« PrejšnjaNaprej »
63.79 64.3 67:1
History] C. before its subjugation by the sultans of Mysore, , the heat is intense, particularly during the months of
January, the throne of his father, these allowances were reduced, and the
July, etates of the Christians confiscated; their priests were thrown
September, isto dungeons, their churches destroyed, and the laity forcibly
October, converted to Islamism. But the native chiefs were never so
72-1 entirely snbdued by the Maiommedan powers as the greater part
December, 65-9 toe Hindus, and have always been able successfully to resist
Mean of the whole year 71°. the pretensions of their governors to be proprietors of the soil. t'pa tae full of seringapatam, and the death of Tippu, when It appears from the above that the temp. of the C. this country came into the possession of the British, they were even is set to try how far they could assert their independence, follows the law common to extra - tropical places : au nifased for a time to settle with the British collector of the the greatest heat and the greatest cold are in the revenue, until some decisive measures were adopted to punish months following the solstices. The mean temp. of the most obstinate and troublesome. --Buchanan's Journey from the coldest month, January, is the same as the mean Vuru through Mysore, Canara and Malabar, vol. iii. - Dellon Feraro aus Indes Orientales, p. 195.- Bartolomeo's Voyage to the temp. of the whole year in S Italy. The barometer East Indies, p. 103.-Madras Almanack.
during three years gave for the months of May, CANARI, a commune of the island of Corsica, in June, July, and August, 28 in. 3:173 lines; and from the cant. of Nonza, on the E coast, to the N of Bas- September to April, 28 in. 2.017 lines; the excess tia. Pop. 994. It possesses a small port, the trade of summer over winter being 1:156 lines, or rather of which consists chiefly in fruit, legumes, and grain. more than one-tenth of an inch. (Von Buch.] The
CANARI, a river of New Grenada, in the Llanos climate, however, in these islands is far from being de Caguan, which, in union with several other uniform; for while, in the towns upon the coast, the streams, falls into the Japura, in 72° 18' W long. air is hot, dry, and calm, the inhabitants of the
CANARIAS, a small river of Brazil, in the prov. mountain-districts often experience fogs, wind, and of Maranhao, which issues from the I. side of the even rain. From April to October, the NE tradeTutoya branch of the Parnahiba, and flows into the wind prevails uninterruptedly: during the remaining
months, the SW is the dominant wind. The centre CANARIES, a group of islands in the N Atlantic of most of the islands rising into lofty mountains, ocean, supposed by some to be the same with the which tower so far above the clouds as to intercept lusula Beate, or Fortunate isles,' of the ancients. the current of the winds, a calm generally prevails They lie about 150 m. W from the coast of Africa. on the lea-side of the island, or a gentle breeze from between 27° and 30° N lat., and the meridians of the opposite quarter. These calms or eddy winds, 13]° and 18" W. The principal islands are seven are extremely dangerous to small vessels approachin number: viz., Lancerota, Fuerta-Ventura, Grand ing the islands; for, at the extremity of the smooth Canary, Teneriffe, Gomera, Hiero or Ferro, and water, the waves break in all directions. The calms Palma; the smaller islands are Allegranza, Santa on the leeward of Grand Canary extend 20 or 25 Clara, Graciosa, Roca, and Lobos. The united area leagues into the ocean; those of Teneriffe 15; of of the seven principal islands is 2,360,676 fanegadas Gomera 10; and of Palma 30. of 6,100 Spanish yards each, or 3,256 sq. m. Of Soil and productions.]. Von Buch distinguishes this area about one-sixth part is under cultivation. five regions of vegetation in the C. islands, their great Their geographical position and extent are as fol- elevation affording so many successive zones of clilow:
The first is the zone of the cactus and
euphorbia, extending to 1,200 ft. above sea-level;
the 2d is that of European cultivation, between
5,700 4.444 zone of the C. pine, which reaches to 5,900 ft. of alt.
