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" The military advantages of this line," says a well-informed , planted, happened to be hard pressed by their inveterate enemies resident in c., * are too obvious to require detail. By means of the Iroquois: and, in the hope of procuring important assistance it any number of troops could, at any season, be thrown into from the white men, readily welcomed and befriended the new Quebec within 15 days of their embarkation at Portsmouth or settlers. Champlain somewhat inconsiderately took a side in Liverpool
. This line would depend for its success on the properly their contests; and thus raised up in the Iroquois, an enemy, of directed efforts of the home and colonial governments towards whose power and ferocity he was little aware, and whose rooted colonization in connexion with the work; snch as paying the hostility proved a most formidable obstruction to the future pros labourers partly in wild land, partly in money; the emigration perity of the colony. The C., Saguenay, Newfoundland, Belle agents in Great Britain and Ireland directing the tide of emigra- Islc, Acadia, La Grande Baye, and Baccalaos, constituted. as tion to the different ports in Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and early as 1540, the immense tracts in the W hemisphere over C., nearest to the works; and this without any expense to the which France claimed sovereignty; but it was not till Quebec government for the passage of emigrants. 350,000 souls do now, was founded by Champlain that a permanent French settlement on the average, annually quit the shores of the British isles and colony can be said to have been established in this quarter without costing the country anything. Our object should be, of the globe. The infant-colony was, for a long time, moch nenot to increase this spontaneous emigration, but to turn it to glected by the mother country; and its support was chiefly insome account, by inducing this large number to repair to a trusted to private individuals, who fitted out expeditions at their British colony, so as to ensure their success, which would con- own expense and risk, and received from government the exclovert them from discontented paupers at home into grateful colo- sive right to trade with the Indians in furs; but their strength nists, the consumers of British manufactures, and the suppliers and numbers were never sufficient to ensure protection against of food in return. Moreover, the very thews and sinews by the hostile inroads of the savages. Champlain was as zealons a which the road had been constructed would afterwards insure its propagandist as was Cortes; and by his efforts a general zeal for becoming remunerative."
the Christian instruction of the Indians, was excited throughout Mr. Featherstonhaugh advocates the execution of a railway the French empire; and many individuals of rank and property from Halifax in Nova Scotia, or at all events from St. John's, on devoted their lives and fortunes to the cause. " Rellgion, wer, the bay of Fundy, to the St. Lawrence; and from thence he sees traffic, fighting, preaching, and cheating, mixed up together in no reason why it should not be continued to Montreal, Kingston, the most heterogeneous confusion, forn, in all their elernental and round by the N shore of Lake Ontario, via Toronto, to the asperlties and vigour, the exciting picture of life the first French Welland canal. But he is evidently mistaken as to the expense Canadian settlements present to us. Civilized and savage life of such an undertaking. “A thousand miles of railway," it has were mingled together. The Iroquois, the Huron, the Ottawas, been well observed, “would most assuredly absorb a greater met in the markets and chatted and bargained with the courteous capital than could reasonably be expected to be returned Nor French peasant, and both, no doubt, in some degree, interchanged would it ensure any advantage at all commensurate with the manners and feelings. The wild liberty of savages had a powerenormous outlay. It would not facilitate the transit of produce ful charm for many French adventurers who, at this time, plungedt during the months when the St. Lawrence is frozen over; for no into the depths of the western solitudes to explore the country. ingenuity, no labour, could keep the rails traversable during the One exploring expedition discovered the course of the Missis heavy snow-storms so common in the northern parts of the sippi, and several others had equally successful results." The American continent; and if they could, few persons would be Jesuits, however, soon engrossed the sole direction of this underfound willing to expose themselves to the hardships of a more taking; and were greatly instrumental in obstructing the prosperthan Siberian winter Nor, indeed, is such a transit necessary, ity of the colony. The individuals, indeed, who were personally since the fall of the year affords time enough for the transport of employed as missionaries, were generally possessed of undaunted that year's produce. How far it might be expedient to connect zeal, and frequently distinguished by extraordinary talents They Montreal with Kingston by an entire line of railway, is a different habituated themselves to the modes of savage life; assumed the question; but, we suspect that speculative engineers have not dress and occupations of the tribes, whom they sought to insufficiently taken into consideration the influence of the deep struct; rendered themselves in a great measure dependent upon snow, the excessive frosts, and the instantaneous spring thaws their protection and services; but in this manner they often inon the soil, or on any possible substratun placed above the soil curred the contempt instead of acquiring the veneration of the for the support of the rails. Nor were C. overrun with railways, natives. Their converts appear to have lost, in a great degree, could any reliance be placed on them during at least four months the better qualities of the savage, without acquiring the virtoes of the year. And if intended to be available during the summer of the Christian; and in many instances, became a heavy burden months only, the return of every spring would necessitate more upon, instead of proving a useful barrier to, the colony. The repairs than anybody contemplates. The line between Boston mutual hatred of the converted and unconverted Indians, the and Albany, though in the depth of January both places enjoy a former of whom were generally in alliance with the settlement summer compared with the season which reigns on the banks of at Quebec; and the practice, which the French early adopted of the St. Lawrence, is subject to many interruptions, and calls treating all those Indian tribes as enemies, who carried their forth heavy complaints. Short lines of railway, however, such, paltry commodities to the traders of New England, or who refor instance, as might be necessary to escape the rapids of the ceived English missionaries among them, kept the province of C. St. Lawrence between Montreal and Kingston, might be advan- in a state of perpetual agitation, as long as it remained in the tageously worked through the summer months." [Daily News.] possession of France.
