to the year 1664, the su-house-of-commons in the British constitution. The preme authority in C. was entirely military; and governor gives or refuses his assent to bills originatthe will of the governor was the sole fountain of jus-ing either in the council or assembly; but this assent tice. At that early period, a code of laws, founded or refusal must be signified within two years of the upon the practice in Paris, and hence called the time when the bill is presented. The governor trans

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1,500 3,600

1,500 2,700 1,100 2,700

900 500 500

mits copies of such bills as have been passed; and in the jurisdiction of certain petty courts. There is a
his majesty may contirm or annul them within two provincial court at Three Rivers, over which a single
years after such official information. In addition to judge presides; and similar courts at Gaspé and at
these powers, he appoints the speaker of the legisla- St. Francis. From all these courts, with the excep-
tive council; all the various functionaries of the in- tion of the admiralty court, there is an appeal in
ternal government (judges, revenue-collectors, jus civil cases to the court of appeals at Quebec, which
tices of the peace, militia and police officers, &c.); he is composed of the governor or lieutenant-governor,
exercises certain portions of the Crown's power in the two or more members of the executive council, and
government of the church, in presenting Protestant the chief-justice of Montreal, -any 5 of these form
incumbents to parsonages, rectories, &c.; in virtue of a court; but the judge from whom appeal is made is
bis office of providing for defence against exterior at- unable to sit on the trial of the appeal. All the
tacks, he has the control over the British troops in judges are appointed by the governor; and there is a
the country, and the militia; he remits or carries into graduated scale of appointments, by which the
execution sentences of death; he may remit or com- younger judges are maintained in a state of expec-
mate fines, &c.--The executive council, correspond- tancy of more important and lucrative situations.
ing to the privy council of England, consists of 12 The salaries of the various officials are as under:
members. Its office is to supply the governor-neces-
sarily a stranger-with such information regarding Lieutenant-governor,

persons and local affairs as is necessary to enable
him to discharge the duties of his office. To this

Chief-justice, body are delegated the powers of the treasury. But

4 Puisne judges at £900 each, the Canadians demand the immediate cession to the

1 Vice-chancellor,

1,125 house-of-assembly of the whole public revenues of

the province, from whatever source derived, without
any preliminary stipulation for a civil list, or even


3 Puisne judges at Quebec, at £900 each,
for the continuance of a few life-charges created on

Chief-justice at Montreal,
the hereditary portion of those revenues, before the 3 Puisne judges at Montreal, at £900 each,
cession of her majesty's right to them was contem-

Resident judge at Three Rivers,

Judge of the district of Gaspé,
plated by government. The members of the legisla-

Judge of the district of St. Francis,
tire council, or upper house, are appointed and sum- Pensions to judges, salaries of the attornies and soli-
moned by the governor under the queen's authority, citor-general, and miscellaneous expenses of adinin-

20,875 They are not to be under 20 in number. These

istration of justice, members continue in office daring life, unless their

£45,000 place is forfeited by four years' continued absence, or by swearing allegiance to a foreign power. Their

Civil secretaries and their offices.

£8,000 Provincial secretaries,

3,000 qualification consists in being seised as of freehold


8.000 in lands or tenements of the clear value of £500.


2.000 The house-of-assembly, or lower house of parlia- Executive council,


2,000 ment, consists of 84 members, who are chosen by the

Board of Works,

Emigrant agent, freeholders in the towns and counties, each province Pensions,

5.000 returning 42. The qualification of electors remains Contingencies:

3,300 the same as above-noted, and includes nearly every

£30,000 active male. The legislative council and house-of-assembly must meet at least once every year; and the Revenue.] There are no direct taxes raised in C., same assembly continues four years, unless sooner dis- except on licenses for retailing spirits. The revenue, solved by the governor.