8,200 11,742 The 5th embraces all above the latter elevation, and
28 4 N 14 31) W 12.000 13.88.5 cryptogami.— The soil of these islands is very fertile, Lancerota (E point), 29 14 N 13 26 W 13,000 17,434 and produces all kinds of grain, fruits, and pulse, in
abundance; but the method of cultivation practised
by the inhabitants tends little to its improvement. Geological structure.] From the appearance of Lands are let, not for money, but for the half of the the different strata which compose these islands, we produce. The proprietor furnishes the seed, and may reasonably conclude that they are of volcanic other articles of the first necessity, and also the origin. A great proportion of their surface is covered cattle, which indeed belong to him, and which he with calcined rock, pumice-stones, and black dust can take back at the expiry of the lease. For these and ashes, which are evidently the remains of suc- he receives the half of the crop during the term of cessive eruptions. The craters of several volcanoes agreement, besides a fanega of wheat for every head are still discernible in many of the islands; and also of cattle. The peasants often rent the cattle without the channels made by the lava which flowed from the land, on condition of sharing the half of their them; and so recently as 1824 a volcano burst out in increase. Sugar was formerly made in great abunLancerita.
dance; and twelve sugar-mills were employed in the Climate.). The climate is delightful, and exceed manufacture of this article in Grand Canary alone. ingly salubrious. The rainy season continues from It has of late years, however, almost ceased to be the beginning of December until March, which they made; and the cotton plantations have also perished. call winter, though it seldom freezes, and snow is Besides sugar and cotton, olives, mulberries, and only to be seen on the tops of the mountains. It tobacco, might be cultivated with great success. The scarcely erer rains on the coast earlier than Novem- C. likewise produce barilla, orchilla, honey, wax, and ber. Daring summer, the sky is always serene, and a kind of black gum or pitch called bray. All the
60 63 26
17,123 12.175 3.995 10.222
3.714 18.596 24,100
islands furnish excellent wine; but the preference is from Lancerota and Fuerta-Ventura, corn, cattle, and in general given to those of Palma and Teneriffe. fowls, also some salt and dried fish; and from all of In good seasons, Teneriffe alone produces above them orchilla-weed. The port of Santa Cruz in 'Ten20,000 pipes, a third of which is Malmsey or Canary eriffe was declared in 1838 to be a custom-house port sack; the rest is a dry hard wine, which sells for of the first class; that is, open to commerce of every about half the price of Malmsey: When two or description, and to the produce, if not specially prothree years old, it can scarcely be distinguished from hibited, of all countries. The ports of Orotava in Madeira; but when allowed to stand for four years, Teneriffe, and Los Palmas in Canary, were also deit turns mellow and sweet, and resembles the wine clared custom-house ports of the second class. The of Malaga in Spain. The following is a return of merchants of Cadiz are, it is said, about to establish the chief productions of the C. islands in 1833: a line of steamers between that port, the C., and the Wheat. Maize. Barley. Wine. Barilla.
Cape Verde islands. The Royal mail-packet com
pany's steamers to Brazil touch at Santa Cruz in Tepe Qrs. Qrs. Qrs. Pipes. Quint. Teneriffe,
eriffe, which is 260 m. steaming from Funchal in Ma. Canary,
deira; 945 m. from Porto-Praya in Cape Verde is
land; and 2,480 m. from Pernambuco in Brazil. Fuerta-Ventura, 12, 172
Manufactures.] The principal mannfactures of Gomera, 1,704 1,860 2,650
these islands are taffeties, coarse linens, gauze, qnilts, Hiero,
knit silk-hose, and silk-garters. Coarse woollen cloths,
and white blankets, are also manufactured in many 57,487 66,282 46,226 114,000
of the islands from the produce of their own sheep. In addition to the above, 5,343 quarters of rye, The inhabitants of the C. employ a considerable 10,310 quarters of vegetables, 151,800 quarters of number of vessels in the fishery on the coast of Barpotatoes, and 1,498 quintals of orchilla were pro- bary, which, if properly encouraged by the Spaniards, duced, and 1.275 lbs. of cochineal, which here feeds might be rendered a source of great convenience and on the Cactus opuntia.-The cattle of the C. are, profit to these islands; but the trade is clogged with horses, oxen, goats, sheep, roebucks, and wild asses. foolish and unreasonable duties; and the price is imThey abound with several kinds of game, and poul- politically regulated by the magistrates. This fishery try, and also with singing birds, particularly the extends along the coast about 600 m., from Cape Canary bird — Fringilla Canaria --so well known Blanco on the S, to the S extremity of Mount Atlas throughout Europe; and the shores swarm with fish, on the N. The vessels employed in this trade are especially sturgeons and mackerel, which form á from 15 to 50 tons burthen; the smallest carrying 15 great source of nourishment to the poorer inhabitants. men, and the largest 30; and the general place of