Discovery and history.) This country appears to have been first Until the year 1627, the prosperity of the settlement was, discovered in 1495, by the famous Sebastian Cabot, who sailed moreover, greatly retarded by religious dissensions among the under a cominission from Henry VII of England, but was not colonists themselves; but in that year, the French minister, permitted by that cautious prince to attempt any regular settie-Richelieu, put the prov. of New France under the management ment on the coast. In the beginning of the 16th cent., it was of a chartered company, which he endowed with great privileges visited by some French mariners, who were fishing on the banks upon condition that they should carefully exclude all Huguenots of Newfoundland. In 1523, Francis I. sent four ships under the and establish Catholic priests in every district. About this time command of Verazani, a Florentine, to make discoveries in N Charles I. of England entered into a war with France; and Sir America; after two unsuccessful attempts, he sailed on a third David Kirk, or rather Kertk, a French Calvinist, having received expedition, but was never heard of more. In 1534, Jacques Car- the command of three English ships, sailed upon an expedition tier, a native of St. Malo, sailing under a cominission from the against Quebec; defeated the squadron which was sent to its French king, landed at several places on the coast of the gulf of relief; and, after reducing the colonists to the greatest extremiSt. Lawrence, and took possession of the country in the name of ties, compelled them to capitulate in the year 1629. Kertk ful. his sovereign. In the year following, Cartier made a second filled so faithfully the terms of surrender, and treated the vanvoyage, with a more formal commission, and a much larger force; quished with so much humanity, that the greater part of the he sailed up the St. Lawrence as far as the island of Orleans; and settlers declined the privilege of being conveyed to France, and after wintering at St. Croix, returned to France, with a flattering remained under their conquerors in C. The colony, with Acadia account of the fertility of the soil, and the value of its produc- and Cape Breton, was restored to France by the treaty of St. tions, but with no specimens of the precious metals. His failare Germain, in 1632; but it was only by the most astonishing exer. to discover these brought him into some degree of disgrace; and tions of a succession of able and enterprising governors that its in 1540, he was again sent out but only in the capacity of pilot to existence was preserved amidst the various ditficulties under M. de Roberval, who was appointed viceroy of Canada. Rober- which it laboured, in the neglect which it experienced on the val made various attempts to discover a NW passage to the East part of the mother country, its own intestine divisions, and the Indies; but was lost, with a nunerous train of adventurers, in desolating incursions of the hostile Indians. The company of 1749, without any tidings ever being received of his fate. Henry Canada, unable to support any longer so unprofitable a settleIV. appointed the Marquis de la Roche, lieutenant-general of C.; ment, made a voluntary surrender of their rights to the French but that nobleman having injudiciously attempted a settlement king in 1664. The government of the colony was now remodelon the isle of Sable, and cruized for some time on the coast of led, and its trade committed to the company des Indes occidenNova Scotia without any success, returned home in disgrace, and tales. Considerable reinforcements, both of troops and settlers, died of grief. His successors, however, were inore successful; were sent from France; and numerous forts were erected along and by the increasing attractions of the fur-trade, were enabled the laker, to check the encroaching commerce of the New Eng. to collect great numbers of settlers, and to form a permanent es- landers, to protect the Canadian traders in their excursions, and tablishment in C., or New France, as it was then designated. to keep the hostile Indians in awe. The attention of the French One of the most active of these adventurers, a naval officer called court was strongly attracted to its American possessions by the Camplain or Champlain, a man of enterprise and ability, coin- able representation of M. Talon, intendant of Quebec; and it was pletely explored the banks of the St. Lawrence, discovered the from the active administration of this enlightened magistrate lake which bears his name, and founded the city of Quebec in that the prov of New France dated its prosperity. About the 1608. At this period two Indian nations, the Algonquins and same time the Jesuit missionaries began to obtain influence Hurons, who occupied the district in which the new colony was among many of the more distant savage tribes. Besides the
Harons, Algonquins, Outaouais, and particularly the Abenaquis | The operations of the campaign, for this purpose, were directed who hau long been their allies, the Outagainis or Foxes, the Il- in three different quarters, 80 as gradually to approach each linois, the Sioux, the Assiniboils, the Knistenaux or Creek In- other, and at length to unite in one point. General Wolfe, with dlars, the Nipissings, and others, were brought to hold friendly 8.000 men, was appointed to undertake the siege of Quebec. intercourse with the colony. Many powerful chiefs, also, among General Amherst, at that time commander-in-chief of the forces the Onondagas or Onnontaguese, the Agniers, the Onneyouths, in America, was directed, with 12,000 men, to reduce Ticonderago the Tsonnonthouans, and other nearer branches of the hitherto and Crown-point; and then, crossing Lake Champlain, to cohostile Iroquois, became converts to Christianity, and were of operate with General Wolfe. Brigadier - general Prideaux, service in attaching their countrymen to the French interest, assisted by Sir William Johnson's abilities and advice, was com- The interests of their trade it was that first brought certain missioned to