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tity of vegetable earth, from whence a few odoriferous plants, petty a stream have shaped for itself so tremendous particularly the Anra mucronata, an elegant frutescent plant

a channel.” The general character of the streams priliar to this habitat, draw their nourishment. Antelopes, fu'uns vultures and toals, are sometimes to be met with on beyond this, in the country of the Amakosa Caffres, the mountain The view from the summit is extensive and pic is the same; the banks are steep but not high, and tanque. The bay seems a small pond or basin, and the ships

so thickly covered with wood that the water looks in it are dwindled to little boats; the town under our feet, and Live regular compartments of its gardens, look like the work of almost black from the effect of the branches that stilina; all is dwindled into mere specks and lines. The air bend over it.—The N frontiers of the colony are waon the summit, in winter, and in the shade, is generally about tered by two large rivers: the Lesser Fish river and 15 lower than that in the town beneath; but in sumner the Cifference is still greater, particularly when the SE wind blows,

the Garriep or Orange river. The former, which mi a fleeey cloud, called the Táble-cloth,' appears on the waters the Great Namaqua territory, falls into the Buantain, and gives indication of an approaching storm. This Orange river about 70 m. from its mouth. The did is composed of immense masses of fleecy whiteness. It Orange river appears to be formed by two rivers does not appear to be at rest on the hill, but to be constantly which unite their waters nearly 600 m. due E from ping opward from the SE; yet, to the surprise of the beholder, is dever descends, because the snowy wreaths seen falling over their mouth. It falls into the Atlantic in S lat. 28° the precipice towards the town below, vanish completely before 30'. Most of these rivers, swelled by periodical they reach it, while others are formed to replace them on the other side. The reason of this phenomenon is that the air rains, deposit much mud and sand at their mouths; Ntituting the wind from the SE having passed over the vast some of them in the dry season are lost amid the southenti ocean, comes charged with as much invisible moisture sands and rocks. Besides these principal rivers as its temperature can sustain. In rising up the side of the Wantain it is rising in the atmosphere, and is therefore gradually

there are a number of small streams, which may be nung from a part of the former pressure; and on attaining generally crossed dry-shod, but after a fall of rain the suminit, it has dilated so much, and has consequently become increase to a great size. 80 nuch colder, that it lets go part of its moisture. This then appears as the cloud now described; but its substance no sooner Climate.] The climate of the C. is considered as very salubrifalls ofer the edge of the mountain, and again descends in the ous; and many invalids from India have been restored to health atosphere to where it is pressed, and condensed, and heated as

by its salutary influence. The year is divided by the inhabitants Beire than the water is redissolved and disappears: Thus the into two periods,--the good and the bad monsoon. Dagnificent apparition dwells only on the mountain-top." (Arnott.] commences in September, and answers to our summer. During

its continuance, the SE winds prevail. These sometimes blow Riters.] The rivers which intersect this exten- in squalls, with great violence, and then every door and window sive colony, are of little advantage to it either for in Cape-T. is carefully closed up, to keep out the dust and heat. the purposes of agriculture or navigation. Many of During the continuance of the storm, the Abbe de la Caille ob

served, that "the stars look larger and seem to dance; the moon them are merely periodical torrents, which continue has an undulating tremor; and the planets have a sort of beards to flow during the rainy season, but which during like comets.". These winds are of a dry and blasting quality, summer leave their deep - sunk beds almost com

and destroy the foliage and blossoms of such fruit-trees as are pletely dry; and the rivulets, which are supplied by baneful influence, as they relax and fatigue the powers both of

not sufliciently sheltered. The inhabitants also suffer from their the mountain-springs, have scarcely escaped from the body and mind, and render them almost entirely incapable of the lofty sources before they are either absorbed exertion; but they are of great service in keeping up a constant or evaporated. The permanent rivers, some of circulation of the air

, which in sore measure counteracts the re

flected heat from the face of Table mountain, which would otherwhich contain sufficient water for the navigation of wise be insupportable. The mornings, during this season, are in small craft for several miles up the country, are general hot and sultry; but the breeze springs up about midin numerous instances rendered inaccessible by a

day, and, dying away towards the evening, leaves the atmobed of sand or a reef of rocks across the mouth. sphere cool and refreshing. The therm. in the hottest months

varies from 70° to 90°; but often remains for days at 83° or 84° The two principal rivers on the W coast are the and has sometimes risen to 105° in the shade. On the approach Berg or Mountain river, and the Olifant or Ele

of winter, the SE wind becomes less frequent and violent, and is phants' river. These streams are only navigable by with thick fogs and heavy rains. Thunder-storms are also not

at length succeeded by the NW wind, which is generally attended small craft to the distance of about 20 m. up the unfrequent, and often last for two or three days. The rains country.-On the S coast of the colony, the Breede descend in torrents, sometimes for many days without the least or Broad river discharges itself into St. Sebastian's interruption, particularly during the months of June and July.