Commerce.] Teneriffe is the great centre of Euro- rendezvous is at Porto de Luz in the island of Grand pean commerce in these islands. Some ships go to Canary. They make from eight to ten voyages in Grand Canary and Palma, but their number is in the year. The bulk of their cargoes consists of samas considerable; and this branch of trade is chiefly in or bream; but they also catch a large quantity of tasthe hands of the English. The principal exports to sarte, cod, anhoud, carbino, and other kinds of fish. Europe and the British colonies in America, are The fish called tassarte tastes like a fat mackerel, and wines, brandy, fruits, orchilla-weed, and commodities when dried cannot be distinguished from dried salmon; which they receive from the Spanish West Indies. and the cod that is caught on this coast is considered In 1846, the imports into Great Britain from the C. by some as preferable to that of Newfoundland. The were 10 tons of barilla; 217 cwts. of cochineal; 147 situation of the C. islands, the salubrity of their clipackages of oranges and lemons; and 249,311 gallons mate, the fertility of the soil, and the quality of their of C. wine. From Great Britain they receive va- productions, would all conspire to render them a most rious kinds of woollen cloths, hats, silks, stockings, valuable possession, if they were inhabited by an cotton-stuffs, hardware, spices, &c., also wheat when active and industrious people, and placed under a there is a scarcity in the islands, and beef, pork, hut- government by whom agriculture and commerce were ter, candles, tea, ale, and salt herring; from the N of encouraged and promoted on sound principles. Europe, linens, cordage, gunpowder, bar-iron, &c.; Government.] The C. are governed by Spanish from the Mediterranean, cottons, silks, velvets, salt, laws. The governor resides at Santa Cruz in Tenoil, bass cordage, and innumerable small articles, eriffe. The military establishment is returned at either for home consumption, or for exportation to 24,000 men. The territorial revenue is said to the Spanish West Indies; from North America, deal amount to 14,391,735 francs, and to corer the exboards, pipe staves, bacallao or dried cod, hams, bees' penses of administration.—The three easterly islands wax, rice, &c. The commerce which these islands form one bishopric; and the four westerly, another. carry on with the Spanish settlements in the West The bishops are suffragan of Seville. Indies, is under particular regulations and restrictions. Inhabitants.] The present inhabitants of the C., No foreign bottoms are permitted to be employed in who are generally known by the name of Islenos or this trade, nor are vessels allowed to be fitted out the islanders,' are almost wholly of Spanish origin. from any of the islands except Grand Canary, Ten-They emigrate in great numbers to the coast of Ca. eriffe, and Palma. This trade is confined to their own raccas, and to the Philippines; and are a lively and produce, of which they annually export nearly 2,000 ingenious race, and, it is said, pronounce the Spanish tons; but they also find opportunities of smuggling language with a peculiar sweetness. The aboriginal into the country immense quantities of European inhabitants of these islands were called Guanches; commodities. Besides this foreign commerce, the C. many of them perished in resisting their Spanish con. carry on a considerable trade with each other. The queror Alonzo de Lugo, and by a plague which broke island of Teneriffe is the principal entrepot of all out in 1494. This fine nation was almost extinct at West India and European commodities, which it dis- the commencement of the 17th cent; and Malte tributes among the other islands, and receives in ex. Brun affirms, that at this time there does not exist change, from Grand Canary, provisions of all sorts, throughout the archipelago one native of the pure race. coarse woollen blankets, raw and wrought silk, flags, Their language is supposed to have borne considerable filtering stones, and some salt, &c.; from Palma, al- analogy to that of the African Berbers. Various opimonds, sugar, sweetmeats, boards, pitch, and raw silk; nions have been entertained concerning their origin; from Gomera and Ferro, raw silk, brandy, and cattle; but the most probable account is that they were origi
64.6 66 674 69.6 70-5
75.3° 78.1 82-1 85.3 73.9 64.6
nally Libyans, who, upon the conquest of Barbary by cumf. Though high and mountainous, yet near the
63-5° | July, toire de la premiere decouverte et conquete des Cana
September, ries, par F. P. Bouthier, et Jean le Verrier. Paris,
October, 1630, 850.-- Glas's Description of the Canary Islands. May,
November, - Viera's History of the Canaries.- Bory de St. Vin- June,
December, cent, Essai sur les Iles Fortunées.—Memoires de L'In- The heat of this island, instead of diminishing in stitut National a Paris, tom. i.- Geographical Journal. September and October, as at Santa Cruz, according -Humboldt.- Von Buch.