attack Fort Ningara, and thence to proceed to form trives at these savages into communication with the English a junction with the other commanders, for the siege of Montreal. olonies, and so, exciting the jealousy of France, produced hos. On the 18th of Sept., 1759, Quebec surrendered, and C. was virtile encounters between the French Canadians and English set- tually conquered; the three different divisions, by a wonderria ters at New York and at Boston. The Iroquois, or Five nations, concurrence of favourable circumstances, accomplished their rethe mom warlike and commercially enterprising of the native spective objects, and actually met at the walls of Montreal within tribes of C, had been accustomed to carry on a very profitable 24 hours of each other. By the capitulation of Montreal on the traffic in furs with French merchants; but a monopoly in that 7th of September 1760, the reduction of C. was completed; and article having been established by the Prench government, in fa- it was finally ceded to Great Britiun, by the definitive treaty of veur of a particular company, the Iroquois found it more to their peace in 1763. The province was found by its conquerors in a advantage to open a trade with New York than to continue to very impoverished condition; and the inhabitants, in many deal exclusively with the French. Many other tribes, even those places, were supplied with provisions from the stores of the most friendly to New France, followed the example thus set army. For several years after the conquest, the country conthem; and French settlers themselves openly countenanced and tinued in an unsettled state, and presented innumerable obstacles defended this proceeding. They did more. Their commerce to the British traders. The Indian tribes, in particular, carried being crippled by mon polies, their agricultural interests defeated on, for some time, a desultory and destructive warfare which by the freqnent incursions of native tribes, who devastated their rendered all intercourse with the interior extremely hazardous, bells or carried off their harvests, and being called on them- and prevented the extension of settlements either for purposes of Belves, on every sudden emergency, to relinquish their peaceful trade or cultivation. During the revolt of the American colonies callings and to confront in person as well as in purse all the the Canadians maintained their allegiance to the mother-counhardships and perils of the frequent campaigns against the In- try, and repelled the invasion of the Americans. The war of dians, they found their lot so deplorable that they escaped in 1812 was fiercely maintained on the C. frontier, without advan. great numbers over the frontier, and took refuge in the English tage to either party. Collisions betwixt the house-of-assembly stilements, where they had a much better prospect of security and the governor-general of C. marked succeeding years; and in and prosperity. This state of things, external and internal, 1837, the malcontent French party took up arms, but the rebelfoused the French governor of C. into the adoption of very ri- lion was speedily crushed by the colonicus themselves. The gorous measures. Having partially subdued the Iroquois, and mission of Lord Durham to C., with the view of investigating, pacified and won over some other tribes, he erected iwo forts, and, if possible, putting an end to the alleged grievances of the which he sufficiently garrisoned, one at Niagara and the other at movement party, was, upon the whole, a failure; but his lord. Chanbly,- with the twofold purpose, first, of obstructing alto-ship's proposal of a union of the two provinces was followed up gether the trade of the natives with the English, and, second, of by an act of the British parliament to that effect. The settlearresting French fugitives, whether individuals or whole fami- ment of the long-disputed boundary betwixt Lower C. and the les, who might attempt to transfer themselves or their property United States signalised the year 1842. The present year (1849) into the English territory. The Bostonians, the citizens of New has been rendered remarkable in C. history by the appearance York, and the whole people of New England, alarned at these of a manifesto on the part of a considerable body of colonists, measures, of which they foresaw all the intended consequences, advocating annexation to the United States. That portion of sought aid from England to repel the aggressive designs of the document which is devoted to the exposition of that meaFrance. This aid was refused them. The Duke of Newcastle, sure, argues that “the proposed union would render C. a field then minister, reprimanded the supplicants for their turbulent for American capital, into which it would enter as freely for the behaviour, and recommended them strongly to cultivate the best prosecution of public works and private enterprise as into any of understanding with the French authorities in C. M. de Fontenac the present states. It would equaliso the value of real estate also demanded supplies in men and money from his government upon both sides of the boundary, thereby probably doubling at to carry out his projects. These were promptly promised him, once the entire present value of property in C., whilst, by giving and in due time arrived: the military force of the colony was stability to our institutions, and introducing prosperity it would aagmented to the extent of 4.000 men. A series of ineffective raise our public, corporate, and private credit. It would inencounters, the first in wbich the French and English caine into crease our commerce both with the United States and foreign collision in America, then took place between the rival colonies. countries, and would not necessarily diminish to any great exThe Indian allies of the English were much more conspicuous tent our intercourse with Great Britain, into which our products for deeds of prowess than the English themselves in these primi- would for the most part enter on the same terms as at present. tive military essays of war-waging traders."