The forms of business are arising chiefly from the duties of customs, yielded Dearly the same as in the British parliament; the pro- £206,000 in 1835, and £182,000 in 1836. The ceedings and reports are in the English language; ! average is £194,000. But, adding about £6,000 for and every matter is decided by a majority of votes. sales of land and licenses to cut timber, the whole Her majesty has power to authorize the governor to amounts to £200,000 gross receipts, and in currency, appoint the time and place of the meetings of the or £170,000 in British money. The taxes paid by the Bouncil and assembly, and to prorogue or dissolve Canadians, therefore, amount only to 5s. 33. per head, when he shall think proper. On the union of Upper which does not amount to one-tenth part of the sum and Lower C., Montreal, from its centrical position, taken from the pockets of their fellow-subjects in was made the seat of government; but this measure Britain, and is even less by one-half than what is was very unpopular with the British settlers. In con- paid by the Americans in their neighbourhood. Of sequence of the outrageous proceedings of a party in these taxes, too, a part comes back to them; for the Montreal styling themselves · loyalists,' who publicly civil government does not absorb one-half, and the Escaulted the governor-general, and set fire to the residue is applied to the support of schools, and to parliament-house, on the 26th of April, 1849, the seat other purposes for which a local tax would have been of government was transferred to Toronto in Upper more appropriate. The Canadians, moreover, are so C.; and it is understood that this arrangement has happy as not to pay for their own defence; Britain been definitively settled.

sustains that charge herself. In 1832, it was £208,000, Judiciary.] There are independent supreme courts and must be more now. Her generosity, indeed, in Quebec and Montreal,—the court of Queen's bench goes much farther: she has disbursed about £2,000,000 for the district of Quebec, and the court of Queen's within the last twelve vears, on public works, chiefly bench for the district of Montreal. The former con- on the Rideau and Welland canal. sists of the chief-justice of the province, and 3 junior Religious establishments.] When under the domi. judges; the latter of the chief-justice of Montreal, and nion of France, the inhabitants of C. universally pro4 junior judges. A court of Queen's bench for Up- fessed the Roman Catholic religion, and the Jesuits per C. is held at Toronto. There is an admiralty were possessed of immense wealth in this country. court in which a single judge—who is also one of the In 1793, his Britannic Majesty erected the provinces judges of the court of Queen's bench-presides. The of Upper and Lower Canada into a bishop's see. The iwo courts of Queen's bench have each a civil and bishop had the title of Bishop of Quebec. In 1839, criminal side, and despatch all business not included the prov. of Upper C. was created a bishopric under the


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15,945 28,000 50.254 51,746

11,501 21,433 22,607 28,283 16,100



12,527 27,722 21.901 3,266 7,439 22,234

34.000 13.059 24,376


Bishop of Toronto. New settlers repairing to C. are cleared farms will range from 20 to 30 dollars per encouraged by government to take out with them min- acre, according to situation, &c.; and wild land at isters of whatever denomination they choose; and 100 from 10 to 12—with the exception of the townships acres of ground is appropriated by government for the of York, Toronto, and Scarborough, in which the support of every such minister, which is cultivated for uncleared land is valuable for the wood, on account him by his flock. In Lower C., the great majority of of their vicinity to Toronto. In the porthern townthe inhabitants profess the Roman Catholic religion. ships of the district, wild land may be bought at from The annual expense of the ecclesiastical establish- 1 to 4 dollars per acre, and cleared at from 10 to 15 ments in Lower C. is about £6,500. The bishop of dollars. In the Huron district prices vary according Quebec has £2,000; the Catholic archbishop at Que to locality, with the exception of the two govern. bec, £1,000; the ministers of the Presbyterian churches ment townships, Ashfield and Wawanosh, where all at Quebec and Montreal, £50 each; and their brethren the land (wild) is rated at 8s. currency. In the back at Argentuil, £100.

townships between the Thames and Lake Erie, and Emigrants.] C. offers an excellent field to emi- also in those on Bear creek, land of fine quality may grants of industrious habits and accustomed to coun- be purchased at from 1 to 3 dollars. On the river try life and labour; for artisans and mechanics the St. Clair there is but little wild land, at least close prospects of employment are not quite so good. to the river, and that is worth 10 dollars per acre, But “with perhaps a few exceptions," says an in- the wood being in demand for the steamboats. In the telligent settler, there will not be a family of emi- townships of Plympton and Warwick, wild land of the grants to C., when ample scope is given to their best quality is to be bought at from 2 to 3 dollars per Tabour and industry, but will, in the space of two or acre. By cleared farms is generally understood those three years, be enabled to clothe their families with which have from 70 to 80 acres cleared out of 100, and English manufactures.” The emigration to C. and it is for such farms that these prices are calculated; the United States for 12 years, from 1829 to 1841, and of course the price will always vary according to was as follows:

the quantity of land cleared and under cultivation, Canada United States. and the value of the buildings. Comparatively few

British emigrants settle in Lower C.