to the table inserted in the preceding article, contiCANARINS, a tribe of Indians, in Brazil, descendants of the nues to augment until the middle of October. In family of the Aimorés, who inhabit a village on the W side of consequence the palm-trees-- from which Las Palmas the cordillera of the Aimorés, in the latitude of Villa Vicosa.
takes its name-yield ripe dates freely on this island; CANARY(GRAND), or CANARIA GRANDE, one of the whereas in Teneriffe they do not ripen fruit. The Canary islands, which gives appellation to the group. Euphorbia balsamifera is found here as high as 800 It lies between the islands of Teneriffe and Fuerta- ft., forming bushes 10 or 12 ft. high, whereas at Santa Ventura, and about 100 m. NW from Cape Bojador, Cruz it hardly rises above the ground. The tamaon the African coast. The position of its NE point is rind tree here grows as large as the lime tree in EuN lat. 28° 13', W long. 150° 24'; of its W point, N rope; and the Curica Papaya also flourishes exubelat. 28° l'20”, W long. 15° 504: It received the epi- rantly. [Von Buch.] The only disagreeable weather thet of Grand from John de Betancour, not on ac- experienced is when the island is visited by a SE count of its size, but because of the strength, courage, wind from the great desert of Africa. This wind is and number of its inhabitants, who baffled all his at-hot, dry, and stifling; and does much damage to the tempts to subdue them. But the origin of the name fruits of the earth by its pernicious quality; it is also Canary has never yet been determined. According generally attended with immense clouds of locusts, to Pliny-if we may suppose his description to apply which devour every green herb upon which they to this island-it was on account of its abounding alight. Happily, however, it blows very rarely, and with dogs of a very large size, two of which were pre- never lasts long.–The soil of this island, though sented to Juba, king of Mauritania. But if such light and sandy, is covered with a rich mould, and animals ever did exist on this island, they were com- yields two harvests in the year. It is well-watered, pletely extinct when it was first visited by Europeans. and suited for every species of agriculture. The pine, Some modern authors derive it from a species of fruit palm, wild olive, laurel, poplar, elder, bressos, drage abundant here, called by the Latins uva canina, or tree, Terra nuepa or Lignum Rhodium, aloe, Indian fig, dog-grapes; others from an herb named canaria, tubayba, euphorbium, tarrahala, and many others, which dogs eat in the spring to cause them to vomit; grow spontaneously and without cultivation. Alwhile others suppose—and with more apparent rea- monds, walnuts, chestnuts, apples, pears, peaches, aprison—that it received its name from its first inhabi-cots, cherries, plums, mulberries, figs, bananas, dates, tants, who were probably a tribe of Africans, as Pliny oranges, lemons, citrons, limes, pomegranates, and all mentions a people called Canarii, who dwelt beyond the American and European fruits, except the anana Mount Atlas, a part of Africa which lies adjacent to or pine-apple--which is not to be found in any of the the C. islands. · At a distance, this island has the Canaries--are abundant. The fertile districts of this appearance of a single mountain rising gradually from island, however, bear no proportion to the stony, the circumf. to the centre. Its highest peak, El rocky, and barren ground, which covers almost sixCumbre, has an alt. of 6,648 ft. [Arlett.] It is about sevenths of its surface; yet the inhabitants raise ex12 leagues in length; 11 in breadth; and 40 in cir- cellent wheat, barley, maize, melons of different sorts,
potatoes, yams, pompions, the best onions in the W long. 80° 27'. It is surrounded by extensive and world, and many other kinds of vegetables; and the dangerous shoals. husbandman would be amply repaid for the labour CANAVERAL-DE-LEON, a town of Spain, in of cultivation, were not the spirit of industry com- Estremadura, prov. and 60 m. SSE of Badajoz, and pletely checked by the policy of the government, 33 m. SW of Llerena. which prohibits the exportation of provisions in a CANAVERAS, a town of Spain, in New Castile, plentiful season, and fixes a price upon them in the prov. and 20 m. NNW of Cuenca. island; and by the system of strict entail which pre- CANA-VERDE, a small modern town of Brazil, vails. Many lands are, on this account, allowed to in the prov. of Minas-Geraes, 8 m. from Tamandua. lie waste, which might, by a little labour and expense, Pop. about 3,000. Agriculture