It would render our rivers and canals the highway for the immiIt would occupy to large a space of the present article to at- gration to, and exports from, the west, to the incalculable benefit tempt a detailed account of even the principal expeditions and of our country. It would also introduce manufactures into C. ocurrences, in the course of the contest for existence between as rapidly as they have been introduced into the northern states; the rival colonies; but it may be remarked in general, as a very and to Lower C. especially, where water privileges and labour anaccountable circumstance, that the prov, of C., which was so are abundant and cheap, it would attract manufacturing capital, thinly inhabited and so poorly provided, should have been able enhancing the value of property and agricultural produce, and givto withstand for such a length of time the whole power of the ing remunerative employment to what is at present a comparaEnglish settlements; which, in addition to their decided supe. tively non-producing population. Nor would the United States riority by sea, were able to bring five times the number of fight-merely furnish the capital for our manufactures. Theywould also ing men into the field. The frequent disconfiture and tardy supply for them the most extensive market in the world, without progress of the British forces, may be ascribed chiefly to the in- the intervention of a custom - house officer. Railways would experience of their commanders in the American mode of war- forthwith be constructed by American capital as feeders for all fare, to the endless dissensions between the provinces and their the great lines now approaching our frontiers; and railway engovemors, and to the prevalence of personal animosities and of terprise in general woulu, doubtless, be as active and prosperous private interests among those who should have united in the among us as among our neighbours. The value of our agricultu. service of their country. * Froin the year 1691 to 1757, defeat ral produce would be raised at once to a par with that of the and disaster almost invariably attended the British arms in United States, whilst agricultural implements and many of the America Towards the latter part of that period the home go- necessaries of life, such as tea, coffee, and sugar, would be greatly vernment came largely to the aid of the colonists in supplies of reduced in price. The value of our timber would also be greatly money and military forces; but there was so total a lack of abi- enhanced by free access to the American market, where it bears lity and energy, both in the government and the servants it se- a high price, but is subject to an onerous duty. At the same lected for the most arduous enterprises, that its direct co-opera- time there is every reason to believe that our shipbuilders, as tion only enhanced the disgraces we everywhere met with in the well at Quebec as on the great lakes, would find an unlimited New World. This was a sad, and in all respects a disheartening market in all the ports of the American continent. It cannot be interval in the history of England. We have forgotten at pre- doubted that the shipping trade of the United States must sent our reverses in our subsequent triumphs; but these reverses greatly increase It is equally manifest that, with them, the at the time were sorely felt, and appeared then as great as the principal material in the construction of ships is rapidly diminishtriumphs that followed them do now. The great commoner's' ing, while we possess vast territories covered with tìmber of exaccession to power in 1757 soon changed, by the wand of genius, cellent quality, which would be equally available as it is now, all this disaster into brilliant success. He at once determined to since under the free-trade systein our vessels would sell as well renew the expedition against Cape Breton, which under Hol. in England atter annexation as before. The simple and econoborne and London had been so disgracefully abortive. Bosca- mical state - government, in which direct responsibility to the wen, and Amherst, and Wolfe were appointed to lead in this people is a distinguishing feature, would be substituted for a sysenterprise;" and it ought to be recorded, that Sir William John- tem at once cumbrous and expensive. In place of war and the so, by his good conduct as a commander, as well as by his ex- alarms of war with a neighbour, there would be peace and trwordinary influence with the Indians as a negociator, was emi. amity betwoen this country and the United States. DisagreeDeatly instrumental in giving this favourable turn to the state of ments between the United States and her chief if not only rival affairs, and in preparing the way for the final subjugation of C. among nations would not make the soil of C. the sanguinarv