" The air is at one moinent perfectly calm, the next wild with bay. Its mouth, now called Port Beaufort, allows

terrific storms. The sky, so sweetly serene at noon, shall before vessels of 200 tons to enter, and discharge or load in half-an-hour passes be darkened by clouds which shroud the safety.-The Gauritz, the next great river on the

land as with a pall. For months, the long droughts parch the coast, is a collection of waters from the Great karroo

earth, the rivers may be forded on foot, the flocks and herds

pant for refreshing waters and green herbage. Suddenly a and Black mountains. In the rainy season it is a cloud no bigger than a man's hand' appears on the hori. rapid and dangerous stream. The Knysna is consi- zon, and lo! the elements rage and swell, thunder booms upon dered by Barrow to have been a lake which has

the air, darkness covers the land, the arrows of the Almighty opened itself a channel to the sea, and the tide now

dart from the angry heavens, striking death and terror whereso

ever they fall. From the far desert an overpowering torrent of sets into it, through a narrow passage, as into a sand comes sweeping on, obscuring the air, and making its way dock. The arms of the Knysna stretch into the deep

into your very house, in such profusion that you may trace cha. valleys at the foot of the mountains, and are there

racters in its dry depths on the window-sill. The skies open, the

floods descend, the rivers burst their bounds, trees are uprooted lost in impenetrable forests.—The Keurboom, like from the saturated earth, and through the roof of your dwelling the Knysna, runs up into the midst of tall forests. the rain beats heavily, the walls crack, the plaster falls, the The Camtoos or Gamtoos admits vessels of 200 tons, choly moan, the voices of angry spirits seem to howl and shout

beams that support the thatch groan and creak with melanand promises to be of great service to the colony, around you, the poor birds on frightened wing wheel past your particularly if it prove true that coal is to be found windows, the cattle disturb you with their lowing, the dogs on its banks.— The Zwart-kops is a clear permanent howl, and the unearthly tones of the Kaffir or Fingo

herdsman's stream of water flowing into Algoa bay.— The mouth

song are no agreeable addition to the wild scene stirring before

you. The tempest subsides as suddenly as it arose, the voices of of the Kowie is the next port to the E. - The Great the storm-spirits die away in the distance over the mountainFish river, the Rio d'Infante of the Portuguese, takes

tops, the dark pall of clouds is rent by a mighty hand, the swolits rise bevond the Snowy mountains, and in its long ing at last into a more measured course; the sun lights up the

len rivers rush on, bearing evidences of devastation, but subsidcourse collects a multitude of tributaries. The coun- valleys and the hill-sides, the air is clearer, the sky brighter than try through which it winds its course is in many

ever; and, but for the history of devastation and oftentimes of parts covered to an immense extent by a thick jun- subject to these violent convulsions of nature, the terrors of the

death, and the knowledge that for weeks the country will be gle; in other quarters we only see vast naked plains, tempest would soon be forgotten." (Mrs. Ward.) Such torrents through which the river flows lazily on in a narrow have fallen after a thunder-storm, that in a few hours the water and gloomy ravine 500 or 600 ft. deep, which seems

has been some feet deep in the main road leading into Cape-T. It to have been formed to confine and preserve the wa

frequently occurs in the E province, that what is called a river is

dry for perhaps eleven months in the year, and becomes an inler, "for in no lapse of ages,” says Rose, “could so passable torrent in a few hours. The air then fuels chilly, raw,

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and disagreeable; and the common temp. of this season is from covered with shrubbery of the most beautiful and 50° at suurise to 60° at noon. It, however, sometimes falls 50 variegated foliage, and enlivened with numerous low as 40°; and on the more elevated karroo plains, it is generally below the freezing-point during night, and from 70° to 80o birds and a variety of game. There are also some at mid-day. In the Roggevelde, the cold is often very intense. fertile spots on the W coast, particularly between - The barometer often rises higher in the clear cold days of win-Berg river and Saldanha bay, and in some parts of ter than in the serene weather of summer; its range in the former season is from 29:46 to 30-35 inches, while in the latter it is the C. peninsula. only from 29.74 to 30.10. - One considerable inconvenience of Animal kingdom.] The C. has long been celethis climate, which cannot but prove in some measure prejudicial brated among naturalists and botanists as a fertile to the health of the inhabitants, is the sudden change of temp. field for their researches. Almost every animal found It is not unusual for the therm. to rise 30° in the course of 5 or 6 hours; indeed, the frequency of consumptive complaints is hy