and the rearing of be rendered abundantly fruitful, as they have abun- cattle form the chief branches of local industry. dant means of watering them in the numerous rivu- CANAVERUELAS, a town of Spain, in New lets with which the island abounds. “The most fer- Castile, prov. and 45 m. NW of Cuenca, and 20 m. tile part of C.,” says Glas, " is the mountain of Do. N of Huete, near the l. bank of the Guadiela. ramas, situated about 2' leagues from the city of CANAVESE, or CANAVEZ, & district of PiedPalmas. It is shaded by groves of different kinds of|mont, on the Dora Baltea. Its cap. was Ivrea. fragrant trees, whose lofty boughs are so thickly in- CANAVEZES, a town of Portugal, in the prov. terwoven as to exclude the rays of the sun. The of Minho, comarca and 20 m. SSE of Guimaraens, rills that water those shady groves, the whispering and 30 m. SSE of Braga, on the l. bank of the Taof the breeze among the trees, and the melody of mega. Pop. 1,500. In the environs are several sulthe C. birds, form a most delightful concert. When phureous springs. a person is in one of these enchanting solitudes, he CANAVIERA, a bay of Brazil, to the N of the cannot fail of calling to remembrance the fine things island of Santa-Catharina, in the district of N. S. das the ancients have written of the Fortunate islands.” Necessidades. The sugar plantations, which were formerly nume- CANAXUATO. See GUANAZUATO. rous and extensive in this island, and which employed CANCALE, a canton, commune, and town of 14 large manufactories, have now, in a great mea- France, in the dep. of Ille-et-Vilaine, arrond. of St. sure, given place to the cultivation of the vine. The Malo. The cant. comprises 6 com., and in 1831 wines and brandies of Grand C. have always been in contained a pop. of 14,503. The town is situated on great demand in the Spanish West Indies; and the the E side of the large bay of the same name, 9 m. inhabitants find it more profitable to exchange these E of St. Malo. Pop. 4,880. At the hamlet of La for sugar than to raise it in their own country. The Houle is an excellent port. The adjacent rock of wine of this island, however, though good, has not Cancale is celebrated for its oysters, the fishery of such a body as that of Teneriffe, and is consequently which forms one of the principal branches of local not so fit for exportation.—The animals are camels, industry. In_1758 an unsuccessful descent was horses, asses, mules, bullocks, a few sheep, &c., also made by the English upon this part of the French turkeys, geese, fowls, ducks, partridges, and C. birds.coast.
CANAS, a town of Spain, in Old Castile, prov. CANCAN, a town of New Granada, in the prov. and 26 m. SW of Lograno, and 6 m. SE of St. Do- and 75 m. ENE of Antioquia, near the source of the mingo de la Calzada, on the l. bank of the Glara. S. Cruz, and 15 m. SSW of Remedios.
CANAS-DE-SENHORIM, a town of Portugal, CANCANHULLY, a town of Hindostan, in the in the prov. of Beira, comarca and 11 m. S of Visen. prov. of Mysore, on the r. bank of the Arkavutoy, It contains some saline sulphureous springs.
50 m. E of Seringapatam. CANASERAGA CREEK, a river of the state of CANCAO, ATHIAN, HATIAN, or KANG-KAO, a New York, U. S., in Madison co., which flows into town and port of Annam, in the peninsula and 120 the Chitteningo, 4 m. SSE of the entrance of that m. S of Cambodia, at the entrance of one of the river into Oneida lake.
deltoid arms of the May-kiang, named the Cancao, CANASGORDAS, a town of New Granada, in into the gulf of Siam, in N lat. 10° 15', E long. 105o. the prov. and 10 m. NW of Antioquia, near the It is well fortified, and possesses an active commerce source of the Sucio. Pop. 309.
in betel-nuts, timber, iron, cotton, &c. The river is CANASTOTA, a village of Lenox township, in only navigable during the rainy season. C. was Madison co., state of New York, U.S., 119 m. WNW formerly the cap. of a small state—tributary to Camof Albany, on the Erie canal, and near the Syracuse bodia-of the same name. and Utica railway. It contained in 1840, 120 dwell- CANCELLARA, a town of Naples, in the prov. ings, and about 400 inhabitants.
of the Basilicata, district and 9 m. NE of Potenza, CANASTRA (SERRA), an extensive ridge of Bra- in a beautiful valley. Pop. 3,110. It contains a fine zil, in the prov. of Minas-Geraes. It unites on the old castle. W with the Serra-da-Parida, and runs in an ESE CANCELLI, a parish and village of Tuscany, in direction along the N basin of the Rio Grande. The the prov. of Florence, 14 m. NW of Regello. Pop. Sâo-Francisco takes its rise in this chain.