arena for their disputes, as under our existing relations must ne- --but it is one which England will equally share in-will consist cessarily be the case. That such is the unenviable condition of in the removal of the only cause of hostile collision, a contermiour state of dependence upon Great Britain is known to the nous territory, that can exist between her and the only nation in whole world; and how far it may conduce to keep prudent the world that can do her harm; the nation of all others, that by capitalists from making investments in the country, or wealthy community of blood, language, laws, and interests, it is most for settlers from selecting a fore-doomed battle-field for the home of her honour and advantage to live with in harmony. As to Eng. themselves and their children, it needs no reasoning on our part land, in our humble opinion, she will be the greatest gainer of the to elucidate. But other advantages than those having a bearing three by annexation. She will be relieved at once from the heavy on our material interests may be foretold. It would change the load of responsibility with which she is now burthened, in ber ground of political contest between races and parties, allay and impossible attempts, at the distance of 4,000 m., to govern wisely obliterate those irritations and conflicts of rancour and recrimi. a free people whom her statesmen never see, and of whom they nation which have hitherto disfigured our social fabric. Already know nothing beyond what they find recorded in sheets of foolsin anticipation has its harmonious influence been felt, the har- cap. Further, England will be relieved of the whole military. binger, may it be hoped, of a lasting oblivion of dissensions naval, and ordnance charge of the C.s, all paid from the imperial among all classes, creeds, and parties in the country. Changing treasury, and the amount of which, we believe, will not be overa subordinate for an independent condition, we would take our stated at £1,000,000 per annum, contingencies included." (Erustation among the nations of the earth. We have now no voice miner.) in the affairs of the empire, nor do we share in its honours or Authorities.] Le P. Charleroit Histoire de la Nouvelle France. emoluments. England is our parent state, with whom we have | Paris, 1744, 3 vols. 4to.- Mackenzie's Voyages in N Americano equality, but towards whom we stand in the simple relation Carver's Travels in N America. - Heriot's Trarels through the C.of obedience. But as citizens of the United States, the public Lambert's Travels in C.--Smith's History of C. Quebec, 1813.-service of the nation would be open to us--a field for high and Statistical Sketches of Upper C.-Bouchette's Topographical and honourable distinction on which we and our posterity might Stutistical Description of the British dominions in N America, ? enter on terms of perfect equality. Nor would the amicable vols. 4to, 1831.-Horison's Sketches of Upper C. - Macgregor's separation of C. from Great Britain be fraught with advantages British America, 2 vols. 8v0.-Gourlay's Upper C.---Lord Durto us alone. The relief to the parent state from the large expen- ham's Report.-Parl. Papers. diture now incurred in the military occupation of the country- CANADA BAY, a deep indentation of the NE the removal of the many causes of collision with the United States which result from the contiguity of mutual territories so
coast of Newfoundland, formed on the N by Cape extensive—the benefit of the larger market which the increasing Canada, in N lat. 50° 40', W long. 56o. prosperity of C. would create, are considerations which, in the CANADA CREEK WEST, a river of the state of minds of many of her ablest statesmen, render our incorporation New York, U. S., in Herkemer co., which, after a with the United States a desirable consummation. To the United States also the annexation of C. presents many important in
course of 60 m., unites with the Mohawk at Herkeducements. The withdrawal from their borders of so powerful mer, and forms its principal branch. Lower Canada a nation, by whom in time of war the immense and growing creek forms the SE boundary of the co. commerce of the lakes would be jeopardized-the ability to dis
CANADA (LA), a town of Spain, in Aragon, prov. pense with the costly but ineffectual revenue establishment over a frontier of many hundred miles--the large accession to their in- and 32 m. NE of Terun, on an affluent of the Guacome from our customs-the unrestricted use of the St. Lawrence, daloupe. the natural highway from the Western states to the ocean-are objects for the attainment of which the most substantial equiva- in New Castile, prov. and 14 m. ESE of Cuenca.
CANADA-DEL-HOYÆ (LA), a town of Spain, lents would undoubtedly be conceded."