on the African continent exists in the neighbourmany ascribed to these vicissitudes. The most fatal diseases, hood of this colony. Two varieties of the lion are however, which are common to the natives, arise from a different found in S Africa, namely the yellow and the browu, cause, and may in general be attributed to excess at table and want of exercise. Many of the inhabitants, in the remote parts or, as the Dutch colonists often term the latter, the of the province, habitually use animal-food three times a day, blue or black lion: the dark-coloured species is the seldom accompanying their repasts with any portion of vege stronger and fiercer. Zebras have become very rare tables, or even bread; when an excessive use of ardent spirits is

in the colony. combined with such pernicious habits of life, affections of the

The elephants have also forsaken liver and other diseases are the certain result. The annual the countries inhabited by Europeans, excepting the mortality at C. - Town, taken on an average of eight years, Sitsikamma district; the two - horned rhinoceros ending 1797, was about 2-5 per cent. among the white in- shows itself still more rarely; and the gentle giraffe habitants, and under 3 per cent among the slaves. - The mean temp. of C.-Town, inferred from a meteorological jour- seeks the more secluded districts. The Bos Cajer, nal kept there for several years, is 67-3° Fahr.

or buffalo of the C., is distinguished by enormous tremes, according to the same journal, are 969 and 45°. But, as horns. The kloofs, or clefts of the mountains, in the the thermometer, of which the account was kept, remained suspended in a large apartment, without direct exposure to external vicinity of C. Town, still give shelter to wolves and air, it cannot have indicated precisely the extreine of cold, nor hyænas, and the jackal and tiger-cat are common. perhaps that of heat. Besides, it was not self-registering. The all the mountains abound with a dusky-coloured inean temp. of the coldest month, as shown by it, was 57°; of animal, about the size of a rabbit, called here the the hottest, 79°; mean of three winter - months, 58° ; be telinee dus, the Ilyrux Capensis of Linnæus. A species of summer-months 77°; least heat during summer 63o. The temp. of the inland station of Stellenbosch, deduced from observations antelope called the guesbok, and another species of a single year, is 663°; extremes, 87o and 50°. The temp. of named the ducker, may be met with in the peninZwartland, another inland station, appears to be 663°; ex sula; but the steinbok, formerly the most numerous tremes, 85° and 54o. The thermometers at both places were suspended in spacious airy halls. At Tulbagh, situated in a valley of the antelope-tribe, is now driven from this part of of the great chain of mountains which divides the W from the É Africa into the interior. The beautiful white-faced districts of the colony, the mean temp. of the year is 66:7oantelope, or springer, is so common near Fish River that of the coldest month 55}°; of the hottest: 8040; extremes, that herds of more than 2,000 may sometimes be 950 and 52° ; mean of three winter months 565°; of three summer months 79° ; least heat in summer 61°. Beyond the great seen together. Gazelles, with their exquisitely soft and chain of mountains a material difference in climate is percepti- expressive eyes, are numerous throughout the colony. ble; but meteorological diaries, kept at the principal stations, do not extend to a sufficiently long period for contidently deducing One of the most beautiful animals of this country is the from thein positive conclusions. It would appear, however, that khoo, the head of which bears some resemblance to the E division is subject to a colder winter than the W. The the African buffalo. He has an erect mane on his extreme of cold quoted at Uitenhage is 32° ; at Bathurst, 44o. The climate of the W tract, constituting the belt of land between neck, and another under his neck, descending from the range of high mountains and the sea, from St. Helena bay the breast between the fore-legs; his shoulders and and the Berg river to the s termination of the peninsula, con body are somewhat like those parts of the horse, sisting of the Stellenbosch, and Cape districts, with part of Tuls while he has the elegant limbs of the antelope. Bebagh, and comprising the most populous and best-cultivated por: sides the animals already mentioned, there are found tion of the colony, exhibits, for the mean temp of the year, according to the diaries above cited, 66° to 67°; coldest month 56° here the wolf, panther, elk, buffalo, leopard, rhinoto 58o; hottest month 77° to 78°; extremes 96° and 45°; mean of three winter-months 56° to 60°; mean of three suinmer

ceros, wild dogs, baboons, hogs, hares, and ant-bears months 75° to 79°; least heat in summer 61° to 63o. The winter

or ground-hogs, porcupines, hedge-hogs, and a varilasts from June to August; and the whole of the cold and rainy ety of monkeys.-Among the feathered tribes are season from May to October. The summer continues from Dc- eagles, vultures, kites, pelicans, flamingoes, spooncember to February; and the whole of the warın and dry season bills, cranes, ibises, wild geese and ducks, teals, from November to April The NW monsoon extends from the middle of April to the middle of September, five months; the SE snipes, quails, bustards, and partridges. Turtledores monsoon, seven months, from September to April. The hygro. of many sorts, thrushes, humming-birds, and an immetric therm. ranged at C - Town from 53° to 70°. (Colebrooke.]