547. It contains numerous potteries. CANATA, a town of Sicily, in the intendancy of CANCHAS, a town of Pern, in the prov. and 100 Noto, district and 4 m. SSE of Modica. Horses and m. N of Lima, and 55 m. N of Chancay, on the r. mules are extensively reared in the surrounding bank of the Barranca. plain.
CANCHE, a river of France, in the dep. of PasCANAVARALES, a town of New Granada, in de-Calais. It takes its rise in the cant. of Avesnes, the prov. of Magdalena, and 40 m. SW of Ocana, on near Magnicourt ; passes Frevent, Vieil - Hesdin, the r. bank of the Canavarales, and 50 m. SE of the Hesdin, Montreuil, and Etaples; and falls into the junction of that river with the Magdalena.
Atlantic, 5 m. below Etaples, after a course from E CANAVATE (EL), a town of Spain, in New to W of 41 m., of which 9 are navigable. Castile, prov. and 35 m. S of Cuenca, and 14 m. CANCHE (LA), a village of France, in the dep. NNE of San Clemente.
of the Côte-d'Or, cant. and 6 m. SE of Arnay-leCANAVERAL, a town in the prov. and 28 m. N Duc. Pop. 397. It possesses some iron-works. of Caceres, and 12 m. SSE of Coria.
CANCON, a canton, commune, and town of CANAVERAL (CAPE), a headland of the United France, in the dep. of the Lot-et-Garonne, arrond. States, on the E coast of Florida, in N lat. 28° 163', of Villeneuve-sur-Lot. The cant. comprises 10 com.,
and in 1831 contained a pop. of 9,757. The town is it is constructed of coarse stone and bricks. It is 12 m. NNW of Villeneuve-sur-Lot. Pop. 1,641. It highly venerated by all the Duranis. When any of bas 6 annual fairs.
the great lords are discontented, they commonly give CANCOOPA, or CANCOUPA, a town of Hindos- out their intention of quitting the world, and spendtan, cap. of a small district in Mysore, on a height ing their lives in prayer at this tomb. C. is chiefly 100 m. NE of Bedenore or Nuggur, and 140 m. built of mud and brick. The private houses are NNW of Seringapatam.
generally very poor dwellings. The Hindus, as usual, CANCUN, an island of Mexico, near the NE ex- have the best houses of the common people, and adtremity of the peninsula of Yucatan, at the mouth here to their common custom of building them high. of the Bullina. It is 7 m. in length from N by E to Ballad-singers and story-tellers are numerous in the S by W; but is very narrow. Its Send, which forms bazaars; and all articles of merchandise from the a very narrow channel with the mainland, is in N West are in much greater plenty and perfection lat. 21° 2', W long. 86° 47' 9".
here than 'at Peshawur. The greater part of the CANDA, a town of Venetian Lombardy, in the pop. are Afghans; and the other inhabitants are district and 6 m. S of Badia, and 15 m. W of Bovigo. Taujiks, Eimaks, Hindus, Persians, Seistans, Beluon the l. bank of the Castignaro canal. Pop. 1,500. chis, and a few Usbecs, Arabs, Armenians, and Jews. It has one annual fair.
The gardeus and orchards round the town are nuCANDADILLO POINT, a headland of Guate- merous, and abound in delicious fruits; and there mala, forming the W side of the entrance of the gulf are many places of Worship, where the inhabitants of Conchagua or Fonseca, in N lat. 13° 15', W long. make parties more for pleasure than devotion. 87° 46'.