To these views in favour of annexation-which appear to have CANADA-DE-LOS-CONCYOS (La), a village originated with and in a great measure to be confined to the Tory of Spain, in Andalusia, prov. and 33 m. NNE of Separty in and about Montreal—it has been replied by a very liberal journalist, that though “ to annexation it may probably come
ville. In the environs is a copper-mine. at last, yet assuredly, in the meanwhile, not one of the three par
CANADA (Pozo-DE-LA), a town of Spain, in ties interested in the question is ripe for it. The pride and preju- Murcia, 10 m. SW of Chinchilla. dices of the English nation are unquestionab'y against it; and 350
CANADIAN CHANNEL, an arm of the St. Lawsignatures in its favour are no proof that it is desired by a population of 2,000,000 of colonists. Then, the whole southern states rence, formed by the island of Anticosti, and separatof the American Union are against the measure to a man: so that ing that island from the coast of Canada. It is about there is no chance whatever of its being carried, or even making any considerable progress just now. Some of the grounds on
30 m. in average breadth; and is studded along its N which annexation is argued by the writers of the manifesto, are
coast with the group of the Mingan islands. futile, and indeed absurd. The abolition of protection on the part CANADIAN RIVER, a river of the United States, of Great Britain, deeply deplored by these sons of freedom, is to be remedied by the protection afforded by the great republic. nadian forks, which take their rise in the Rocky
formed by the junction of the North and South CaBut at the very moment that the subscribers are attaching their signatures, the main portion of this ground is cut away from
mountains in Texas; unite soon after their entrance under their feet by the abolition of the American navigation laws. into the state of Arkansas; and flow into the ArkanOn every load of timber which the Canadians import into the
sas 20 m. NE of Fort Coffee, in N lat. 35° 28', formUnited Kingdom, they have, down to this hour, a protective duty of 58., equal to one-fourth part of the whole tax on foreign timber: ing the principal tributary of that river. The North this, of course, they would lose by annexation; nor would they fork is the principal affluent of the C. river, and have protection, under the laws of the Union, from any timber drains an immense extent of country, from the mewhatsoever that it was possible to bring into competition with
ridian of 105° 30' to that of 99° 40' W; and between them in the American market. But the most extravagant of the anticipated benefits from annexation is protection to C. manufac- the parallels of 36° and 37° 30' N. The total comtures. What are these either in esse or in posse? The American puted course of the C. river exceeds 1,000 m. Its legislature, under the advice of certain American manufacturers, imposed a tax on the American people, through a protective duty
waters are turbid and slightly saline; and it ceases to which greatly enhances the cost of every yard of calico and every be navigable at the distance of 120 m. from its mouth. ton of iron they use, depreciating at the same time the quality of CANADICE, a township of Ontario co., in the the articles they are forced to consume. It is this piece of economic mischief which the framers of the C. manifesto coellon pro: It is generally hilly, and contains several large ponds
state of New York, U. S., 18 m. SW of Canandaigua. a great national the protection, , in other terms, of self-unproductive taxation, the Americans have or lakes. The soil consists of clay, loam, and sand, been enabled to establish large manufactures of cotton and iron, and is in some parts fertile. Pop. in 1840, 1,341. one of which, at the moment of drawing up the manifesto, was
CANAFISTULA, a town of Brazil, in the prov. tottering for want of sufficient protection, and calling out for more taxation to bolster it up. These manufactures have been of Parahiba, 10 m. W of Pilar. It is inhabited chiefly established for many years, and against them, on equal terms, by Indians. the young manufactures of C. would have to compete. Without CANAJOHARIE, a township of Montgomery co., coal, and without iron in the same abundance as in the old states of the Union, and with cotton farther fetched, and therefore dearer,
in the state of New York, U. S., 50 m. WNW of Althe struggle of the C. manufactures would assuredly be a very bany. It possesses a hilly surface, and is drained by hopeless one. Next for the adva es of annexation to the
Bowman's and Otsquake creeks, tributaries of the United States. We are disposed to think they will be smaller than to either of the other parties. Upper C. will be a valuable Mohawk. Pop. in 1840, 5,146. The village lies on acquisition, and so will the complete navigation of the lakes and the S side of the Mohawk, and is intersected by the the St. Lawrence. But already over-burthened with territory, | Erie canal. *the masters of the fairest and most wealthy climates of the
CANAL, a town of Portugal, in the prov. of Alenworld,' will be apt, we should fancy, 'to turn with contempt from the frozen regions of C., as Gibbon says the Romans lid tejo, comarca and 23 m. NE of Evora. from the mountains of Caledonia. The greatest gain to America CANAL, a township of Venango co., in the state
of Pennsylvania, U. S., 218 m. NW of Harrisburg: rose to be a populous and commercial city; and, about Pop. in 1810. 867.
the middle of the 18th cent., when it was under the CANAL (EL), a town of Spain, in New Castile, power of the Dutch, who had established a considerprov. and 4 m. N of Guadalaxara, on the r. bank of able factory at this place, nearly 200 vessels arrived the Henares.
annually in its harbour. In 1770, C. was sold by the CANALE, a town of Piedmont, cap. of a mande- Dutch, to the ancestors of the present reigning famento, in the prov. and 7 m. NW of Alba, and 25 mily, for 100,000 rupees. It was afterwards seized m. SE of Turin, on an aMuent of the Bourbo, at an by l'ippu Saib; but is now subject to the British, alt. of 708 ft. above sea-level. Pop. 3,500. In the who, under General Abercrombie, took possession ni environs are springs of neutral salts.—Also a town the fort on the 17th of Dec., 1790. The biby, or lady of Illyria, in the gov. of Trieste, circle and m. of Cananore, however, who managed the affairs of N of Goritz, on the l. bank of the Isonzo, 30 m. the royal family during the minority of her son, was above the entrance of that river into the Adriatic, allowed to retain the nominal sovereignty of the disand at an alt. of 380 ft. above sea-level. Pop. 1,000.trict, and to collect all the revenues except the cus
CANALEJAS, a town of Spain, in Leon, prov. toms, but paid an annual land-tax of 14,000 rupees and 40 m. ENE of the town of that name.-Also a or £1,400 to the company. Her territories on the town of Old Castile, 27 m. ESE of Valladolid. continent were very small, extending nowhere above
CANALES, a town of Spain, in Leon, prov. and 2 m. from the town. The surface is, in general, high 17 m. NW of the town of that name, near the r. and uneven; but it is all capable of cultivation, though hank of the Orvigo.—Also a town in the prov. and 19 a small part of it only is fitted for rice-ground. The m. ESE of Valladolid.—Also a town of Old Castile, biby possessed also most of the Laccadive islands, in the prov. of Soria, 41 m. SSW of Logrono, at the which, however, are so wretchedly poor that the foot of the Sierra de San Lorenzo.--Also a town in tribute which she derived from them was altogether the prov. and 13 m. WSW of Avila.