mense variety of other small birds, of the most ex. Soil.] The soil of this country is in general of a quisitely beautiful plumage, are found in the woods. stiff clay, or light sand, which requires nothing but (Morrel.] One of the most beautiful is the Cuculus water to make it most fertile in every vegetable pro- auratus, or Golden cuckoo. The sugar-birds are au duction. Wherever springs are found, their vicinity elegant little race allied to the humming- always enriched with rapid and luxuriant verdure; Musquitoes are less offensive here than on the opbut these are so very rare, particularly in the N part posite continent of America. Scorpions, scolopenof the colony, that they scarcely interrupt the pros- dras, large black spiders, and a species of sand-tiy pect of uniform sterility, and serve only to render are noxious; almost all the serpent-tribe found here more dreary the surrounding wilderness. The im- are venomous. “The Cape would not be inappro. mense karroos are, for many months, completely de- priately called the land of snakes and lizards." void of every appearance of vegetation. Their un- [Foster.] varied surface of clay, sprinkled over with sand, is Vegetable kingdom.] The number of plants is great, only broken by hills still more barren. The belt of many of them are uncommon, and not a few indiland, however, which is enclosed by the S range of genous and peculiar. Flax yields two crops in the mountains and the sea, possesses a deep and fertile year, and hemp is abundant. Indian corn grows soil, which, being refreshed by frequent rains, is well; cotton and coffee, rice and sugar, are yet but clothed with grass, and in many places well-wooded | little known; European wheat and barley thrire with fruit and forest trees : while, from its proximity well. Most of the European, and many of the troto the ocean, it enjoys a more mild and equable pical fruits, are cultivated with great success. Orantemperature than the N plains. The beauty and ges, peaches, apricots, figs, grapes, guavas, pomefertility of the country increase as we advance east- granates, quinces, and medlars, are plentiful and ward; and the banks of the Great Fish river are good. Apples and .pears, though abundant, are

generally inferior in quality to what might be ex- , bluish leaves and bright red flowers; the scarlet pected, probably from want of attention in propagat- geraniums peeping from amidst the other shrubs ing the best sorts. Almonds, walnuts, chestnuts, – altogether form a combination extremely inteand excellent mulberries, grow in great abundance. resting to a botanical eye, and which must strike Strawberries ripen throughout the whole year; but every traveller of ordinary habits of observation by raspberries, though tolerably good, are scarce. The its dissimilarity to anything that is to be seen in flors of the C. is singularly rich. The bulbous-rooted other countries." plants exceed in variety those of any other country; Mineralogy.) The mountains are generally of sandstone, restand at the conclusion of the rainy season, the ver- ing on a base of granite; the inferior hills of compact or slaty dant carpet of Trifolium melilotos, which covers the schistus, abounding with argillaceous ironstone. Everywhere W shores of Table bay, is enlivened with myriads of regular cubes, in others in the shape of etities or eaglestone, in

iron ores are abundant. In some places they are found in small the large othonna, among which are intermingled nodules of various sizes, and filled with an impalpable ochreous ; the Oralis cernua, Hyporis stellata, ixia, iris, amaryl. powder of every shade of red, brown, and yellow, serving the lis, and geraniums of every species, exhibiting the fumers as paint At Lattakoo, the Nuakkets and Betschuanas

bring to market iron-wares of their own manufacture. Silver most beautiful variety of foliage and colours. Ex- and lead-ores have been discovered to the eastward, and abuntensive plantations of the Protea argentea, or silver dance of copper-ores to the northward, in the Dammara country, tree, the white poplar, and the stone-pine, stretch whence are brought fine specimens of malachite, and the much along the foot of the Table mountain; and most of nitre is very common in powder and in crystals, and traces of coal

admired stone of an apple-green colour, called prehnite. Native the country-houses are adorned with avenues of oak. have been discovered not far from the Table mountain. In the Bat the timber of these is of small value, being ge- vicinity of Kroom river, some time ago, a slender vein of coal Derally shaken and unsound, from its rapid growth, of alum, particularly beautiful in its structure, the colour being

was discovered; and near the Bushman's river an extensive vein and is seldom used for any other purpose than fuel, purely white, of silky lustre, exhibiting delicate fibres, six or which at the C. is extremely scarce. The fuel, eight inches in length, running parallel, sometimes straight, however, which is now chiefly derived from the cul

sometimes undulating. It is very pure alum, and valuable.