When and by whom this city was founded is unCANDAHAR, or KANDAHAR', the principal city known. The oriental geographers attribute its founin Western Affghanistan, in N lat. 32° 20', E long. dation to Secunder Zulkernain, or Alexander the 66° 30° [Elphinstone]; N lat. 31° 37', E long. 65° 28' Great; and this notion has been adopted by several (Walker's map]; 1,071 m. travelling distance from modern geographers and historians; amongst the Delhi; and 2,074 m. from Calcutta. It is situated | latter, by Dr. Robertson, who makes it the Parobetween the Turnnk and the Urghundab rivers, both pamisan Alexandria. But, as D'Anville remarks, branches of the Helmund; at an alt. above sea-level of the name Kandahar certainly does not come from 3.481 ft. It was the capital, in Ahmed Shah's time, Alexander, but from the Persian, or rather Turkish of all his empire; but his son, Timur, removed the term kand, denoting 'a fortress.' Thus there is a seat of government to Cabul. Its pop. according to place called Kandar in the Deccan, where no one Elphinstone's information, amounted to 100,000 souls; will pretend that Alexander ever came; and there is but it probably does not now exceed half that num- another of the same name in Ajmeer; and Gandhara ber. The form of the city is an oblong square, is the Sanscrit name for all the three. There is also which is enclosed by a mud wall 27 ft. high, 26 ft. a place called Caendar on the borders of the Attruck, thick at the bottom, and 145 ft. at the top; and a NE of Meschid, which was a fortress of great imnewly-dug ditch about 9 ft. deep. The circumf. of portance in the times of Jenghis Khan and Tamerthe ramparts is nearly 4 m. Four long and broad | lane, corresponding to the Gandar or Gadar of Isibazaars meet in the centre of the town; and at their dore of Charax, and the Gandari of Herodotus and place of junction is a karsu or open square of 40 or Pliny. A people called the Gandaræ are placed by 50 yards in breadth, covered with a dome, in which Ptolemy between Suastene and the Indus,--a tract all the four streets meet, and which may be considered corresponding to the modern valley of Bunir. The as the public market-place. Here proclamations are ancient name of C., moreover, according to Kirkmade, and the bodies of criminals exposed to the patrick, quoted by Rennel, was Balicos; which compopular gaze. The four bazaars are each about 50 pletely sets aside the derivation of the name from yards broad: the sides consisting of shops of the same Iscander, or Alexander. The Paropamisan Alexansize and plan, in front of which runs a uniform ve- dria, it may also be noted, was built at the S foot of randah for the whole length of the street. The shops the Hindukhoosh, and at the N extremity of Paroare only one story high, and the lofty houses of the pamisus according to Arrian, whereas C. is to the S town are seen over them. There are gates issuing of the Paropamisus. The ancient city stood till the into the country at the end of all the bazaars, except reign of Shah Hussein, who founded a new city the northern one, where stands the royal palace under the name of Husseinabad. Nadir Shah again fronting the karsu. The external appearance of the altered its site, and called it Nadirabad. Finally, palace is not remarkable; but it contains several | Ahmed Shah founded the present city, and denomicourts and buildings, and a private garden. All the nated it Ahmed Shauhee, and Ashreff-ool-Belaud, bazaars, except that leading to the palace, were once or the noblest of cities;' by which latter name planted with trees, with a narrow canal running and title it is mentioned in public documents, and through the middle of each; but many of the trees in the language of the court during the Durani have withered, and the canals are now no longer dynasty. C., with the surrounding country, was visible. The city, however, is well watered by two usually considered a province of the Persian empire. large canals drawn from the Urghundab, which flows In the days of Akbar, both city and province were about 4 m. to the W of the city. From these canals subject to the Mogul dynasty, and had been so from water-courses run to almost all parts of the town. the time of Baber; but they were wrested from All the other streets run from the four great bazaars; Jehan Ghir, the successor of Akbar, by Shah Abbas and, though narrow, they are all straight, and cross the Great. In 1638, C. was betrayed into the hands each other at right angles. The city is divided into of Shah Jehan by Alinurdan Khan, the Persian several mohullahs or quarters, each of which belongs governor, who was disgusted at the cruelty and into one of the numerous tribes and nations forming capacity of Shah Sefi. In 1650 it was recovered by the pop. of the place. Almost all the leading Duo Shah Abbas II., and remained in the Persian hands rani fainilies have houses in C., and some of them till the revolt of the Ghiljis, who possessed it under are said to be large and elegant. Mosques and ca- their hereditary chiefs till 1737, when the celebrated ravanseras are also pumerous. The tomb of Ahmed Nadir Shah, having expelled the Ghiljis, and reduced Shah, the founder of the city and dynasty, stands the Abdallies of Heraut, besieged it in the beginning near the palace. It has a handsome cupola, and is of 1736, and took it by storm, after a siege of 18 elegantly painted, gilt, and ornamented within; but, months, put the garrison to the sword, totally demo