trifling. Her principal resources arose from trade CANAL FULTON, a village of Lawrence town- which she carried on to a considerable extent in ship, in Tuscarawas co., state of Ohio, U. S., on the vessels of her own, with Arabia, Bengal, and SumaE of Tuscarawas river, and on the Ohio canal. Pop. tra; and “her commercial affairs are so well main 1840, about 400.
naged,” says Dr. Buchanan, " that she will soon, it CANALIA, a town of Turkey in Europe, in Tri- is said, recover the losses she is alleged to have kalia or Thessaly, on the SE bank of Lake Carlas, 5 suffered from the rapacity of some British officers m. NNE of Velestrino, and 10 m. NW of Volo. during the wars of Malabar." — The town of C.,
CANAMARES, a town of Spain, in New Castile, which is 45 m. NW of Calicut, in N lat. 11° 42', prov. and 25 m. NNW of Cuenca, on the l. bank of stretches about half-a-mile along the shore, and is the Escabas.
defended by a strong fortress, formerly considered CANAMERO, a town of Spain, in Estremadura, impregnable, and several detached forts on every prov. and 87 m. E of Badajoz, and 29 m. ENE of side. It is very narrow, except near the centre, Villanueva de la Serena, at the foot of the Sierra de where it runs a little way up into the land, and is la Guadaloupe.
terminated by a battery, called Spice fort. It conCANANDAIGUA, a township, cap. of Ontario tains several very good houses, which are possessed co., in the state of New York, U. S. It presents a by Mahommedan merchants; but its E extremity is finely diversified, and generally fertile and well-cul- chiefly inhabited by fishermen, and consists only of a tivated surface. Pop. in 1840, 5,602. The village group of miserable' huts. The fortress stands a little is delightfully situated at the N extremity of a lake SW of the town, upon a promontory which projects of the same name, and is neatly and well-built. Pop. a quarter of a mile into the sea. It has the complete 2,790.–C. lake is 14 m. in length, and from 1 to 11 command of the bay; and, since the province was m. in breadth. Its waters are clear, and abound with ceded to the company, has been considerably strengthfish, and its shores present rich cultivation. It dis-ened with works after the European fashion. The charges itself by Flint creek into Seneca river. sea surrounds it on all sides, except on the NW,
CANANEA, a small maritime town of Brazil, in where it is separated from the land by a deep ditch
CANARA, a town of the States-of-the-Church, in
N, Bejapur; and comprehends the countries of Tu-i Sdivision of the province there were, in 1800, 247,218 lava and Haiga, with a small portion of Malayala on morays of rice land in a state of cultivation, which the S, and of Kankana on the N. Its name is sup- employed 71,716 ploughs; and, besides forests, it conposed to be an European corruption of Karnata, a tained 111,965$ morays capable of culture, of which people residing above the Ghauts; and to have been 24,181 morays were cleared for grass, 7,043 were cabestowed upon it because it belonged to the princes of pable of being converted into rice ground, and 1,789 that nation; and we may observe, that, on the other were fit for gardens. According to a survey made side of the peninsula, the Carnatic received its name in 1793, the garden-ground of this division contained from the same source, when first conquered by the 695,060 cocoa nut trees; 1,155,850 betel nuts; 59,772 Moslems. It has an area of 7,380, or, according to mangoes; 368,828 pepper vines, and 54,362 0 ober another admeasurement, of 7,477 sq. m.; and is now descriptions. Since that time, however, it is supposdivided into two districts,-North and South C. The ed that the number of each kind has been fully surface is rugged and uneven; but is not intersected doubled. In the N division, the proportion of lands by any large river. Though the air is in general under cultivation, and those capable of being so, are, pure and pleasant, and the climate salubrious, yet in to the sterile lands, nearly as 267 to 73-3. The some places it is extremely unhealthy, particularly in number of ploughs in 1801 were 26,147; and the the N part of the province. In Tulava, heavy rains quantity of sugar annually produced was estimated at and strong W winds prevail between the middle of about 11,483 maunds of nearly 30 lbs. each. BuffaMay and the middle of August. The rain during the loes and oxen are almost the only cattle reared; and other seasons of the year comes from the E, and are chiefly bred in the districts near the Ghauts. A commonly falls in gentle showers. In the winter- few swine are fed by some of the lower castes; but the months, from November to March, the weather is inhabitants rear neither horses, sheep, goats, nor dry, but the air is reckoned cold by the natives. The asses. Tigers are, in some districts, numerous, but soil throughout the prov. is in general good; and pro- there are no elephants. The number of horned catduces abundance of rice, of which great quantities