Lead-ore has been found in the same region, and it promises to tivated woods of Protea argentea, the oak, and the become a valuable article of export. Forty or fifty years ago spontaneous productions of the neighbouring coun- this ore was thought worthy of attention: it was mentioned by try to the C. Town, is likely soon to become

Barrow, and other writers, as a rich lead-ore, of the species

known by the name of galena. The masses seen by Mr. Barrow very scarce, if effectual means are not adopted to

had no appearance of cubic crystallization, but were granular or ensure the plantation of trees for future supplies. amorphous in soine species; the surfaces in others made up of i On the hills and rugged plains are the most showy small facets, called by miners white silver-ore. The vein of the productions in the vegetable world, the large and

ore was three inches wide and one thick, increasing in size as it

advanced under the stratumn of a rock with which it was covered elegant tribe of proteas, and the beautiful and ever- The matrix is a quartose sandstone of a yellowish tinge, cellular varying ericas, of the latter of which not fewer, we and fibrous, harsh to the touch, and easily broken. This ore from

believe, than 500 different species have been disco- 200 lbs. weight yielded 100 lbs. of pure lead, and 8 ozs. of silver. ; rered and described. Almost as numerous, and far of lead-ore has been opened in the vicinity of Staden river. The

In the division of Albany, near Algoa bay, a rather extensive bed more diversified, are the families of geranium, and ores contain 60 per cent of lead. The existence of copper-ore in mysembryanthemum, of gnaphalium, ceranthemum, and tho neighbourhood of the Orange river has been satisfactorily other genera allied to the everlastings,' the multi

ascertained.--No volcanoes have yet been discovered in this

southern part of Africa; but hot springs are not uncommon, inde and brilliancy of whose flowers dazzle while some chalybeate, and some hepatic, and others apparently free they delight the eye. In this tract are also found from any extraneous impregnation, and several violent shocks the various species of the gaudy aloe, but particu- of earthquake have recently terrified the inhabitants of C. Town. larly that (A. perfoliata) from which the drug is ex. Agricultural industry.] Europeans have introduced tracted: these, with the crasula, the cotyledon, and into this colony all the fruits of S Europe, besides the salsola, the latter of which yields a potash used garden regetables, wheat, barley, oats, the horse, in making soap, the diosma, polygala, cliflortia, bru- ass, hog, and the common kinds of poultry. Horses ria, and myrica, whose bunches of berries are coated well adapted for agricultural purposes may be bought over with a thin pellicle of wax, and a multitude of at the Ĉ. for £4 10s. to £10; heifers, for £1 5s. to strange snake - like plants which creep along the £2 10s.; and Merino sheep, for 7s. 6d. The native ground, are the leading genera which clothe the sur-breed of sheep is distinguished by an accumulation face, but do not cover it; for it is characteristic, we of fat in the tail. It has long slender limbs, and a believe, of the whole continent of Africa, that even small carcase, while its fleece more resembles hair in the most fertile and luxuriant parts of it, the earth than wool. The Spanish and English breeds of is only partially covered; there being no such thing, sheep are, however, gradually displacing the native in fact

, as what we call turf or green sod. It would sheep in the grazing districts. The horses, though be endless to enumerate the products of the vege- not large nor strong, are a hardy mixed breed detable kingdom, but it is impossible to overlook the scended from stock brought from South America, more humble tribe of lilaceous plants which here, Java, Persia, Arabia, and England. Zebras are ocfor their exquisite fragrance and boundless variety casionally used in harness, but rarely. A young one of shape and colour, stand unrivalled in any other may be purchased for £20. The Dutch farmers use

part of the globe. The palm-like euphorbia is every- a light four-wheeled waggon drawn by 6 or 8 horses 1 where characteristic of South African scenery. “We and a large ox-waggon drawn not unfrequently by

travelled,” says Bunbury, " from Uitenhage, NE to 22 oxen yoked in pairs. Goats are a species of Addo-Drift on the Sunday river, 25 m., over a hilly stock well-adapted to the soil and climate of the C. country, covered for the most part with low but The cultivation of wheat is impeded by the want of thick bush ;' the soil a hard clay. Though the moisture frequently experienced during the season general appearance of this kind of country is in in which the land is under preparation for seed, and some degree monotonous, yet its rich and singular also by the effect of blight or rust. The use of mavegetation is very attractive to the eye of a natural- nure, moreover, is difficult and often impracticable, ist