Indian population.] As the country is far from 1832

being completely settled, the ground already laid 21,752

out in farms being only about one-tenth of that still 1834 30,935


lying in woods, the number of Indians is still consi16,749

derable. In 1841, the Indians resident in Upper C. 59,075

were returned at 11,143. All the various tribes of

Indians inhabiting the British possessions in North 1839

America, and the back settlements of the States, 1840

41,500 28,086


have a strong resemblance to each other, in their

general manners and customs. Their progress in 321,807


civilization-if one may so speak, where so little Average,


progress has actually been made—is everywhere the

same; they are all in that primary state of sociThe emigration from 1842 to 1848 was as follows: ety which by philosophers has been called the state


63,852 of hunters. It is certainly a singular fact, that a race

of men should thus have continued for ages station23,884

ary in a state of the rudest barbarism, without exhi

58,538 32,242

biting, notwithstanding their intercourse with Euro-

peans, the slightest tendency to improvement.

Animals.] The greater part of the animals pecu259,870


liar to North America are found within the bounds

of C. Of buffaloes there are three kinds: the bufAverage, 37,124

falo properly so called, the musk-bull, and the bison. All lands in the possession of the Crown, with The buffalo has a striking resemblance to the comvery few exceptions, are sold at 8s. currency per mon ox, both in its appearance and in its habits: acre, which may be paid for either in cash or scrip. nevertheless, it is said to be a species entirely disThis scrip is usually to be purchased at a discount tinct. It is larger than an ox, high upon the shoulof 20, 25, and sometimes 30 per cent. If the settler ders, and deep through the breast. The flesh is used gets it at a rednction of 25 per cent., his land (sup- as beef; the hide makes good leather; and the hair, posing he purchases Crown lands) will only cost him which is woolly, has been manufactured into a kind 6s. currency per acre, which is 3d. per acre less than of coarse cloth. The musk-ball is so called from a the government price of land in the United States. strong smell of musk of which its flesh cannot be In the Victoria district of Upper C., land near the divested. It has a hump on its shoulders, and very front may generally be purchased at from 4 to 10 long hair of a dusky red colour. They herd togedollars per acre for wild land; and for cultivated ther, abound chiefly in rocky and mountainous counfarms (including buildings), from 20 to 35 dollars tries, and ascend the steeps with much agility.— The per acre; in the back townships, at from 1 to 4 dol- bison, though more unlike the ox than the buffalo, is lars for wild land, and from 8 to 20 for cultivated. nevertheless found to be of the same species with In the Newcastle district, in the first range of town- the former. It is larger than the domestic ox, and ships, wild land will be worth from 5 to 10 dollars, has a bunch on the back which is covered with long and cultivated from 20 to 30; and in the back town- woolly hair.—There are several varieties of the deer ships, from 2 to 5 dollars for wild land, and from 12 kind in this country. The great stag, or roundto 25 for cultivated. Some few farms in the neigh- horned elk, is a very large animal

, nearly 5 ft. high; bourhood of Port Hope and Cobourg may be valued and about 9 ft. in length from the end of the muzzle as high as 40 or 50 dollars. In the Colborne dis- to the insertion of the tail. The horns are not trict, in the townships of Whitby, Pickering, Scar- palmated, but when full-grown measure about 6 ft. borough, Markham, Whitchurch, York, Vaughan, from tip to tip. Its hair is long, of a dark dun cothe front of King, Toronto, and Chinguaconsy, I lour on the back and sides, and brown on the head


18-12 1843 1844 1845 1846


28,335 43,660





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