tle in the province is supposed to amount to 420,569, are exported to Europe and various parts of India: of which 97,356 are buffaloes. the best in quality is grown in the neighbourhood of The commerce of C., since the country became the coast. In the neighbourhood of the mountains subject to the company, and was thus freed from the the rains are sometimes so excessive as greatly to in- ruinous exactions with which it was loaded by the jure the crops, but the inland part of the country is sultans of Mysore, has assumed a more active apvery favourable to plantations. Some of the moun-pearance. Many wealthy merchants from Surat, tains are covered with stately forests of various kinds Cutch, Bombay, and other places towards the N, of wood, among which the teak is the most valuable; have settled in the province. “Rice is the grand artiindeed, the Western Ghauts in general present a very cle of exportation; which, together with betel-nut, different appearance from those in the E. Instead of cocoa-nut, pepper, sandal-wood, cinnamon, Terra Jathe naked sun-burnt peaks of the latter, the hills here, ponica, and turmeric, form a lucrative traffic with Sathough steep and stony, are by no means rugged, and rat, Bombay, Muscat, Cutch, Goa, Malabar, and the are covered with a rich mould.
Mahrattah countries above the Ghauts. The principal In Tulava, all the lands are private property; but in imports are blue and white cotton cloths from Surat Haiga, the hills and forests, and in Sunda, a district and Cutch; salt from Bombay and Goa; raw silk and of Kankana above the Ghauts, the arable lands be- sugar from China and Bengal; a kind of red dye long to government. Every man pays a certain land- called munjisht from Muscat; and oil and ghee from tax, and cultivates his property in whatever manner Surat. Great quantities of cloth are also brought he pleases. Some let their lands upon a lease of from above the Ġhauts by the Mahrattah merchants, from 4 to 10 years; and the rent demanded is gene- and those of Bangalore and Cudappa. rally two morays of rice for every moray of land of The revenue which the company derives from this the first quality; one and a half for middling land; country, arises chiefly from the duties upon comand one for the worst land. The moray or mudi, a merce and the land-tax; and the produce of these, dry measure of Canara, is equal to 110% bushel; we may conclude, is very considerable, as the sea and the moray or land measure, is equal to 49,005 customs of the S division alone amounted in 1795 to square feet, or nearly 17,4% acre. The more wealthy 23,760 pagodas, or about £9,504 sterling. In 1836-7 cultivators keep from 20 to 25 ploughs; those in mo- it amounted to 2,758,460 rupees, of which 1,671,215 derate circumstances have from 4 to 6; but the great were derived from land. proportion of farmers have only one. Out of the rent The inhabitants of C. are chiefly Hindus, and are paid by the tenants, the proprietors contribute 60 per divided into castes as in other parts of India, each of cent. to the government. Most of the cultivated which has its peculiar manners and customs. The lands are sown with rice. Of this plant they have a Canarese language is rather peculiar. It differs congreat variety of kinds, each of which requires a par- siderably from the Tamul, or what is called the ticular soil, and a particular method of culture. Some Malabar language by the Europeans at Madras, species produce, on land of good quality, three crops though they are evidently branches of one dialect. in the year; others only one; and they differ greatly The written characters are nearly the same, but in from each other both in the quantity of the produce the Canarese there is a great admixture of words and in the quality of the grain. As much of the from different languages. rice-ground is equally adapted for the rearing of In the southern division of Canara, there were in sugar-canes, the cultivation of this article might be 1800, 79,856 houses, of which 2,545 were inhabited increased to a considerable extent; but the farmers by Christians, 5,223 by Mahommedans, and the rest by consider rice a more profitable crop. Cocoa nuts, Hindus and Pagans. The total pop. of the district betel nuts, mangoes, pepper, cardamoms, turmeric, was 396,672, of whom 7,924 were slaves. The ginger, &c., are produced in great abundance; and houses in the N division, in 1800, amounted to several cucurbitaceons plants, besides a variety of 41,380, of which the Christians possessed 476, the kitchen-stuffs, are cultivated in every garden. Black Mahommedans 2,300, and Hindus and Pagans the pepper grows spontaneously in the woods, and wild remainder. The number of slaves was about 1,544. nutmeg and cinnamon are very common. The forests In 1807 the entire pop. was returned at 576,640.abound with sandal, teak, and sissa trees, which fur. The principal towns in C. are Mangalore, Barcelore, nish a considerable revenue to government. In the land Batticolah.