. The strange, stiff, gaunt forms of the leafless because the cattle are of necessity pastured upon euphorbias, which suggest the idea of some mon- the open commons. In the district of the C. 'the strous Indian idols; the aloes, with their spear-like average produce of an acre of wheat is only 12 leaves and tall scarlet spikes; the pale green foliage bushels. "It, however, frequently averages 68 lbs. to of the spekboom, which said to be the favour- the bushel. There are, it appears, few places in the ite food of the elephant; the crassulas, covered colony calculated for the production of artificial with milk - white blossoms; the cotyledon, with its grasses, although, with a command of water, and





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good management they are found to survive the ; the imports in that year being £1,477,336. They long droughts common at the Cape. The natural subsequently fell off; and in 1844 amounted to only grasses, moreover, abound with deleterious and as- £651,236. In 1846-7, the value of the imports extringent herbs, which are sometimes injurious to the ceeded those of the previous year by £124,860; but cattle. The visitations of locusts are also equally of this £50,000 was specie for military expenditure. destructive to artificial as to natural pasturage. The number of vessels visiting the colony in 1846-7 Timber is exceedingly scarce in the older districts of was less by 144 than those of the former year; and the colony.-Wine has hitherto been the staple com- this decrease was attributed to the comparative sus. modity exported from the C. During the months of pension of the guano trade, and the fines enforced Nov., Dec., and Jan., the roads in the vicinity of under the provisions of the merchant seamen's act.Cape T. are crowded with teams of oxen bringing in The appended figures will serve to explain the extent waggon-loads of wine from the country, even from a of the trade of the C., and its distribution among distance of 200 or 300 m. The different wines made the principal points of operation: at the C. are Red and White Constantia, Frontignac, Pontac, Hock, Sweet Muscadel, Steen Constantia, Declared value of Imports for the year ending the 5th of Jan., 1847. and Cape Madeira. The quantity of the latter

British vessels. Foreign vessels. Total. brought annually into Cape T. is about 90,000 pipes. It is sold in the town at from 1s. 6d. to 2s. per gall. Cape Town, 746,904 10 0 67,782 10 4 814.687

Simon's Bay,
The wine called Constantia, from the name of the Port Elizabeth, 240,428 0

2,203 19 4 2,322 16 2

13,420 00 small district where it is made, is much celebrated; Specie,

50,000 0 0 but the quantity yearly produced does not exceed 100 pipes.

1,039,536 94 83,525 6 6 1,123,061 15 10 large quantity of raisins are made in the colony; and it is also celebrated for its dried

Declared value of exports for the same period. fruits.

Colonial Not colonial. Total Manufactures and commerce.] No manufacture is conducted at the C. except the making of wine, of Cape Town, 199,476 0 0 74,058 0 which about 7,900 pipes are annually exported to

Simon's Bay,

1,270 % 6

Port Elizabeth, 170.289 0 England, while the colony itself consumes at least

2,705 00 172,914 0 0 Port Beaufort, 28,539 00

29,539 00 6,500 within the same period. Next to agriculture Specie,

13,017 0 0 and wine-growing, the whale and seal-fishery must be ranked. The colonists are, however, making

398,766 13 6 90,587 10 € 489,354 3 6 rapid advances in several new experiments, the most A review of the trade of the C. for the year endprominent of which is the introduction of the silk- ing 1847 showed that the value of goods exported worm. The mulberry-tree grows spontaneously, amounted to £440,955, of which £140,000 were for particularly on the SE coast; and promises to be of England; and that the value of goods imported the utmost advantage to the trade of the C. The amounted to £1,409,342, of which £736,448 were resettlement is now fully supplied with grain, which ceived from the mother-country. The custom-house used to be largely imported, chiefly from the Rio- collections, which were in 1841 only £48,058, graduGrande and New South Wales.

ally improved, till in 1845 they reached £85,119, Cape T. supplies various articles of provision to since which they have further advanced to £100,759 ships sailing between Europe and the East Indies. in 1846, and £103,084 in 1847.—The following is a Among these articles may be enumerated corn, flour, statement of the value of the principal articles of biscuit, beef, brandy, and wine, and, while vessels re- colonial produce exported in the years 1848 and main in Table-bay, mutton, greens, and fruits; aloes, 1849:hides, barilla, ivory, ostrich-feathers, fruits dried in the sun for the Indian market, are the other products


£3.686 Beef and Pork,


7,721 for exportation. About 200 horses, value 56,980 rix

5,324 dollars, were in 1821 exported to India. In 1828, Candles and Tallow,

5.445 the ivory exported from the C. amounted to 21,413 Barley and Oats,


Flour and Bran, lbs. weight. The progress of the growth of wool may

Feathers (Ostrich),

5,141 be calculated by the exports, which from 23,049 lbs.

Fruits, in 1824, had increased in 1844 to 2,233,946 lbs.; and

11,493 10.664 in 1849 to 5,024,946 lbs. The internal commerce of

Horses (96),


8.945 Ivory,


8051 the C. is chiefly maintained by the visits of the boers

Mules (21), to Cape T., and by fairs at different points of the Skins,

24,767 colony. The Caffres and Tamboukies exchange corn, Spirits (Brandy), mats, ivory, earthen pots, cattle, tobacco, beans, honey,

49,035 Wool,

155,213 199,452 melons, live birds, monkeys, quaggas, &c., for Euro- Other articles,

31,415 31,637 pean goods. The aggregate value of the exports in 1835 was calculated at £362,280, and continued in

£327,880 £359,517 creasing till 1840, when it reached £1,096,450. It The custom-house returns for the year ending 5th then declined, until in 1843 it was but £328,389, or January, 1850, indicate an increase in the exports of £34,000 less than in 1835. In 1844 the exports slightly the colony, amounting to £80,543 4s. ld.; but as increased, and in that year the value was £409,870. these returns include specie, which for the last year Of this amount wine figured for £57,356; cattle, for amounted to £133,840 58. 1d., or £21,535 5s. Id. more £39,223; horses and mules, for £13,926; and the than that of 1848, the increase in the declared value produce of sheep and goats, including wool, £134,596. of goods exported for the year is only £59,007 195. Of the whole amount, the port of Cape T. contributed of this sum £50,243 13s. 10d. accrued on exports £196,233; Simon's Town, £2,523; and Port Eliza- from the E prov., notwithstanding that the gools beth, £106,618. In 1846-7, the value of the exports shipped from Algoa-bay to Table-bay for exportation fell below those of 1845-6 by £29,882 138. 6d. The from the colony are included in the customs' returns C. imported from all parts, in 1835, produce valued of exports from Cape-town. This difference in the at £534,189; £430,720 of which was from the United amount of exports from the two provs. has been Kingdom. The imports gradually increased till 1840, chiefly caused by the resumption of the growth of when the amount was nearly trebled; the value of I wool, for which the E prov., from its extensive pas.


1849. £2,689


3.569 4,740 2.401 8,259 1.722 3.918



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torage, is so well adapted, but which was so severely | 1812 it was 81,964; in 1819 it amounted to 101,657; checked by the Kafir war. The increase in the quan- and in 1827 to 120,036, viz.: tity of wool exported in 1849 was 1,354,026 lbs., but as the increase from Algoa-Bay exceeded that quan

Free. Slaves. Total tity by 23,740 lbs., a corresponding decrease resulted Western province, 45,014 28.934 73.948 at the Table-bay end of the colony. The declared

Eastern province, 39,513


46,088 value of the wool exported from the E prov. in 1849

81,527 35,509 120,036 exceeds that of 1848 by £50,024, notwithstanding that the value of the shipments for 1849 scarcely In 1829 the number of whites in the colony amounted averaged 91d., whilst those of 1848 averaged 10d. to 54,632; in 1839 they numbered 68,180. The numper lb. of the staple articles of export in which a ber of blacks and coloured people in 1839 was 75,091. decrease has taken place, wine, grain, flour, and os- In 1819 the total pop. was returned at 189,046. trich-feathers had decreased to a larger extent than of this pop. 92,931 were in the W prov., and 96,115 any other; but the effect of this decrease on the in the È prov. The total white pop. was 93,656; general exports was far more than counterbalanced the coloured pop. was 70,037; and 10,493 were reby the increase in wool, horses, and ivory.

turned as aliens. Of this last class 10,045 were in the The imports for 1849 amounted to £944,493 12s. E prov. Numerous white traders constantly tra104. which was £207,427 14s. 9d. less than those of the verse the interior; some of them have their headyear preceding. There was also a reduction in the quarters at the missionary stations, of which there customs' revenue, amounting to £18,342.—The de- are about 30 in the interior-British, French, Amerclared value of imports entered at Port Elizabeth in ican, and German. At these stations there are pro1849 was £253,685. The number of vessels which bably 30,000 natives, -Caffres, Hottentots, Bechuawere entered at the several ports of the colony, ex- nas, Tamboukies, and others, in intimate connection clasive of those coastwise, was 407, of which 338 were with about 100 missionary families. A large body entered at Table and Simon's bays, and 69 at Port-of emigrant boers are now diffusing themselves over Elizabeth and East London. The vessels entered a tract of country to the N of the Orange river sovcoast wise at all ports were 250 in number.

ereignty. See article EMEGRANTE GRENSGEBIET. The following return of the importation of Cape It appears that the average annual emigration to this wools into English ports for the years 1843 to 1819 colony during the 6 years from 1842 to 1818 has not

6 shows the rapid increase in the production of this exceeded 398 people. Its temperate climate, and its staple:-

being nearer to England than the Australian colo

nies would at first sight lead to the supposition of the Bales.

Cape proving more attractive, but the W or older 1813

7,734 1544


division is interspersed with vast desert-tracts, while 1845

13,195 its pop. is chiefly Dutch; and the E division has the 1846

11,626 drawback of possessing no really good navigable 1947


river, added to the neighbourhood of the Caffres. 1843

13,400 1849


It is not to be doubted, however, that S Africa from

the Indian ocean to the Tropic, and from Cape-point As considerable attention has lately been directed to Natal, is destined to become an important field of to the relative progress of the western and eastern British enterprise. A few notices of the leading provinces of the colony, the following statement, classes of the pop. may be useful. from official documents, of the respective exports of staple articles, their own production, from 1838 to Wine-grouers.] The wine-growers of the Cape are of a supe1849, will be of considerable advantage in deciding rior description, and mostly of French descent. Their farins the question :

are chiefly freeholds, in extent about 120 acres. This class of colonists generally realize considerable property. Their ancestors were French Protestants, who tied hither on the revocation

of the edict of Nantz. At that time, the cultivation of the vine Year. Wheat. Wine. Wool. Ilides. Skins. Total

was limited to the Cape peninsula ; but these new settlers had £ £


£ lands assigned to them in frechold, or in quitrent, on the other 1R38 9,897 102,282 16,555 8,178 16,639 153,551 side of the sandy isthmus which connects it with the continent, 1939 4.743 96,764 19,257 8,794 18,168 147,726 within the boundary of the great chain of mountains. The val

2,586 14,072 24.962 5,604 13,811 61.035 ley of Drakenstein, the Paarlberg, and Stellenbosch, afforded 141 1,135 42,876 29,416 6,522 15,045 95,014 them a choice of situation; and it was chiefly here, and within a 142 28,937

range of 30 m. from the C., that they fixed themselves; and 1943 3,263 44.799 27.030 9,545 10,949 95,586 here many of their descendants reside at this day. Their estab

55.735 45.872 7,560 11,460 121,195 lishments are large, and their houses spacious and respectable, 1945 130 52.022 46,837 12.042 13,468 124,499 wearing the appearance of substantial comfort. Trees of im146

242 40,128 58,553 13,288 19,387 131.898 mense size, in clumps or in avenues, oak, pine, chestnut, and 1:47

39 229 54,068 9,721 13,172 116.245 others of European origin, indicate at a distance the habitation 95 49.035 57,293 7,013 15,452 128,888 of the wine planter. The orange, the lemon, the guava, the

pomegranate, and many other tropical fruits mingle with those Excess in favour of

of Europe in their orchards; and their gardens are abundantly Year. Wool.

Total. W Prov. E. Prov.

stocked with all the useful culinary vegetables. Their extensive

vineyards are generally enclosed with thick and lofty screens of £ $ £ £ £

oak, which part with their leaves only three months in the year, 1898 10,072 13,001 7,252 30.325 123,226

and throw out annual shoots often of twelve feet in length, 1839 10.923 8.578 6.726 26,237 121,489

The hedge-rows are sometimes of quince, pomegranate, and 1940 21.023 13.042 7.289 41,354 19,681

even of myrtle. In describing one of these comfortable retreats, 184122.190 19,494 10,079 51,763 4,325

Lichtenstein says, “ Its situation under the lofty, steep, and 1 42 43,160

craggy mountains, the bright green of the broad avenues of old 1443 56,392 26.400 11,174 944,156 1,430

oak, the excellently husbanded pastures and corn-fields, the nice1844 67.635 19.998 4,848 92,481 29,018

dressed vineyards, orchards, and orangeries; the sight of num1945 127,004 21,092 6,374 154,470


berless well fed cattle, and the widely extended circle of neat 146 119.458 19,489 13,269 152,216


buildings for barns, stables, wine-presses, and workshops, formed 1847 132,167 18,889 18,137 164,193


altogether a most delightful assemblage of objects. Easy allu86.010 4.480 9,315 99.805 29,083 War1846

ence, rational utility, prudent caution, and useful attention to 1849 143,384 4,858 7,652 155,894

and 1847.

every thing being kept in the most exact order, were every where

conspicuous throughout this little domain." Their horses and Population.] The population of the colony was cattle--of which they have generally a sufficient stock for the estimated in 1798 at 62,000 souls; it 1806 it had supply of their numerous families--are usually kept at some dis

tant loan-farm, held by them in addition to their treeholds. They risen to 77,055, of whom 29,861 were slaves. In

visit their friends, or go to church or market, in wagsons covered









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